nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2013‒08‒10
thirty-one papers chosen by
Clarence Nkengne Tsimpo
University of Montreal and World Bank Group

  1. Maternal Health and Fertility: An International Perspective By Stefania Albanesi
  2. With strings attached: Grandparent-provided child care and female labor market outcomes By García-Morán, Eva; Kuehn, Zoe
  3. Immigrants in France: a female majority By Cris Beauchemin; Catherine Borrel; Corinne Régnard
  4. Maternal Health and the Baby Boom By Stefania Albanesi; Claudia Olivetti
  5. The Gender Unemployment Gap By Stefania Albanesi; Aysegul Sahin
  6. Do Egalitarian Societies Boost Fertility? By Gustav Feichtinger; Alexia Prskawetz; Andrea Seidl; Christa Simon; Stefan Wrzaczek
  7. Divorce Legalisation and Female Labour Supply By Keane, Claire
  8. The Impact of Same-Sex Marriage on Hawai‘i’s Economy and Government: An Update After the U.S. Supreme Court’s Same-Sex Marriage Decisions By Sumner la Croix; Lauren Gabriel
  10. Early Marriage and Education Transitions of Female Youth: The Case of Indonesia By Chris SAKELLARIOU
  11. Transfers to Households with Children and Child Development By Daniela Del Boca; Christopher Flinn; Matthew Wiswall
  12. Parental Investment and the Intergenerational Transmission of Economic Preferences and Attitudes By Maria Zumbuehl; Thomas Dohmen; Gerard Pfann
  13. Pension reform sustainability in the EU: a pension wealth-based framework By Grech, Aaron George
  14. The Impact of Women’s Labour Force Participation on Domestic Violence in Jordan By Jana Lenze; Stephan Klasen
  15. Changing Eating Habits – A Field Experiment in Primary Schools. By Michèle Belot (University of Edinburgh), Jonathan James (University of Bath) and Patrick Nolen (University of Essex)
  16. Femmes au pouvoir et Pouvoir des femmes : Qu’est-ce qui se passe en Afrique ? By Kodila-Tedika, Oasis
  17. Mineral Mining and Female Employment By Andreas Kotsadam; Anja Tolonen
  18. Disability Prevalence among Adults: Estimates for 54 Countries and Progress towards a Global Estimate By Sophie Mitra; Usha Sambamoorthi
  19. Unemployment and Domestic Violence: Theory and Evidence By Anderberg, Dan; Rainer, Helmut; Wadsworth, Jonathan; Wilson, Tanya
  20. Income Inequality, Equality of Opportunity, and Intergenerational Mobility By Corak, Miles
  21. Betreuung von Schulkindern - Ein weiterer Schlüssel zur Aktivierung ungenutzter Arbeitskräftepotenziale? By Verena Tobsch
  22. The Effect of Sorority Membership on Eating Disorders and Body Mass Index By Averett, Susan L.; Terrizzi, Sabrina; Wang, Yang
  23. Measuring Investment in Human Capital Formation: An Experimental Analysis of Early Life Outcomes By Orla Doyle; Colm Harmon; James J. Heckman; Caitríona Logue; Seong Hyeok Moon
  24. The Effect of a Constitutional Right to Health on Population Health in 157 Countries, 1970–2007: the Role of Democratic Governance By Hiroaki Matsuura
  25. Regional resilience By Jeffrey Lin
  26. Women Entrepreneurs in the OECD: Key Evidence and Policy Challenges By Mario Piacentini
  27. The Effect of Firms' Partial Retirement Policies on the Labour Market Outcomes of Their Employees By Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Wunsch, Conny
  28. Factors Influencing PhilHealth Coverage and In-patient Benefit Utilization of Filipino Children under Five By Puyat, Maria Elizabeth Angeline D.
  29. Multisectoral preventive health services in Sri Lanka : lessons for developing countries in providing public goods in health By Das Gupta, Monica; Dalpatadu, K. C. S.; Shanmugarajah, C. K.; Herath, H. M. S. S. D.
  30. Bridging the Gap in Pension Participation: How Much Can Universal Tax-Deferred Pension Coverage Hope to Achieve? By Karamcheva, Nadia; Sanzenbacher, Geoffrey
  31. Ethnic Unemployment Rates and Frictional Markets By Laurent Gobillon; Peter Rupert; Etienne Wasmer

  1. By: Stefania Albanesi (Federal Reserve Bank of New York and CEPR)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of the decline in maternal mortality on fertility and women's human capital. Fertility theory suggests that a permanent decline in maternal mortality initially increases fertility and generates a permanent rise in women's human capital, relative to men. The resulting rise in the opportunity cost of children leads to a subsequent decline in desired fertility, generating a boom-bust response. We assess these predictions using newly digitized data on maternal mortality for 25 advanced and emerging economies for the time period 1900-2000. The empirical estimates suggest that the decline in maternal mortality contributed significantly to the baby booms and subsequent baby busts experi- enced by these economies in the twentieth century, and that the female-male differential in education attainment grew more in those countries that experience a sizable maternal mortality decline.
