nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2013‒05‒24
twenty-one papers chosen by
Clarence Nkengne Tsimpo
University of Montreal and World Bank Group

  1. Maternal Health and Fertility: An International Perspective By Stefania Albanesi
  2. Maternal Health and the Baby Boom By Stefania Albanesi; Claudia Olivetti
  3. Paid parental leave to immigrants: An obstacle to labor market entrance? By Vikman, Ulrika
  4. The Gender Unemployment Gap By Stefania Albanesi; Aysegul Sahin
  5. Parental education, gender preferences and child nutritional status: evidence from four developing countries By Novella, Rafael
  6. Is the persistent gender gap in income and wages due to unequal family responsibilities? By Angelov, Nikolay; Johansson, Per; Lindahl, Erica
  7. Growing up in a blended family or a stepfamily: What is the impact on education? By Sundström, Marianne
  8. What’s best for women: gender based taxation, wage subsidies or basic income? By Colombino, Ugo; Narazani, Edlira
  9. Understanding the SES Gradient in Early Child Development: Maternal Work, Home Learning, and Child Care Decisions By Emilia Del Bono; Marco Francesconi; Yvonne Ke;;y; Amanda Sacker
  10. Microanalysis of retirement behavior in the Russian Federation By Iuliia Sonina
  11. Subjective and Objective Indicators of Racial Progress * By Betsey Stevenson; Justin Wolfers
  12. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Child Health in Ireland By Layte, Richard; Nolan, Anne
  13. Reading to Young Children: A Head-Start in Life? By Guyonne Kalb; Jan C. van Ours
  14. Indiscriminate Discrimination: A Correspondence Test for Ethnic Homophily in the Chicago Labor Market By Nicolas Jacquemet; Constantine Yannelis
  15. Characteristics of Women Farm Operators and Their Farms By Hoppe, Robert
  16. Does Having a Female Sarpanch Promote Service Delivery for Women and Democratic Participation of Women? Evidence from Maharashtra, India By Dhanmanjiri Sathe; Stephan Klasen; Jan Priebe; Mithila Biniwale
  17. Trick or Treat? - Maternal Involuntary Job Loss and Children's Non-Cognitive Skills By Frauke H. Peter
  18. Population, land, and growth By Claire Loupias; Bertrand Wigniolle
  19. Young adults living with their parents and the influence of peers By Effrosyni Adamopoulou; Ezgi Kaya
  20. On the Role of Democracy in the Ethnicity-Growth Relationship: Theory and Evidence By Sugata Ghosh; Andros Gregoriou; Anirban Mitra
  21. Education, race and revealed attitudes towards homosexual couples By Leguizamon, Sebastian; Leguizamon, Susane; Christafore, David

  1. By: Stefania Albanesi (Federal Reserve Bank of New York and CEPR)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of the decline in maternal mortality on fertility and women's human capital. Fertility theory suggests that a permanent decline in maternal mortality initially increases fertility and generates a permanent rise in women's human capital, relative to men. The resulting rise in the opportunity cost of children leads to a subsequent decline in desired fertility, generating a boom-bust response. We assess these predictions using newly digitized data on maternal mortality for 25 advanced and emerging economies for the time period 1900-2000. The empirical estimates suggest that the decline in maternal mortality contributed significantly to the baby booms and subsequent baby busts experi- enced by these economies in the twentieth century, and that the female-male differential in education attainment grew more in those countries that experience a sizable maternal mortality decline.
