nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2013‒07‒28
thirty-one papers chosen by
Clarence Nkengne Tsimpo
University of Montreal and World Bank Group

  1. Diferencial de mortalidade por sexo na macrorregião de saúde sul de Minas Gerais, 1999 e 2009 By Larissa Souza; Pamila Siviero
  2. Do Fertility Transitions Influence Infant Mortality Declines? Evidence from Early Modern Germany By Alan Fernihough; Mark E. McGovern
  3. The contribution of African women to economic growth and development in post-colonial Africa : historical perspectives and policy implications By Akyeampong, Emmanuel; Fofack, Hippolyte
  4. PRIVATE VERSUS PUBLIC OLD-AGE SECURITY By Barnett, Richard; Bhattacharya, Joydeep; Puhakka, Mikko
  5. The effects of children on mothers' employment and earnings : evidence from Spain By Alfonso Alba; Julio Cáceres-Delpiano
  6. The road towards a better vital registration system: changes in the mortality profile, under-registration of death counts, and ill-defined causes of deaths in Brazil By Everton Lima; Bernardo Queiroz
  7. Low-skilled Immigration and Parenting Investments of College-educated Mothers in the United States: Evidence from Time-use Data By Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes; Almudena Sevilla-Sanz
  8. Vroeë Kaapse en Europese huwelikspatrone By Jeanne Cilliers; Johan Fourie
  9. Women's Work and Family Profiles over the Lifecourse and their Subsequent Health Outcomes. Evidence for Europe By Thomas Leoni; Rainer Eppel
  10. Education and Mortality in India By Motkuri, Venkatanarayana; Mishra, Uday Shankar
  11. Cash Transfers and Child Labour By de Hoop, Jacobus; Rosati, Furio C.
  12. Living Standards and Plague in London, 1560–1665 By Neil Cummins; Morgan Kelly; Cormac Ó Gráda
  13. Gender, Social Norms and Household Production in Burkina Faso By Harounan Kazianga; Zaki Wahhaj
  14. Postgraduate Education, Labor Participation, and Wages: An empirical analysis using micro data from Japan By MORIKAWA Masayuki
  15. Social security, economic development and the labor force participation of the elderly in Latin America By Bernardo Queiroz
  16. Gender differences in the effects of vocational training : constraints on women and drop-out behavior By Cho, Yoonyoung; Kalomba, Davie; Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq; Orozco, Victor
  17. The Effects of Punishment of Crime in Colombia on Deterrence, Incapacitation, and Human Capital Formation By Arlen Guarín; Carlos Medina; Jorge Andrés Tamayo
  18. Rising Mortality Rate in Andhra Pradesh: Towards a demystification By Motkuri, Venkatanarayana; Mishra, Uday Shankar
  20. Are Heterosexual Couples in Civil Partnerships Different from Married Couples? By Estelle Bailly; Wilfried Rault
  21. The Social Effects of Ethnic Diversity at the Local Level: A Natural Experiment with Exogenous Residential Allocation By Yann Algan; Camille Hémet; David Laitin
  22. Моделиране на възвращаемостта от образование и реализация на притежателите на докторски степени на пазара на труда в България By Simeonova-Ganeva, Ralitsa; Panayotova, Nataliya; Ganev, Kaloyan
  23. Les pacsés en couple hétérosexuel sont-ils différents des mariés ? By Estelle Bailly; Wilfried Rault
  24. Effects of Family, Friends, and Relative Prices on Fruit and Vegetable Consumption by African Americans By Zhylyevskyy, Oleksandr; Jensen, Helen H.; Garasky, Steven; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.
  25. First do no harm. Then do not cheat: DRG upcoding in German neonatology By Jürges, Hendrik; Köberlein, Juliane
  26. Les immigrés en France : en majorité des femmes By Cris Beauchemin; Catherine Borrel; Corinne Régnard
  27. Étude des relations familiales et intergénérationnelles By Arnaud Régnier-Loilier
  28. Why has social security become less pro poor? By Bea Cantillon; Natascha Van Mechelen; Olivier Pintelon; Aaron Van den Heede
  29. Impact evaluation of three types of early childhood development interventions in Cambodia By Bouguen, Adrien; Filmer, Deon; Macours, Karen; Naudeau, Sophie
  30. Rencontrer son conjoint dans un espace multiculturel et international By Christelle Hamel; Bertrand Lhommeau; Ariane Pailhé; Emmanuelle Santelli
  31. A população de deficientes no Estado de Minas Gerais: uma análise exploratória a partir dos censos demográficos de 2000 e 2010 By Emerson Baptista; Irineu Rigotti

  1. By: Larissa Souza (UNIFAL); Pamila Siviero (UNIFAL)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyze the differential mortality by sex in health macroregion southern Minas Gerais, in 1999 and 2009. Mortality data and information on population were collected at the website of the Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS). To measure the difference in mortality between the sexes were analyzed the sex ratio between specific mortality rates and the gap in life expectancy at birth. Regarding the age pattern of differential mortality between the sexes, male disadvantage was observed at all ages, but the most significant increase was in the age group between 20 to 29 years. The mortality tables show that increases in life expectancy occurred at all ages, while the gap in life expectancy at birth reduced. In other words, while life expectancy at birth increases, the gap in life expectancy has decreased in the southern part of Minas Gerais. This behavior is following the trend of developed countries. The results show that in 2009, the southern part of Minas Gerais showed behavior near a group of developed countries in the period 2000-2005.