    Keywords: Maternal mortality decline, fertility choice, baby boom, women's, human capital
    JEL: J11 J13 J16 N3
    Date: 2013–05
  2. By: García-Morán, Eva; Kuehn, Zoe
    Abstract: Grandparents are regular providers of free child care. Similar to other forms of child care, availability of grandparent-provided child care affects fertility and labor force participation of women positively. However, grandparent-provided child care requires residing close to parents or in-laws. While living close can provide access to free child care, it may also imply costly spatial restrictions. We find that mothers residing close to parents or in-laws have lower wages and that the probability of having to commute increases if relatives provide child care. We build a model of residence choice, fertility, and female labor force participation that can account for the relationships between grandparent-provided child care, fertility, and female labor market outcomes. We simulate our model to analyze how women's decisions on residence, fertility, and labor force participation would change if the availability of grandparent-provided child care or family policies were altered. We find that if child care subsidies were raised to the Swedish level, fertility and mothers' labor force participation would increase, while mobility would remain unchanged. The absence of grandparents, on the other hand, would increase mobility, while it would have only limited negative effects on aggregate fertility and labor force participation.
    Keywords: grandparent-provided child care, fertility, labor force participation, spatial restrictions, regional labor markets
    JEL: H42 J13 J61 R23
    Date: 2013–05
  3. By: Cris Beauchemin (INED); Catherine Borrel (INSEE); Corinne Régnard (INED)
    Abstract: In 2008, women represented 51% of the immigrant population in mainland France. As shown by theTrajectories and Origins survey (TeO), the feminization of the immigrant population is not simply the consequenceof family reunification. In fact, the most predominantly female migrant flows are those in which single or "pioneer" women (migrating ahead of their partner) are most numerous. It is no longer only women who migrate to France to join their partner : since 1998, one-third of secondary migrants for family reunification have been men, and their numbers are also increasing among migrants coming to France to marry a French national. In short, despite remaining gender specificities, men and women now behave in very similar ways
    Date: 2013
  4. By: Stefania Albanesi (Federal Reserve Bank of New York and CEPR); Claudia Olivetti (Boston University and NBER)
    Abstract: U.S. fertility rose from a low of 2.27 children for women born in 1908 to a peak of 3.21 children for women born in 1932. It dropped to a new low of 1.74 children for women born in 1949, before stabilizing for subsequent cohorts. We propose a novel explanation for this boom-bust pattern, linking it to the huge improvements in maternal health that started in the mid 1930s. Our hypothesis is that the improvements in maternal health contributed to the mid-twentieth century baby boom and generated a rise in women's human capital, ultimately leading to a decline in desired fertility for subsequent cohorts. To examine this link empirically, we exploit the large cross-state variation in the magnitude of the decline in pregnancy-related mortality and the differential exposure by cohort. We find that the decline in maternal mortality is associated with a rise in fertility for women born between 1921 and 1940, with a rise in college and high school graduation rates for women born in 1933-1950 relative to previous cohorts, and with a decline in fertility for women born in 1941-1950 relative to those born in 1921-1940. The analysis provides new insights on the determinants of fertility in the U.S. and other countries that experienced similar improvements in maternal health.
    Keywords: Maternal mortality, Fertility choice, Baby boom, human capital
    JEL: J11 J13 N12 N3
    Date: 2013–05
  5. By: Stefania Albanesi (Federal Reserve Bank of New York and CEPR); Aysegul Sahin (Federal Reserve Bank of New York)
    Abstract: The unemployment gender gap, defined as the difference between female and male unemployment rates, was positive until 1980. This gap virtually disappeared after 1980, except during recessions when men's unemployment rate always exceeds women's. We study the evolution of these gender differences in unemployment from a long-run perspective and over the business cycle. Using a calibrated three-state search model of the labor market, we show that the rise in female labor force attachment and the decline in male attachment can mostly account for the closing of the gender unemployment gap. Evidence from nineteen OECD countries also supports the notion that convergence in attachment is associated with a decline in the gender unemployment gap. At the cyclical frequency, we find that gender differences in industry composition are important in recessions, especially the most recent, but they do not explain gender differences in employment growth during recoveries.