    Keywords: Maternal mortality decline, fertility choice, baby boom, women's, human capital
    JEL: J11 J13 J16 N3
    Date: 2013–05
  2. By: Stefania Albanesi (Federal Reserve Bank of New York and CEPR); Claudia Olivetti (Boston University and NBER)
    Abstract: U.S. fertility rose from a low of 2.27 children for women born in 1908 to a peak of 3.21 children for women born in 1932. It dropped to a new low of 1.74 children for women born in 1949, before stabilizing for subsequent cohorts. We propose a novel explanation for this boom-bust pattern, linking it to the huge improvements in maternal health that started in the mid 1930s. Our hypothesis is that the improvements in maternal health contributed to the mid-twentieth century baby boom and generated a rise in women's human capital, ultimately leading to a decline in desired fertility for subsequent cohorts. To examine this link empirically, we exploit the large cross-state variation in the magnitude of the decline in pregnancy-related mortality and the differential exposure by cohort. We find that the decline in maternal mortality is associated with a rise in fertility for women born between 1921 and 1940, with a rise in college and high school graduation rates for women born in 1933-1950 relative to previous cohorts, and with a decline in fertility for women born in 1941-1950 relative to those born in 1921-1940. The analysis provides new insights on the determinants of fertility in the U.S. and other countries that experienced similar improvements in maternal health.
    Keywords: Maternal mortality, Fertility choice, Baby boom, human capital
    JEL: J11 J13 N12 N3
    Date: 2013–05
  3. By: Vikman, Ulrika (Uppsala Center for Labor Studies)
    Abstract: This paper evaluates how access to paid parental leave affects labor market entrance for immigrating mothers with small children. Paid parental leave together with job protection may increase labor force participation among women but if it is too generous it may create incentives to stay out of the labor force. This incentive effect may be especially true for mothers immigrating to a country where having small children automatically makes the mothers eligible for the benefit. To evaluate the differences in the assimilation process for those who have access to the parental leave benefit and those who do not, Swedish administration data is used in a difference-in-differences specification to control for both time in the country and the age of the youngest child. The results show that labor market entrance is delayed for mothers and that they are less likely to be a part of the labor force for up to seven years after their residence permit if they had access to parental leave benefits when they came to Sweden. This reduction in the labor force participation is to some extent driven by unemployment since the effect on employment is smaller. But there is still an effect on employment of 3 percentage points lower participation rates 2–6 years after immigration.
    Keywords: Immigrant assimilation; labor market entrance; paid parental leave benefit
    JEL: J13 J15 J21
    Date: 2013–02–14
  4. By: Stefania Albanesi (Federal Reserve Bank of New York and CEPR); Aysegul Sahin (Federal Reserve Bank of New York)
    Abstract: The unemployment gender gap, defined as the difference between female and male unemployment rates, was positive until 1980. This gap virtually disappeared after 1980, except during recessions when men's unemployment rate always exceeds women's. We study the evolution of these gender differences in unemployment from a long-run perspective and over the business cycle. Using a calibrated three-state search model of the labor market, we show that the rise in female labor force attachment and the decline in male attachment can mostly account for the closing of the gender unemployment gap. Evidence from nineteen OECD countries also supports the notion that convergence in attachment is associated with a decline in the gender unemployment gap. At the cyclical frequency, we find that gender differences in industry composition are important in recessions, especially the most recent, but they do not explain gender differences in employment growth during recoveries.
    Keywords: Gender unemployment gap, labor market attachment
    JEL: E24 J64
    Date: 2013–05
  5. By: Novella, Rafael
    Abstract: This paper examines whether the distribution of bargaining power between parents affects permanent and transitory nutritional indicators in the early stages of boys and girls life. I use the Young Lives sample, which is a survey of young children living in poor households in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh state), Peru and Vietnam. By adopting a methodology to disentangle gender differences produced by technology and preferences, I find evidence that the allocation of household resources varies with the gender of the child and the gender of the parents. After accounting for the potential endogeneity of the indicator of power distribution within the household, related to assortative mating in the marriage market, I find that maternal power has larger effects on girls health than on boys health in Peru and Vietnam. In contrast, in India, maternal bargaining power has a negative effect on girls health, whereas in Ethiopia no differential effect is found. Further analysis confirms that differences in parental behaviour drive the estimated effects and that these are robust to the inclusion of genetic information.