    Keywords: regional variations in mortality; mortality rates by age and sex; life expectancy gap; Minas Gerais.
    JEL: I10 I18
    Date: 2013–07
  2. By: Alan Fernihough (Institute for International Integration Studies, Trinity College Dublin); Mark E. McGovern (Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies)
    Abstract: The timing and sequencing of fertility transitions and early-life mortality declines in historical Western societies indicates that reductions in sibship (number of siblings) may have contributed to improvements in infant health. Surprisingly however, this demographic relationship has received little attention in empirical research. We outline the theoretical difficulties associated with establishing the causal effect of sibship on infant mortality, and provide evidence on the inherent bias associated with conventional empirical approaches. We offer a solution that permits an empirical test of this relationship whilst accounting for reverse causality. Our approach is illustrated by evaluating the causal impact of sibship on infant mortality using genealogical data from 13 German parishes spanning the 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. Overall, our findings do not support the hypothesis that declining fertility led to increased infant survival probabilities in historical populations.
    Keywords: Demographic Transition, Family Size, Early Life Conditions, Infant Mortality
    Date: 2013–07
  3. By: Akyeampong, Emmanuel; Fofack, Hippolyte
    Abstract: This paper draws on history, anthropology, and economics to examine the dynamics and extent of women's contribution to growth and economic development in post-colonial Africa. The paper investigates the paradox of increased female enrollment in education and the persistence of gender discrimination in labor force participation; it also considers the overwhelming importance of the informal economy in female economic activity. The first axis the paper studies is whether reducing educational gender gaps enhances growth in per capita gross domestic product and reduces female fertility rates and infant mortality. The question is, why would some African countries resist this pattern? The second axis examines agriculture and home production. Women's economic activities in the informal economy largely represent the commercialization of domestic skills and dependence on social networks. The shunting of female production to the informal sector in the male-dominated colonial economy is easy to understand, but why has the informal economy persisted where female production is concerned well beyond the colonial period? The paper attempts to explain these trajectories by using country case studies on Senegal, Botswana, and Kenya. Although women's contribution to growth and economic development seems to be positive and significant in predominantly Christian and mineral-rich economies, it is more constrained in pronounced Muslim dominated countries and agrarian economies. At the same time, impressive uniform growth in informal sector production in recent years suggests that occupational job segregation and gender inequality remain strong across the region, despite the apparent loosening of traditional norms and cultural beliefs, most notably illustrated by the reduction in educational gender gaps and increased female labor force participation rates.
    Keywords: Gender and Development,Population Policies,Primary Education,Gender and Law,Achieving Shared Growth
    Date: 2013–07–01
  4. By: Barnett, Richard (Department of Economics & International Business LeBow College of Business Drexel University); Bhattacharya, Joydeep (Department of Economics Iowa State University); Puhakka, Mikko (Department of Economics University of Oulu)
    Abstract: We compare two institutions head on, a family compact – a parent makes a transfer to her parent in anticipation of a possible future gift from her children – with a pay-as-you-go, social security system in a lifecycle model with endogenous fertility wherein children are valued both as consumption and investment goods. Our focus is strictly on the pension dimension of these competing institutions. We show that an optimally-chosen family compact and a social security system cannot co-exist; indeed, the former may be preferred. A strong-enough negative shock to middle-age incomes destroys family compacts. While such a setting might appear ideal for the introduction of a social security system – as the experience of Europe, circa 1880s, would suggest – this turns out not to be the case: if incomes are too depressed to allow family compacts to flourish, they are also too low to permit introduction of an optimal social security system.