    Keywords: Gender unemployment gap, labor market attachment
    JEL: E24 J64
    Date: 2013–05
  6. By: Gustav Feichtinger; Alexia Prskawetz; Andrea Seidl; Christa Simon; Stefan Wrzaczek
    Abstract: In general, the spreading of egalitarian family values has often been associated with a decline in fertility. However, recently a rebound in fertility has been observed in several industrialized countries. A possible explanation of this trend may be the spread of egalitarian values that induced institutional changes - such as expansion of child care facilities and father leave – fostering the combination of parenthood and the egalitarian lifestyle. In our paper we build up a formal model to study the diffusion from traditional to egalitarian gender-behavior and its impact on fertility. We find that the long-run development of the total fertility within a population not only depends on the pace of diffusion of egalitarianism and the extent to which social interactions affect the egalitarians’ birth rates, but also on the initial number of traditionalists and egalitarians. We show under which conditions a fertility decline is followed by a subsequent recovery.
    Keywords: Egalitarianism, family models, diffusion, fertility.
    Date: 2013–07
  7. By: Keane, Claire
    Keywords: labour supply/qec
    Date: 2013–06
  8. By: Sumner la Croix (University of Hawaii Economic Research Organization Department of Economics, University of Hawai‘i–Mānoa Global Public Health and Population Studies Program, University of Hawai‘i–Mānoa); Lauren Gabriel (William S. Richardson School of Law, University of Hawai‘i–Mānoa)
    Abstract: This report provides an update on the potential impact of marriage equality in Hawai‘i on the state’s economy in light of the U.S. Supreme Court’s recent DOMA and Proposition 8 decisions. We find that marriage equality is likely to lead to substantial increases in Hawai‘i visitor arrivals, visitor spending, and state and county general excise tax revenues due to pent-up demand for same-sex marriage. Over the 2014-2016 period, we estimate that additional visitor spending due to marriage equality would amount to $217 million. The additional gains in visitor spending are time-sensitive: Spending by U.S. same-sex couples and their guests on honeymoons and marriages will be diverted to other states until Hawai‘i recognizes marriage equality.
    Keywords: same-sex, marriage, visitors, spending, tourism, Hawai‘i
    JEL: J12 K36 I18
    Date: 2013–07
  9. By: Dumanska, Vita
    Abstract: Practically all countries of the world money used to encourage childbirth at some stage of their development. Soviet Union, began to resort to monetary pronatalism, but the birth rate incentives of the second half of 1980 resulted in only short-term increase in the number of newborns. Since 2005, the monetary pronatalism became the dominant trend of population policy in Ukraine as a result of the introduction of substantial financial assistance at birth. As a result of these measures the birth rate indicators have improved, namely: the number of births increased from 426 thousand children in 2005 to 502 thousand in 2011, the birth rate has increased from 1.21 to 1.45, respectively. However, we stress that such results were achieved not only through the use of monetary instruments - during this period the numerous generation of women born in the second half of 1980's entered child-bearing age. Increasing living standards also had a positive impact on reproductive behavior of the population. Year after year the amount of assistance at birth is increasing in Ukraine, i.e. the "price" of a child for the national budget increases. Our calculations show that, on average, public spending per infant has increased 6-fold since 2005, while the number of newborns during this period has grown only by 17%. Assistance at childbirth has evolved in our country from a pronatalist instrument into a component of social security. Author calculations indicate that in 2005 government payments at first birth were almost 2 times higher than the minimum wage, in 2011 this excess was 1.4 times. This fact suggests the possibility of abuse by marginal minded population, because welfare payments in this case exceed labor incomes. Under the influence of modern pronatalist policy a slight increase in birth rate is observed, but it is unknown which category of the population is increasing the number of children. The increase in the number of children in the so-called marginalized sectors of the population, i.e. those with a low educational level, unemployed and socially disadvantaged people, is a cause for concern. In order to achieve sustainable birth rates the combination of monetary stimulus of childbirth and other measures of socio-demographic policies aimed at addressing the urgent problems of young families - housing, creation of opportunities for combining motherhood and work (study), development of pre-school educational institutions (both public and private), etc. is important.
    Keywords: pronatalism, childbirth stimulation, demographic crisis, demographic policy, birth rate, monetary pronatalism.
    JEL: J1 J18
    Date: 2013
  10. By: Chris SAKELLARIOU (Division of Economics, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637332, Singapore)
    Abstract: I explore the association of early marriage of girls in Indonesia with the probability of passing education transitions using a sequential logit model; I first establish that in Indonesia, due to the socio-cultural and religious environment, marriage is the primary reason for exiting school for the majority of girls married before the age of 18 (and a minority of girls married later). I find that girls who married early are associated with extremely low odds of passing education transitions compared to boys, never married girls and girls who marry later; the estimates are even more unfavourable in the presence of unobserved heterogeneity.