    Date: 2013–05–10
  6. By: Angelov, Nikolay (Uppsala Center for Labor Studies); Johansson, Per (Uppsala Center for Labor Studies); Lindahl, Erica (IFAU)
    Abstract: We compare the income and wage trajectories of women in rela- tion to their male partners before and after parenthood. Focusing on the within-couple gap allows us to control for both observed and unobserved attributes of the spouse and to estimate both short- and long-term eects of entering parenthood. Our main nding is that 15 years after the rst child was born, the male-female gender gaps in income and wages have increased with 35 and 10 percentage points, respectively. In line with a collective labor supply model, the mag- nitude of these eects depends on relative incomes or wages within the family.
    Keywords: Gender gap; Quantile regression; Income; Wages
    JEL: C21 D13 J21
    Date: 2013–02–14
  7. By: Sundström, Marianne (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of growing up in a blended family or a stepfamily on children’s educational outcomes. I use a random sample of 40,000 Swedish children born in the mid-1960s matched to their full and half-siblings born in 1960-1970, in total 76,000 children. Childhood family and siblings structure is inferred using the censuses combined with the Swedish multigenerational register. The children are followed into adulthood and their education examined. The cross-section results indicate that growing up with half-siblings is negatively correlated with education and living with both biological parents and no half-siblings is associated with more schooling than living with a single parent or a stepparent. To assess causality I estimate sibling-difference models and find that the negative correlations disappear which is consistent with selection explaining the cross-section results. Narrowing the siblings sample to children in stable blended families reveals that joint children obtain significantly more schooling than stepchildren. In stable stepfather blended families the difference is even larger. Possible explanations for these interesting findings are that fathers are more willing and able to support their children with their current spouse and that stepfathers do not share their income equally between their biological children and their stepchildren.
    Keywords: Family structure; stepfamilies; stepfathers; sibling differences; educational attainment
    Date: 2013–05–15
  8. By: Colombino, Ugo; Narazani, Edlira
    Abstract: Gender based taxation (GBT) has been recently proposed as a promising policy in order toimprove womens status in the labour market and within the family. We use a microeconometricmodel of household labour supply in order to evaluate, with Italian data, the behavioural andwelfare effects of GBT as compared to other policies based on different optimal taxationprinciples. The comparison is interesting because GBT, although technically correct, might faceimplementation difficulties not shared by other policies that in turn might produce comparablebenefits. The simulation procedure accounts for the constraints implied by fiscal neutrality andmarket equilibrium. Our results support to some extent the expectations of GBTs proponents.However it is not an unquestionable success. GBT induces a modest increase of womensemployment, but similar effects can be attained by universal subsidies on low wages. When thepolicies are evaluated in terms of welfare, GBT ranks first among single women but for the wholepopulation the best policies are subsidies on low wages, unconditional transfers or a combinationof the two.
    Date: 2013–05–01
  9. By: Emilia Del Bono; Marco Francesconi; Yvonne Ke;;y; Amanda Sacker
    Abstract: This paper examines the impacts of family inputs - i.e., maternal employment, child care and home learning - on the early development of British children. Using rich longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study we estimate cognitive and non-cognitive achievement production functions that allow outcomes to depend on the history of family inputs and unobserved child endowments. We find evidence of small effects on early child outcomes of all the family inputs under consideration. Nonetheless, according to some models, family inputs are found to reduce socio-economic status inequalities in early child development quite substantially, while according to other models they are found to magnify them. Attempting to equalize child outcomes through early policy interventions that generically affect family inputs may therefore prove difficult.