    Keywords: fertility; family compacts; social security; intergenerational cooperation; pensions; self-enforcing constitutions
    JEL: E21 E32
    Date: 2012–09–02
  5. By: Alfonso Alba; Julio Cáceres-Delpiano
    Abstract: Using a large and rich data set from administrative sources, we study the effects of children on mothers’ employment and earnings in Spain. By being able to pinpoint the event of multiple births along a twenty-year panel of women’s work history, we address two methodological hurdles in this research: the omitted-variable problem and concerns about twins as a good instrument for family size. We find that the effects of fertility on mothers’ labor outcomes differ by level of education. Women with only compulsory education experience falls of 17 percent in employment and 15 percent in earnings, increased duration of non-employed spells, and reductions in the likelihood of holding a secondary job or chaining contracts within a certain employment spell. Among more educated women, the employment rate drops by a mere 4 percent and earnings increase slightly in some cases. Nonetheless, a relatively higher employment rate of more educated mothers, besides unexpected changes in family size, involves costs in terms of working conditions, like holding temporary contracts. Our results indicate that mothers in general have a hard time regaining employment as revealed by the sharp increase in the take-up rate of unemployment insurance benefits around the third month after the birth. Finally, we are able to obtain some results for the impact of family size on the labor supply of a second earner (husband) in the household. For instance, we find that second earners tend to compensate for mothers’ income diminution.
    Date: 2013–07
  6. By: Everton Lima (Cedeplar-UFMG); Bernardo Queiroz (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: This paper examines the spatial pattern of ill-defined causes of death across Brazilian regions, and its relationship to the evolution of completeness of death counts registration and the changes in the mortality age profile. We make use of the mortality database available at the Brazilian Ministry of Health Database - Datasus and Population Censuses from 1980 to 2010. We applied traditional demographic methods to evaluate the quality of mortality data for 137 small areas and correct for death counts under-registration when necessary. The second part of the analysis uses linear regression models to investigate the relation between changes in death counts coverage and age profile of mortality to changes in the reporting of ill-defined causes of death. The completeness of death counts coverage increase from about 80% in 1980-1991 to over 95% in 2000-2010 at the same time the percentage of ill-defined causes of deaths reduced about 53% in the country. The analysis suggests that efforts from the central and local governments to improve data quality in Brazil are being successful, and they will allow a better understanding of the dynamics of health and mortality transition in Brazil.
    Keywords: mortality, death counts under-registration, spatial analysis, demographic methods
    JEL: J10 J11 J14 J18
    Date: 2013–07
  7. By: Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes (San Diego State University); Almudena Sevilla-Sanz (University of Oxford)
    Abstract: This paper uses several decades of US time-diary surveys to assess the impact of low-skilled immigration, through lower prices for commercial child care, on parental time investments. Using an instrumental variables approach that accounts for the endogenous location of immigrants, we find that low-skilled immigration to the United States has contributed to substantial reductions in the time allocated to basic child care by college-educated mothers of non-school age children. However, these mothers have not reduced the time allocated to more stimulating educational and recreational activities with their children. Understanding the factors driving parental time investments on children is crucial from a child development perspective.
    Keywords: Parental Time Investment, Immigration, Education Gradient, Time Use.
    JEL: J61 J22 J13
    Date: 2013–07
  8. By: Jeanne Cilliers (Department of Economics, University of Stellenbosch); Johan Fourie (Department of Economics, University of Stellenbosch)
    Abstract: Opsomming: Wat was die gemiddelde trou-ouderdom vir Kaapse mans en vroue in die agtiende en negentiende eeu? Ons vind, deur gebruik te maak van ’n nuwe genealogiese datastel, dat voor die 1850s die mediaan Kaapse setlaarsvrou getrou tussen die ouderdom van 19 en 20 jaar met ’n man wat tussen vyf en ses jaar ouer as sy was. Daarna sou vroue en mans se huweliksouderdomme toeneem om in 1900 ’n mediaan van 24 en 27 te bereik. Wat verklaar hierdie patrone? Vanaf die laat middeleeue is huwelike in Wes-Europa gekenmerk deur ’n hoër trou-ouderdom vir vroue. De Moor en Van Zanden (2010) verskaf drie redes vir die ontwikkeling van wat bekend geword het as die Europese huwelikspatroon: konsensus in die huwelik, erfpagwette, en die ontstaan van ’n aktiewe mark vir loonarbeid. Ons vind dat vir meer as ’n eeu het Kaapse setlaars geen teken van ’n Europese huwelikspatroon getoon nie, selfs al het die Wes-Europese instellings van konsensus in die huwelik en die erfpagwette saam met die seltaars in die Kaap aangekom. Die wil dus lyk of De Moor en Van Zanden (2010) die invloed van hierdie twee veranderlikes oorskat. Uit De Moor en Van Zanden (2010) se drie faktore blyk net die arbeidsmark relevant te wees om die opkoms van die Europese huwelikspatroon aan die Kaap in die middel van die neëntiende eeu te verduidelik. Summary: What was the average age of marriage for Cape Colony settlers during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries? We find, using a new genealogical dataset, that before the 1850s the median Cape woman married between the ages of 19 and 20 with a man between five and six years her senior. Only thereafter would the age of marriage for both women and men increase to reach a median of 24 and 27 respectively. What can explain these trends? Since the late middle ages in Europe, the age of women at marriage began to increase. De Moor and Van Zanden (2010) supply three reasons for what became known as the European marriage pattern: consensus, inheritance laws, and the creation of an active labour market. We find no evidence of a European marriage pattern at the Cape, even though both consensus in marriage and inheritance laws were present at the Cape. This suggests that De Moor and Van Zanden (2010) weight the influence of these two factors too heavily. It seems that an active labour market is the only factor that can explain the emergence of a European marriage pattern at the Cape in the middle of the nineteenth century.