    Keywords: Early marriage, education transitions, sequential response model, Indonesia.
    JEL: I24 J12
    Date: 2013–04
  11. By: Daniela Del Boca (University of Torino and CCA); Christopher Flinn (New York University and CCA); Matthew Wiswall (Arizona State University)
    Abstract: In this paper we utilize a model of household investments in the cognitive development of children to explore the impact of various transfer policies on the distribution of child cognitive outcomes in target populations. We develop a cost criterion that can be used to compare the cost effectiveness of unrestricted, restricted, and conditional cash transfer systems, and ï¬nd that conditional cash transfers are the most cost efficient way to attain any given gain in average child quality in a target population. Of course, this is only true if one uses efficiently designed cash transfer systems, and we are able to explore their design using our modeling framework.
    Keywords: Time Allocation; Child Development, conditional and unconditional cash transfer
    JEL: J13 D1
    Date: 2013–04
  12. By: Maria Zumbuehl; Thomas Dohmen; Gerard Pfann
    Abstract: We study empirically whether there is scope for parents to shape the economic preferences and attitudes of their children through purposeful investments. We exploit information on the risk and trust attitudes of parents and their children, as well as rich information about parental efforts in the upbringing of their children from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study. Our results show that parents who invest more in the upbringing of their children are more similar to them with respect to risk and trust attitudes and thus transmit their own attitudes more strongly. The results are robust to including variables on the relationship between children and parents, family size, and the parents’ socioeconomic background.
    Keywords: parental investments, risk preferences, trust, intergenerational transmission, cultural economics, family economics, social interactions
    JEL: D80 J12 J13 J62 Z13
    Date: 2013
  13. By: Grech, Aaron George
    Abstract: Most assessments of pension sustainability focus on the projected fall in spending. However interest in the impact on adequacy, usually measured by replacement rates, is increasing. In this paper we show that replacement rates have significant defects, related to being point-in-time indicators and the use of unrepresentative assumptions. We argue for the use of pension wealth calculated using more realistic assumptions. Looking at ten EU countries, we find that while generosity decreased significantly, systems’ effectiveness in alleviating poverty remain strong in countries where minimum pensions were improved. However, moves to link benefits to contributions have raised concerns for women and for those on low incomes. Though reforms have reduced the fiscal challenge of ageing, in many countries pressures will persist and further reforms are likely.
    Keywords: Social Security and Public Pensions; Retirement; Poverty; Retirement Policies.
    JEL: H55 I38 J26
    Date: 2013–04
  14. By: Jana Lenze (Georg-August University Göttingen); Stephan Klasen (Georg-August University Göttingen)
    Abstract: Enhancing women’s participation in the labour force has been seen as a way to promote their empowerment which in turn is believed to enhance their well-being and well-being of their children. However, the empirical literature on the relationship between women’s employment status and domestic violence is less clear-cut. Motivated by this ambiguity, this study explores the effect of women’s employment measured by their participation in paid work outside the home on reported spousal violence, based on quantitative data from Jordan in 2007. A notable feature of this paper is that it controls for the potential endogeneity of women’s employment which might bias the relationship between employment and spousal violence. Disregarding the issue of endogeneity, the first regression results suggest that woman’s participation in paid work enhances violence by her husband. After controlling for endogeneity of female employment using instrumental variable estimation, however, these results turn out to be insignificant, which suggests that women’s work status has no causal influence on marital violence.
    Date: 2013–08–02
  15. By: Michèle Belot (University of Edinburgh), Jonathan James (University of Bath) and Patrick Nolen (University of Essex)
    Abstract: We conduct a field experiment in 31 primary schools in England to test whether incentives to eat fruit and vegetables help children develop healthier habits. The intervention consists of rewarding children with stickers and little gifts for a period of four weeks for choosing a portion of fruit and vegetables at lunch. We compare the effects of two incentive schemes (competition and piece rate) on choices and consumption over the course of the intervention as well as once the incentives are removed and six months later. We find that the intervention had positive effects, but the effects vary substantially according to age and gender. However, we find little evidence of sustained long term effects, except for the children from poorer socio-economic backgrounds.
    Keywords: Incentives, Health, Habits, Child nutrition, Field experiment.