    Date: 2013–04–22
  10. By: Iuliia Sonina (UP1 UFR02 - Université Paris 1, Panthéon-Sorbonne - UFR d'Économie - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne - PRES HESAM)
    Abstract: This paper presents the results of econometric analysis of retirement behavior of Russian pensioners. The aim of the investigation is determination of those factors that affect the retirement decision of men and women in Russia. Their understanding can be helpful for pension reform realization. This analysis is performed on the basis of data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. The data are taken from the 15th to 19th waves of survey that correspond to 2005-2010 period of time. First of all this paper gives a survey of retirement literature, then describes the pension system in the Russian federation and particularities of retirement behaviour of Russian pensioners, after that it presents basic hypothesis of the analysis and, finally, concludes with econometric results and their interpretation.
    Keywords: retraite, Russie, comportements
    Date: 2012
  11. By: Betsey Stevenson; Justin Wolfers
    Abstract: Progress in closing differences in many objective outcomes for blacks relative to whites has slowed, and even worsened, over the past three decades. However, over this period the racial gap in wellbeing has shrunk. In the early 1970s data revealed much lower levels of subjective wellâ€being among blacks relative to whites. Investigating various measures of wellâ€being, we find that the wellâ€being of blacks has increased both absolutely and relative to that of whites. While a racial gap in wellâ€being remains, twoâ€fifths of the gap has closed and these gains have occurred despite little progress in closing other racial gaps such as those in income, employment, and education. Much of the current racial gap in wellâ€being can be explained by differences in the objective conditions of the lives of black and white Americans. Thus making further progress will likely require progress in closing racial gaps in objective circumstances.
    Keywords: Subjective wellâ€being, life satisfaction, happiness, race
    JEL: D6 I32 J1 J7 K1
    Date: 2013–03
  12. By: Layte, Richard; Nolan, Anne
    Abstract: There is extensive empirical evidence on the link between socio-economic status (SES) and child health outcomes. However, there is some international evidence that the SES gradient in child health is weaker for objective indicators of child health (e.g., anthropometric measures such as height) than for subjective indicators (e.g., parental assessments of general health status). In this paper, we use detailed cross-sectional micro-data on two cohorts of children in Ireland (aged 9 months and 9 years) to examine the SES gradient in various indicators of child health (length/height; weight/BMI; general health status; chronic illness incidence). Using two main indicators of SES, namely household income and mother's highest level of education, we find only limited support for the contention that the SES gradient in child health in Ireland is stronger for more subjective measures of child health.
    Keywords: Child Health/Socio-Economic Health Inequalities/Ireland
    JEL: C20 D12 I14
    Date: 2013–04
  13. By: Guyonne Kalb (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne; and Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)); Jan C. van Ours (Department of Economics and CentER, Tilburg University; Department of Economics, The University of Melbourne; CESifo (Munich); Centre for Economic Policy Research (London); and Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA))
    Abstract: This paper investigates the importance of parents reading to their young children. Using Australian data we find that parental reading to children at age 4 to 5 has positive and significant effects on reading skills and cognitive skills of these children at least up to age 10 or 11. Our findings are robust to a wide range of sensitivity analyses.
    Keywords: Reading to children, reading skills, other cognitive skills
    JEL: C26 I21 J24
    Date: 2013–05
  14. By: Nicolas Jacquemet (EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris, BETA - Bureau d'économie théorique et appliquée - CNRS : UMR7522 - Université de Strasbourg - Université Nancy II, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne); Constantine Yannelis (Stanford University - Department of Economics - Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Numerous field experiments have demonstrated the existence of discrimination in labor markets against specific minority groups. This paper uses a correspondence test to determine whether this discrimination is due to prejudice against specific groups, or a general preference for the majority group. Three groups of identical fabricated resumes are sent to help-wanted advertisements in Chicago newspapers: one with Anglo-Saxon names, one with African-American names, and one with fictitious foreign names whose ethnic origin is unidentifiable to most Americans. Resumes with Anglo-Saxon names generate nearly one third more call-backs than identical resumes with non Anglo-Saxon ones, either African-American or Foreign. We take this as evidence that discriminatory behavior is part of a larger pattern of unequal treatment of any member of non-majority groups, ethnic homophily.