    Keywords: European marriage pattern, Cape colony, demography, inheritance, women, gender
    JEL: N33 N37 N30
    Date: 2013
  9. By: Thomas Leoni; Rainer Eppel
    Abstract: The reconciliation of family and work is one of the "new social risks" contemporary welfare states are challenged to address. This paper contributes to a better understanding of the roles of work and family in women's life trajectories, shedding light on determinants and welfare outcomes of different combinations of motherhood and employment. We identify and compare distinctive life-course employment profiles of mothers across 13 European countries. After analyzing selection patterns, we investigate the possible link that exists between these work-family profiles up to the age of 50 and subsequent health outcomes. We embed our empirical investigation in a comparative welfare state framework and differentiate between four geographical areas that can be associated with different types of European welfare state regimes.
    Keywords: Welfare state, gender, family and work, health
    JEL: I1 J2
    Date: 2013–07
  10. By: Motkuri, Venkatanarayana; Mishra, Uday Shankar
    Abstract: The present paper made an attempt to understand the impact schooling/education on the mortality rate in India, in a developing country context. Present study aims at looking into differences in mortality rate by the status of completion of primary schooling.
    Keywords: Demography, India, Education, Mortality
    JEL: I10 I15 J11 J18
    Date: 2013–04
  11. By: de Hoop, Jacobus (Understanding Children's Work); Rosati, Furio C. (University of Rome Tor Vergata)
    Abstract: Cash transfer programs are widely used in settings where child labour is prevalent. Even if many of these programs are explicitly implemented to improve children's welfare, in theory their impact on child labour is undetermined. This paper systematically reviews the empirical evidence on the impact of cash transfers, conditional and unconditional, on child labour. We find no evidence that cash transfer interventions increase child labour in practice. On the contrary, there is broad evidence that cash transfers, conditional and unconditional, lower both the extensive and intensive margin of child labour. Our findings underline the usefulness of cash transfers as a relatively safe policy instrument to improve child welfare, but also point to knowledge gaps that would need to be addressed in future evaluations to provide detailed policy advice.
    Keywords: cash transfers, child labour, impact evaluation, review
    JEL: I28 I38 O20
    Date: 2013–07
  12. By: Neil Cummins (London School of Economics); Morgan Kelly (University College Dublin); Cormac Ó Gráda (University College Dublin)
    Abstract: We use individual records of 920,000 burials and 630,000 baptisms to reconstruct the spatial and temporal patterns of birth and death in London from 1560 to 1665, a period dominated by recurrent plague. The plagues of 1563, 1603, 1625, and 1665 appear of roughly equal magnitude, with deaths running at five to six times their usual rate, but the impact on wealthier central parishes falls markedly through time. Tracking the weekly spread of plague before 1665 we find a con- sistent pattern of elevated mortality spreading from the same northern suburbs. Looking at the seasonal pattern of mortality, we find that the characteristic autumn spike associated with plague continued into the early 1700s. Given that individual cases of plague and typhus are frequently indistinguishable, claims that plague suddenly vanished af- ter 1665 should be treated with caution. Natural increase improved as smaller plagues disappeared after 1590, but fewer than half of those born survived childhood.
    Keywords: : demography, population economics, health, cities
    Date: 2013–07–24
  13. By: Harounan Kazianga (Oklahoma State University); Zaki Wahhaj (Department of International Development, Oxford University)
    Abstract: Empirical studies of intra-household allocation has revealed that, in many instances, gender is an important determinant in the allocation of resources within the household. Yet, within the theoretical literature, why gender matters within the household remains an open question. In this paper, we propose a simple model of intra-household allocation based on a particular social institution for the organisation of agricultural production practised among certain ethnic groups in West Africa. We highlight how this institution, while resolving certain problems of commitment and informational asymmetry, can also lead to a gendered pattern in the allocation of productive resources and consumption within the household. Using a survey of agricultural households in Burkina Faso, we show, consistent with this theory, that plots owned by the head of the household are farmed more intensively, and achieves higher yields, than plots with similar characteristics owned by other household members. Male and female family members who do not head the household achieve similar yields. We argue that the higher yields achieved by the household head may be explained in terms of social norms that require him to spend the earnings from some plots under his control exclusively on household public goods, which in turn provides other family members the incentive to voluntarily contribute labour on his farms. Using expenditures data, and measures of rainfall to capture weather-related shocks to agricultural income, we show that the household head has, indeed, a higher marginal propensity to spend on household public goods than other household members. The fact that the head of the household is usually male accounts for the gendered pattern in labour allocation and yields across different farm plots.