    JEL: J13 I18 I28 H51 H52
    Date: 2013–08–02
  16. By: Kodila-Tedika, Oasis
    Abstract: This study attempts to understand whether women develop a political decision-making leads to better results on the indicators of the condition of women, mainly economic, political rights and laws against violence to women. It uses the African data from 2000 to 2010. The study is cross-sectional data, but also relies on a case study: that of the Liberian Republic. Our cross-sectional estimates suggest interesting results: the representation of women in parliament is an important determinant for the improvement of economic and political rights of African women. This effect is not as significant, though. The impact of women's representation in parliament disappears for legislation against violence to women. We can say the same for the Liberian Republic, where the country was headed for years now by a woman, in the best case. This conclusion for Liberia was made possible after combining several statistical techniques. In addition, we also found that cultural variables (religion and ethnic fragmentation) can be crucial also to some degree. Cette étude essaye de comprendre si doter les femmes d’un pouvoir de décision politique conduit aux meilleurs résultats sur les indicateurs de la condition de la femme, principalement les droits économiques, les droit politiques et les législations contre les violences faites à la femme. Elle recourt aux données africaines allant de 2000 à 2010. L’étude est en coupe instantanée, mais aussi s’appuie sur une étude d’un cas : celui de la République libérienne. Nos estimations en coupe transversale suggèrent des résultats intéressants : la représentation féminine au parlement est un déterminant important pour l’amélioration des droits économiques et politiques des femmes africaines. Cet effet n’est pas aussi considérable, cependant. L’impact de la représentation féminine au parlement disparait pour la législation contre les violences faites à la femme. On peut dire la même chose pour la République libérienne où le pays a été dirigé depuis déjà des années par une femme, dans le meilleur des cas. Cette conclusion pour le Libéria a été rendue possible après combinaison des plusieurs techniques statistiques. Par ailleurs, nous avons également trouvé que les variables culturelles (religion et fragmentation ethnique) peuvent être déterminantes aussi,à certain degré.
    Keywords: genre, femmes politiques, institutions, Afrique
    JEL: J16 O15 O17 P48
    Date: 2013–08–01
  17. By: Andreas Kotsadam; Anja Tolonen
    Abstract: We use the rapid expansion of the number of mineral mines in Sub-Saharan Africa to explore changes in local labor markets. Matching over two decades of panel data on industrial mines to survey data for half a million women and exploiting the spatial and temporal variation in the data in a difference-in-difference strategy, we find that opening of an industrial mine induces a structural shift whereby women switch from working in agriculture to services. We also find that the probability to earn cash income increases and women become less likely to work seasonally once a mine opens nearby. The results illustrate that mineral mining creates non-agricultural employment opportunities for women despite their absence frm the mining workforce. T|he spillover effects wear off with distance from mine and the effects on service employment are reversed when a mine closes.
    Keywords: Mineral mining, female employment, Sub-Saharan Africa, local labor markets, women
    JEL: J16 J21 O13 O18
    Date: 2013
  18. By: Sophie Mitra (Fordham University); Usha Sambamoorthi (West Virginia University)
    Abstract: Objectives: We estimated disability prevalence among adults at global, regional and country levels using internationally comparable disability data and measure. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from the World Health Survey (WHS) (2002--2004) for nationally representative samples of civilian, non-institutionalized populations in 54 countries. A disability was measured as having at least one severe or extreme difficulty with bodily functions (seeing, concentrating) and activities (moving around, self--care) based on an individual’s self-reports. Results: In the 54 countries under study, severe or extreme functional or activity difficulties are highly prevalent. For all countries, disability prevalence is estimated at 14% for all adults. Low and middle income countries have higher disability prevalence compared to high income countries. Among subgroups, disability prevalence stands at 12% amon working age adults and 39% among the elderly. Women have higher prevalence than men. Conclusions: Disability is found to be highly prevalent among adults, with an estimated global prevalence at 14%. Disability deserves enhanced policy attention and resources in public health and international development.
    Keywords: Disability prevalence, Development
    JEL: I1 J14
    Date: 2013
  19. By: Anderberg, Dan (Royal Holloway, University of London); Rainer, Helmut (Ifo Institute for Economic Research); Wadsworth, Jonathan (Royal Holloway, University of London); Wilson, Tanya (Royal Holloway, University of London)
    Abstract: Is unemployment the overwhelming determinant of domestic violence that many commentators expect it to be? The contribution of this paper is to examine, theoretically and empirically, how changes in unemployment affect the incidence of domestic abuse. The key theoretical prediction is that male and female unemployment have opposite-signed effects on domestic abuse: an increase in male unemployment decreases the incidence of intimate partner violence, while an increase in female unemployment increases domestic abuse. Combining data on intimate partner violence from the British Crime Survey with locally disaggregated labor market data from the UK's Annual Population Survey, we find strong evidence in support of the theoretical prediction.