    Keywords: Intra-household allocation, social norms, gender, household public goods
    JEL: O12 D13 Q1
    Date: 2010–05
  14. By: MORIKAWA Masayuki
    Abstract: Using micro data from the 2007 Employment Status Survey, this paper analyzes the relationship between postgraduate education and labor market outcomes in Japan. According to the analysis, 1) the employment-population rates of females and elderly people with postgraduate education are higher than they are for those with undergraduate education. The negative effect of marriage on labor participation is small for postgraduate females. 2) The wage premium for postgraduates relative to undergraduates is approximately 30%. The postgraduate wage premium is similar in magnitude for male and female workers. 3) The wage reduction after age 60 is less for workers with a postgraduate education. 4) The private rate of return to postgraduate education exceeds 10%. Due to advanced technology and the growing demand for increased skills, the importance of postgraduate education to vitalize the economy is growing. At the same time, the expansion of postgraduate education may contribute to increasing the labor participation of females and elderly people.
    Date: 2013–07
  15. By: Bernardo Queiroz (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: In this paper I investigate labor force participation of older males in Latin America. The empirical analysis is divided in two parts. First, I use household survey data from twenty-three (23) Latin American and the Caribbean countries, from around 2005, to perform a cross-country analysis on labor force participation focusing on differences rural and urban status, formal and informal relation to the labor market and coverage of public pension programs. I also use the data to show different patterns by income level and stage of the demographic transition to describe historical trends in labor force participation rates of older workers. The second part of the paper, I use data on the 23 Latin American countries to investigate the effects of economic development and social security system in the labor force participation of the elderly for the past 30 years.
    Keywords: labor force participation, economic development elderly, social security, retirement, Latin America
    JEL: J10 J11 J14 J18
  16. By: Cho, Yoonyoung; Kalomba, Davie; Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq; Orozco, Victor
    Abstract: This paper provides experimental evidence on the effects of vocational and entrepreneurial training for Malawian youth, in an environment where access to schooling and formal sector employment is extremely low. It tracks a large fraction of program drop-outs -- a common phenomenon in the training evaluation literature -- and examines the determinants and consequences of dropping out and how it mediates the effects of such programs. The analysis finds that women make decisions in a more constrained environment, and their participation is affected by family obligations. Participation is more expensive for them, resulting in worse training experience. The training results in skills development, continued investment in human capital, and improved well-being, with more positive effects for men, but no improvements in labor market outcomes in the short run.
    Keywords: Primary Education,Education For All,Access&Equity in Basic Education,Population Policies,Labor Policies
    Date: 2013–07–01
  17. By: Arlen Guarín; Carlos Medina; Jorge Andrés Tamayo
    Abstract: Based on individual data on the population of those arrested in Medellín, we assess whether the change in punishment at age 18, mandated by law, has a deterrent effect on arrests. No deterrent effect was found on index, violent or property crimes, but a deterrence effect was found on non-index crimes, specifically those related to drug consumption and trafficking. This implies an elasticity of arrests with respect to punishment that varies between -1.0 and -6.7 percent. The number of days that arrested individuals take to recidivate is 300, higher for index crimes if they are arrested right after, rather than before, reaching 18 years of age, in which case they are less likely to recidivate in any type of crime. The change in criminal penalties at 18 years of age does not explain future differences in human capital formation among the population that had been arrested immediately after versus immediately before reaching 18 years of age. There is no evidence that the longer length of time to recidivate on the part of individuals arrested for the first time immediately after reaching 18 implies future differences in human capital formation. This suggest that our estimated incapacitation effect would not be explained by the impossibility of the arrested population to recidivate due to their having been imprisoned, but rather by a specific deterrence effect resulting from the harsher experience while in prison of those arrested right after, rather than before, reaching 18.
    Keywords: Crime, Deterrence, Regression Discontinuity. Classification JEL: K42, H56, C21
    Date: 2013–07
  18. By: Motkuri, Venkatanarayana; Mishra, Uday Shankar
    Abstract: This is an effort at explaining the reasons and rationale behind the rising mortality rate (CDR) in the South Indian State – Andhra Pradesh. Although the state’s performance in socio-economic sphere seems to be not that impressive, its performance in demographic transition during the last two decades is undoubtedly distinct, especially among Indian states. In addition, Andhra Pradesh has also been witnessing mushrooming of private medical care centres ranging from tiny clinics to corporate hospitals, especially during last two decades. Most notable ones are the state initiatives of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) – popularly known in the state as ‘108’ services, witnessing evolving pre-hospital care integrated with definite health care and Rajiv Aryogyasri (RAS), a health insurance scheme to cover the catastrophic health expenditure of BPL families.
    Keywords: Demography, Health, Mortality,Disease Burden, Andhra Pradesh, India
    JEL: I1 I10 I11 I18 J10 J14
    Date: 2013–03
  19. By: Suhaeniti (International University of University); Sangyub Ryu (International University of University)
    Abstract: By applying Moore (1995) concept of distinctive managerial functions - managing upward, downward, and outward -, this study attempts to understand the impacts of middle-level management functions on organizational performance; and tries to investigate gender impacts on the middle-level management and performance linkages. This study employs Indonesian Family Life Survey 4 (IFLS4) crosssectional data and applies Weighted Least Squares (WLS) method to analyze some hypotheses constructed. The results indicate the significant impacts of managing downward negatively and managing outward positively on organization performance. Meanwhile, managing upward does not give the significant impact on organization performance. On the other hand, gendered managing outward effects on organization performance are strongly positive significant for female managers and strongly negative significant for males. For both male and female managers, managing downward gives significant positive impacts on organization performance, but males' effect is much greater than females. Lastly, the gendered managing upward effect is not significant related with organization performance. Therefore, it can be concluded that public managers need to give more efforts on managing outward by creating more networking to increase the organization performance. In contrast, the principals may need to modify their strategy to manage their subordinates because current managing downward strategy gives negative impacts on the organization performance.
    Keywords: managing upward, managing downward, managing outward, management, gender, performance, school, Indonesia
    Date: 2013–07
  20. By: Estelle Bailly (INED); Wilfried Rault (INED)
    Abstract: In 1999, the French Government introduced civil partnerships, known as PACS (pacte civil de solidarité), toprovide legal recognition to same-sex couples, although they were also open to different-sex couples. Since then, they have proved increasingly popular. By 2010, the initialfigure of around 20,000 new PACS unions per year had risen to more than 205,000, most of these contracted by different-sex couples. So is there any difference between those who have optedfor marriage since 1999 and those who have chosen to become PACS partners? While not diametrically opposed,the two groups do have several distinguishing features. PACS partners are more often childless and more of them are highly educated. More of them are in higher-level orintermediate occupations, and they are more often public sector employees.Nevertheless, the gap between the two has tended to narrowin recent years, especially since 2008. Today's PACS partners differ less from their married peers than thePACS "pioneers" did. PACS unions have become democratized, in the sense that their numbers have increaseddramatically and they have spread to social groups that initially showed little interest in them.
    Date: 2013
  21. By: Yann Algan (Department of Economics, Sciences Po); Camille Hémet (Aix-Marseille University (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS & EHESS and Sciences Po); David Laitin (Department of Political Science, Stanford University)
    Abstract: This paper demonstrates the effects of ethnic diversity on social relationships and the quality of public spaces at a very finite neighborhood level. We use detailed block level data on diversity and housing quality from a representative survey on housing in France. We show how and to what extent diversity within a neighborhood can directly affect household well-being and the quality of the common spaces, whereas the previous literature looks at more aggregate outcomes through voting channels. Our identification strategy relies on the exogeneity of public housing allocations with respect to ethnic characteristics in France, to address the bias due to endogenous residential sorting. Diversity is shown to have a negative effect on the quality of local public goods, either due to vandalism, not deterred by other-regarding preferences and social policing, or due to collective action failure to ensure effective property management. However, we find that diversity has no robust effect on public safety at a local level and, if anything, is more related to social anomie.
    Keywords: diversity, neighborhood effects, living conditions, public housing
    JEL: H10 H41
    Date: 2013–07–10
  22. By: Simeonova-Ganeva, Ralitsa; Panayotova, Nataliya; Ganev, Kaloyan
    Abstract: In this study we present the theoretical framework of the so called Mincerian equations used for modelling returns to education. Then, we construct a conceptual framework which allows us to answer the question “What happens to doctoral degree holders in the labour market?”. We analyse data for about 45,000 PhD graduates in Bulgaria from the NSI survey Career development of PhD degree holders run in 2007, 2009, and 2010. An attempt is made to measure pay gaps in terms of gender and major of study. Using Mincerian equations, we calculate these pay gaps, and thus we answer the question whether there are any income differences among doctoral degree holders. We find out that a doctoral degree holder in natural or technical science has a significantly higher return than a degree holder in social or humanitarian studies. Another finding is that the greatest gender pay gaps are observed in social and humanitarian studies while the smallest gap is in natural and technical sciences.