    Keywords: domestic violence, unemployment
    JEL: J12 D19
    Date: 2013–07
  20. By: Corak, Miles (University of Ottawa)
    Abstract: Families, labor markets, and public policies all structure a child’s opportunities and determine the extent to which adult earnings are related to family background. Cross-country comparisons and the underlying trends suggest that these drivers will most likely lower the degree of intergenerational earnings mobility for the next generation of Americans coming of age in a more polarized labor market, while the substantial rise in the income shares of the top 1 percent, their access to sources of high-quality human capital investment for their children, and the intergenerational transmission of employers and wealth will imply a much higher rate of transmission of economic advantage at the very top.
    Keywords: human capital, intergenerational mobility, inequality
    JEL: D31 D63 J62
    Date: 2013–07
  21. By: Verena Tobsch
    Abstract: Wenn es um die Frage der Vereinbarkeit von Familie und Beruf geht, wird meist die Betreuungsproblematik von erwerbswilligen und erwerbstätigen Müttern mit Kleinkindern betrachtet. Diese Analysen zeigen jedoch, dass ein Ausbau der Betreuung von Schulkindern in Deutschland ähnliche Effekte erzielen kann wie die vielfach diskutierte und anlysierte Wirkung der Kleinkindbetreuung. Auf Basis der Daten des sozio-ökonomischen Panel (SOEP) aus dem Jahr 2009 lässt sich inWestdeutschland ein Beschäftigungszuwachs von etwa fünf Prozent nachweisen. Für erwerbstätige Mütter ergibt sich zusätzlich eine Ausweitung des geleisteten Arbeitsvolumens um knapp zehn Prozent. Damit wäre das Arbeitskräftepotenzial - gemessen an den Erwerbswünschen - in Westdeutschland noch nicht ausgeschöpt. Für Ostdeutschland hingegen sind die Effekte deutlich geringer und statistisch nicht signifikant nachweisbar.
    Keywords: labour supply, work life balance, child care
    JEL: J22 J68 J13 J16
    Date: 2013
  22. By: Averett, Susan L. (Lafayette College); Terrizzi, Sabrina (Moravian College); Wang, Yang (Lafayette College)
    Abstract: Eating disorders affect 12-25% of college women. Previous research established a positive correlation between sorority membership and eating disorders. We investigate a possible causal link between sororities and weight-related behaviors and eating disorders using data from the American College Health Association. Using Propensity Score Matching and Instrumental Variable methods, we confirm that sororities exert a negative effect on the weight-related behaviors of their members. However, females who are more resilient to these outcomes self-select into sororities, implying that females in sororities are less adversely affected by them than a female who was randomly selected to join a sorority would be.
    Keywords: obesity, underweight, BMI, sorority, anorexia, bulimia, eating disorders, weight control
    JEL: I12 I18
    Date: 2013–07
  23. By: Orla Doyle (School of Economics UCD and UCD Geary Institute); Colm Harmon (University of Sydney, UCD Geary Institute and IZA); James J. Heckman (University of Chicago, University College Dublin, UCD Geary Institute, NBER and IZA); Caitríona Logue (UCD Geary Institute); Seong Hyeok Moon (University of Chicago)
    Abstract: The literature on skill formation and human capital development clearly demonstrates that early investment in children is an equitable and efficient policy with large returns in adulthood. Yet little is known about the mechanisms involved in producing these long-term effects. This paper presents early evidence on the nature of skill formation based on an experimentally designed, five-year home visiting program in Ireland targeting disadvantaged families - Preparing for Life (PFL). We examine the impact of investment between utero to 18 months of age on a range of parental and child outcomes. Using the methodology of Heckman et al. (2010a), permutation testing methods and a stepdown procedure are applied to account for the small sample size and the increased likelihood of false discoveries when examining multiple outcomes. The results show that the program impact is concentrated on parental behaviors and the home environment, with little impact on child development at this early stage. This indicates that home visiting programs can be effective at offsetting deficits in parenting skills within a relatively short timeframe, yet continued investment may be required to observe direct effects on child development. While correcting for attrition bias leads to some changes in the precision of estimates, overall the results are quite similar.