    Keywords: returns to education, doctoral degree holders, labour market income, gender pay gap, pay gaps by field of study
    JEL: I2 J3
    Date: 2013
  23. By: Estelle Bailly (Ined); Wilfried Rault (Ined)
    Abstract: Depuis sa création en 1999, le pacte civil de solidarité (pacs), adopté pour permettre la reconnaissance légale des couples de même sexe et ouvert également aux couples de sexe différent a connu un essor considérable. Tandis qu'on comptait environ 20 000 nouveaux pacs par an à ses débuts, plus de 205 000 pacs ont été enregistrés en 2010. La plupart par des couples de sexe différent. Les personnes qui se sont pacsées sont-elles différentes de celles qui se sont mariées depuis l'existence du pacs ? Sans être opposés, les deux groupes présentent des caractéristiques distinctes : les pacsés sont plus souvent sans enfant, plus diplômés de l'enseignement supérieur, cadres et professions intermédiaires et exercent plus souvent une activité dans le secteur public. Ces spécificités se sont toutefois amoindries ces dernières années : les personnes pacsées récemment (notamment depuis 2008) se distinguent moins des mariés que « les pionniers » du pacs. On observe ainsi une démocratisation du pacs au sens où il a connu à la fois une croissance considérable et une diffusion dans des milieux sociaux qui s'en étaient peu emparés à ces débuts.
    Date: 2013
  24. By: Zhylyevskyy, Oleksandr; Jensen, Helen H.; Garasky, Steven; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.
    Abstract: We investigate the effects of parents, best friends, and relative prices on fruit and vegetable consumption by African American youths using behavioral data from the Family and Community Health Study, and area-specific food prices from the Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database. We construct a simultaneous equation ordered probit model that accounts for social interactions in fruit and vegetable consumption and specific aspects of the available food intake data. We estimate statistically significant endogenous consumption effects between a youth and a parent. Lower relative prices tend to increase intakes, particularly in the case of vegetables; however, the statistical significance of these effects is marginal. The results suggest the existence of social multipliers in fruit and vegetable consumption in African American families. The presence of these multipliers supports the design of youth-parent based interventions to increase fruit and vegetable intake by African Americans. Additionally, intake also may be increased through relative price reductions.
    JEL: C35 I12 J15
    Date: 2013–07–17
  25. By: Jürges, Hendrik; Köberlein, Juliane (Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA))
    Abstract: Since 2003 German hospitals are reimbursed according to diagnosis related groups (DRGs). Patient classification in neonatology is based inter alia on birth weight, with substantial discontinuities in reimbursement at eight dierent thresholds. These discontinuities create strong incentives to upcode preterm infants into classes of lower birth weight. Using data from the German birth statistics 1996 to 2010 and German hospital data from 2006 to 2011, we estimate that since the introduction of DRGs, hospitals have upcoded at least 12,000 preterm infants and gained additional reimbursement in excess of 100 million Euro. The scale of upcoding in German neonatology enables us to study the anatomy of cheating in a profession that otherwise claims to have high ethical standards. We show that upcoding is not only positively linked with the strength of financial incentives but also with expected treatment costs measured by poor newborn health conditional on weight. This suggests that doctors and midwives do not indiscriminately upcode any potential preterm infant as a rational model of crime would predict. Rather, they may find it easier to cheat when this helps aligning the lump-sum reimbursement with the expected actual treatment costs.
    JEL: I11 I18 D20
    Date: 2013–07–16
  26. By: Cris Beauchemin (Ined); Catherine Borrel (Ined); Corinne Régnard (Ined)
    Abstract: La population immigrée comprend 51 % de femmes en France métropolitaine en 2008. Comme le montre l'enquête Trajectoires et Origines (TeO), la féminisation de la population immigrée ne vient pas seulement du regroupement familial. Les courants migratoires les plus féminisés sont en fait ceux dans lesquels les femmes célibataires ou pionnières (qui devancent leur conjoint en migration) sont les plus nombreuses. Rejoindre un conjoint en France n'est plus réservé aux femmes : les hommes forment après 1998 le tiers des personnes regroupées et progressent également parmi les conjoints de Français. En définitive, sans atteindre un équilibre parfait entre hommes et femmes, les comportements migratoires des deux sexes se rapprochent fortement.
    Date: 2013
  27. By: Arnaud Régnier-Loilier (INED)
    Abstract: L'enquête Étude des relations familiales et intergénérationnelles (Erfi) s'inscrit dans le programme international Generations and Gender (GGP). Il s'agit d'une enquête longitudinale à passages répétés. La France , représentée par l'Ined (avec le concours de l'Insee), s'est engagée dans ce programme en interrogeant 10 079 femmes et hommes âgés de 18 à 79 ans à la fin de l'année 2005. Les mêmes personnes ont été sollicitées pour répondre à un nouveau questionnaire à l'automne 2008 (6 534 répondants) puis à l'automne 2011 (5 773 répondants). Ce document ne propose aucun résultat de l'enquête. Il présente la mise en place de la troisième et dernière vague de l'enquête. « Document de travail » au sens premier du terme, et « mémoire de l'enquête », il consigne dans une première partie un ensemble d'informations sur la réalisation de l'enquête, détaille l'attrition observée entre les trois vagues et interroge la qualité des données en mettant l'accent sur un problème de sous-déclaration des enfants non cohabitants lors des vagues 2 et 3 ; la deuxième partie présente le questionnaire de la troisième vague ; la troisième partie regroupe un ensemble de documents utilisés lors de la collecte (instructions de collecte, courriers envoyés aux répondants, lettre d'annonce de l'enquête, etc.).
    Date: 2012
  28. By: Bea Cantillon; Natascha Van Mechelen; Olivier Pintelon; Aaron Van den Heede
    Abstract: The present paper argues that we are witnessing an increase of the tensions between the three main goals of social security systems (poverty alleviation, securing living standards and prevention) and that, as a consequence, the poverty-reducing capacity of social transfers has come under pressure. The paper focuses on the working age population in 25 EU countries and on the good years before the crisis. Three different data sources are used: ECHP, its successor EU-SILC and the German SOEP. The paper augments the traditional pre-post approach by considering more direct policy indicators such as spending levels, observed average benefit levels and theoretical tax benefit packages and by focussing on the distinction between work-poor and work-rich households. We find that in many countries the relative decline in poverty reduction has primarily affected work-poor households. This observation is confirmed by more direct policy indicators. It may support the hypothesis that in many countries the poverty alleviation function of social protection has come under pressure as a consequence of a shift of attention towards preventing benefit dependency by recommodification on the one hand and ‘securing living standards’ for working families on the other hand.
    Keywords: Europe, welfare state, poverty, redistribution, work intensity, social exclusion
    JEL: D31 I38 O52
    Date: 2013–07
  29. By: Bouguen, Adrien; Filmer, Deon; Macours, Karen; Naudeau, Sophie
    Abstract: Scaling up early childhood development services has the potential to increase children's cognitive and socio-emotional development and promote school readiness in a large segment of the population. This study used a randomized controlled trial approach to evaluate three scaled-up programs designed to widen access to early childhood development services: formal preschools, community preschools, and home-based services. The impacts of all three programs fell short of expectations because of two key flaws in how they were scaled up. First, implementation did not receive due attention; as a result, school facilities were not completed as planned, community-based programs were not always established, and low, irregular stipends created difficulties in hiring and retaining teachers. Second, the services that were available were not promoted and thus not used as widely as anticipated. The results imply that the quality of programs supplied is critical, as is attention to the demand side of the problem. The finding that these programs fell short of expectations does not mean that interventions such as these are ineffective. Rather, it indicates that quality and demand require careful attention in attempts to scale up early childhood development interventions, and any problems should be addressed prior to evaluating effectiveness.
    Keywords: Primary Education,Educational Sciences,Education For All,Youth and Governance,Adolescent Health
    Date: 2013–07–01
  30. By: Christelle Hamel (Ined); Bertrand Lhommeau (Ined); Ariane Pailhé (Ined); Emmanuelle Santelli (Ined)
    Date: 2013
  31. By: Emerson Baptista (Cedeplar-UFMG); Irineu Rigotti (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: The main goal of this article is to make an exploratory analysis on the population of disabled people in the State of Minas Gerais using two general approaches, namely: spatial and demographic. For this, we used data from sample Censuses of 2000 and 2010. The results of the 2000 census showed the presence of 24,5 million Brazilians with some kind of disability, i.e., 14,5% of the population in that year. Already in the 2010 census were registered 45,6 million people (23,9%) with some of the deficiencies studied. Coincidentally, the State of Minas Gerais had something very close to this average in both censuses. What we want to evaluate, then, are the patterns of spatial distribution and demographics for the types of disabilities proposed by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), through coropletic mapping of gross rates standardized. Is expected, therefore, contribute to the advancement of studies related to population of disabled people in Minas Gerais, at the level of municipalities, because being a relatively unexplored, it is believed that this mapping reveal spatial patterns relevant to the development and implementation of public policies aimed at this segment, as well as allow the elaboration of some preliminary hypotheses that can be evaluated in future studies.
    Keywords: disabled people; demography; spatial distribution; Minas Gerais.
    JEL: Y80
    Date: 2013–07

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