    Keywords: Early childhood intervention, human capital development, randomized control trial, multiple hypotheses, permutation testing
    JEL: C12 C93 J13 J24
    Date: 2013–08–06
  24. By: Hiroaki Matsuura (University of Oxford)
    Abstract: A number of studies have evaluated the effect of a right to health as a mechanism for achieving desirable health outcomes, yet no study has sought institutional conditions that make this mechanism more effective at population level.I hypothesise whether a right to health is only an effective instrument for improving health in countries that demonstrate good governance in which effective mechanisms for enforcing the right to health, as well as controlling government behaviour, exist. Annual data from 1970 to 2007 was obtained for a panel of 157 countries, to study the effects of introducing into national constitutions an explicit, enforceable, right to health and democratic governance on infant and under-five mortality rates. The introduction of a right to health in a national constitution was significantly associated with reductions in both mean infant and under-five mortality rates. The effect was large in countries with high scores for democratic governance, whereas in countries with low scores for democratic governance, approximately half of the effect of introducing a constitutional right to health was present. The results suggest that introducing a constitutional right to health is likely to be an effective mechanism for improving health in countries that have a high level of democratic governance. However, whereas a right to health is likely to be less effective in countries with low scores for democratic governance in the short run, there can be a longer term health benefits if governance subsequently improves, the right to health remains in the constitution.
    Keywords: Population health, Constitutional right to health, Democratic governance
    Date: 2013–07
  25. By: Jeffrey Lin (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia)
    Abstract: In this paper, I study long-run population changes across U.S. metropolitan areas. First, I argue that changes over a long period of time in the geographic distribution of population can be informative about the so-called \resilience" of regions. Using the censuses of population from 1790 to 2010, I find that persistent declines, lasting two decades or more, are somewhat rare among metropolitan areas in U.S. history, though more common recently. Incorporating data on historical factors, I find that metropolitan areas that have experienced extended periods of weak population growth tend to be smaller in population, less industrially diverse, and less educated. These historical correlations inform the construction of a regional resilience index.
    Keywords: City growth, metropolitan areas, persistence
    JEL: N91 N92 R11 R12 R23
    Date: 2013
  26. By: Mario Piacentini
    Abstract: Important gender gaps in entrepreneurship exist. Men are three times more likely than women to own a business with employees. Women rarely own large businesses and their average earnings from selfemployment are up to 60% lower than for men. Cultural norms, stereotypes and lack of role models make women less interested in an entrepreneurial career and less confident in their capacities as entrepreneurs. Other obstacles such as time shortages and the composition of their professional networks lead women to start relatively small businesses, with low levels of initial capital and bank financing. These obstacles establish a competitive disadvantage for companies owned by women, which translates in levels of labour productivity that are 5 to 30% lower than those of companies owned by men. This paper also presents examples of policy initiatives in the domains of credit, training and awareness raising that can unlock the double dividend of women’s entrepreneurship: higher empowerment of women and more productive businesses. Better data and more analysis are an essential precondition for a more effective implementation of these policies.<BR>En matière d’entreprenariat, des écarts importants entre les sexes existent. Les hommes sont trois fois plus susceptibles que les femmes de posséder une entreprise avec des employés. Les femmes possèdent rarement de grandes entreprises et leurs gains moyens en tant que travailleurs indépendants sont jusqu'à 60% inférieurs à ceux des hommes. Les normes culturelles, les stéréotypes et le manque de modèles d’entrepreneurs féminins rendent les femmes moins intéressées par une carrière entrepreneuriale et moins confiantes dans leurs capacités d'entrepreneurs. D'autres obstacles comme le manque de temps et la composition de leurs réseaux professionnels conduisent les femmes à démarrer des entreprises relativement petites, avec de faibles niveaux de capital initial et de financements bancaires. Ces obstacles gênèrent un désavantage concurrentiel pour les entreprises appartenant à des femmes, qui se traduit par des niveaux de productivité de 5 à 30% inférieurs à ceux des entreprises appartenant à des hommes. Ce document présente également des exemples d'initiatives politiques dans les domaines du crédit, de la formation et de la sensibilisation qui peuvent débloquer le ‘double dividende’ de l'entreprenariat des femmes: une plus grande émancipation économique de la femme et des entreprises plus productives. Des meilleures données et plus d’analyses sont des conditions essentielles pour une mise en oeuvre plus efficace de ces politiques.
    Keywords: gender, entrepreneurship data, entrepreneurship policies
    JEL: J01 J08 J16 L25 L26
    Date: 2013–07–23
  27. By: Huber, Martin (University of St. Gallen); Lechner, Michael (University of St. Gallen); Wunsch, Conny (VU University Amsterdam)
    Abstract: In this paper, we assess the impact of firms introducing part-time work schemes for gradual labour market exit of elderly workers on their employees' labour market outcomes. The analysis is based on unique linked employer-employee data that combine high-quality survey and administrative data. Our results suggest that partial or gradual retirement options offered by firms are an important tool to alleviate the negative effects of low labour market attachment of elderly workers in ageing societies. When combined with financial incentives to hire unemployed or young jobseekers as replacement, they seem to be particularly beneficial, especially when labour market conditions are difficult. Under such circumstances, they can even have positive spill-over effects on younger workers. Firms should thus be encouraged to offer such schemes.
    Keywords: part-time work, elderly employees, treatment effects, matching
    JEL: J14 J26 C21
    Date: 2013–07
  28. By: Puyat, Maria Elizabeth Angeline D.
    Abstract: According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) report, children under 5 are more likely to use in-patient care than other age groups. These children are not only more vulnerable to getting sick, but are also at risk of incurring high health expenditures if they are without health insurance. Using the 2008 NDHS dataset, this study focused on the coverage and in-patient benefit utilization of children under 5, who are dependents of the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth). Unique to this analysis was the shift in focus of coverage and utilization from the traditional angle of primary members to the dependents. Descriptive analyses revealed that PhilHealth covered only 33.93 percent of the under-5 population, and of those PhilHealth dependents who were confined in a hospital, 67.59 percent used PhilHealth as a source of payment. Logistic regression analysis determined that age and educational attainment of the household head, region, and wealth index were significant factors that influenced coverage. Moreover, it was found that confinement in a private facility and for longer periods of time increased the probability of in-patient benefit utilization for PhilHealth dependents. These results will be useful for PhilHealth as they create evidence-based initiatives to attain Universal Health Coverage.
    Keywords: health insurance, Philippines, children, insurance coverage, benefit utilization
    Date: 2013
  29. By: Das Gupta, Monica; Dalpatadu, K. C. S.; Shanmugarajah, C. K.; Herath, H. M. S. S. D.
    Abstract: What can other developing countries learn from Sri Lanka on achieving good health at low cost? While its well-organized medical and maternal-child health services have been documented elsewhere, this paper fills a gap in documenting how it organizes services to reduce the population's exposure to disease -- a pure public good. The key factors underlying the effectiveness of these services are (1) strong focal points in the central Health Ministry for supporting preventive services; (2) pro-active outreach by the health line agency to collaborate with other sectors / agents whose work influences public health outcomes; and (3) community-level delivery institutions with well-trained multivalent Public Health Inspectors -- all underpinned by (4) assured tax-based financing. This paper describes this system in some detail such that other countries can learn from Sri Lanka's successful approach to improving population health. It also makes some recommendations for strengthening the system in response to changing conditions.
    Keywords: Health Monitoring&Evaluation,Disease Control&Prevention,Population Policies,Health Systems Development&Reform,Gender and Health
    Date: 2013–08–01
  30. By: Karamcheva, Nadia (Urban Institute); Sanzenbacher, Geoffrey (Boston College)
    Abstract: In light of the declining pension coverage of low-income workers, policy makers have discussed requiring all employers to offer individual retirement accounts, similar to defined contribution plans. How likely to participate are workers who currently do not have access to a pension plan? We address this question by using plausibly exogenous variation in pension-plan availability to estimate the determinants of participation in a standard selection on unobservables model. We find that currently uncovered low-income workers are fairly likely to participate in a newly offered plan, yet they are much less likely to do so than currently covered workers.
    Keywords: private pensions, participation, self-selection, policy effects
    JEL: J08 J26 J32
    Date: 2013–07
  31. By: Laurent Gobillon (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - Ecole normale supérieure de Paris - ENS Paris - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris, INED - Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques Paris - INED); Peter Rupert (University of California, Santa Barbara - University of California, Santa Barbara); Etienne Wasmer (IEP Paris - Sciences Po Paris - Institut d'études politiques de Paris - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Paris - PRES Sorbonne Paris Cité - Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques [FNSP], LIEPP - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d'évaluation des politiques publiques - Sciences Po : PARIS)
    Abstract: The unemployment rate in France is roughly 6 percentage points higher for African immigrants than for natives. In the US the unemployment rate is approximately 9 percentage points higher for blacks than for whites. Commute time data indicates that minorities face longer commute times to work, potentially reecting more di cult access to jobs. In this paper we investigate the impact of spatial mismatch on the unemployment rate of ethnic groups using the matching model proposed by Rupert and Wasmer (2012). We nd that spatial factors explain from 1 to 1.5 percentage points of the unemployment rate gap in both France and the US, amounting to 17% to 25% of the relative gap in France and about 10% to 17.5% in the US. Among these factors, di erences in commuting distance play the most important role. In France, though, longer commuting distances may be mitigated by higher mobility in the housing market for African workers. Overall, we still conclude that labor market factors remain the main explanation for the higher unemployment rate of Africans.
    Keywords: Discrimination ; Ethnic groups ; Local markets ; Matching models
    Date: 2013–07–30

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