    Keywords: Correspondence testing; Discrimination; Ethnic homophily
    Date: 2012–12
  15. By: Hoppe, Robert
    Abstract: Over the past three decades, the number of women-operated farms increased substantially. In 2007, women operated 14 percent of all U.S. farms, up from 5 percent in 1978. Women-operated farms increased in all sales classes, including farms with annual sales of $1 million or more. Most women farmers operated very small farms in 2007; about three-fourths of their farms had sales of less than $10,000. A small share of their farms (5 percent), however, sold $100,000 or more in farm products. About half of women-operated farms specialized in grazing livestock—beef cattle, horses, and sheep or goats. In addition to a principal operator, some farms have secondary operators. If both principal and secondary operators are counted, the number of women operators in 2007 expands from 306,200 to nearly 1 million.
    Keywords: farm operators, farm structure, farm women, female farm operators, female-operated farms, small farms, women farm operators, women-operated farms, women in agriculture, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2013–04
  16. By: Dhanmanjiri Sathe (University of Pune); Stephan Klasen (Georg-August-University Göttingen); Jan Priebe; Mithila Biniwale
    Abstract: In this paper we examine the impact of mandated reservations for female sarpanchs in the gram panchayats on perceptions of service delivery and women’s democratic participation. Using survey data from the Sangli district, Maharashtra, we find that the availability of basic, public services is significantly higher in female sarpanch villages as compared to the male sarpanch villages, when the elections have been held three to 3 1/2 years before the survey; while service delivery in villages with more recently elected female sarpanchs is worse. Further, the reservations have a significant, positive impact on the democratic participation of the women in the female sarpanch villages, again driven by the impact of female sarpanchs elected 3 ½ years before the survey. The democratic participation of women, in turn, affects the availability of services very robustly. The findings suggest that the positive effects in terms of service delivery and democratic participation will take some time to materialize.
    Keywords: Mandated reservations; Service delivery; political participation
    Date: 2013–04–11
  17. By: Frauke H. Peter
    Abstract: Negative effects of job loss on adults such as considerable fall in income have long been examined. If job loss has negative consequences for adults, it may spread to their children. But potential effects on children's non-cognitive skills and the related mechanisms have been less examined. This paper uses propensity score matching to analyze maternal involuntary job loss and its potential causal effect on children's non-cognitive skills. Job loss is defined as end of employment either due to plant closure or due to dismissals by employer. Using a rich and representative data set, the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), I estimate associations of maternal job loss on child outcomes for preschool children aged five/six and for adolescents aged seventeen. The paper analyses influences on children's socio-emotional behavior and on adolescents' locus of control. The obtained results show that children whose mothers experience an involuntary job loss are more likely to have behavioral problems and are less likely to believe in self-determination.
    Keywords: Child development, maternal job loss, non-cognitive skills, propensity score matching
    JEL: J13 J63 J65
    Date: 2013
  18. By: Claire Loupias (EPEE - Centre d'Etudes des Politiques Economiques - Université d'Evry-Val d'Essonne); Bertrand Wigniolle (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris)
    Abstract: This paper suggests a new explanation for changes in economic and population growth with a long run perspective, emphasizing the role of land in the development process. Starting from a pre-industrialization state called the "Malthusian regime", land and labor are the main production factors. The size of population is limited by the quantity of land available for households and by incomes. Technical progress driven by a "Boserupian effect" may push the economy towards a take-off regime. In this regime, capital accumulation begins and a "learning-by-doing" effect in production takes over from the "Boserupian effect". If this effect is strong enough, the economy can reach an "ultimate growth regime". In the different phases, land plays a crucial role.
    Keywords: Endogenous fertility; Land; Endogenous growth;
    Date: 2013
  19. By: Effrosyni Adamopoulou; Ezgi Kaya
    Abstract: This paper focuses on young adults living with their parents in the U.S. and studies the role of peers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)we analize the influence of high school friends on the coresidence of young adults with their parents. We address the challenges in the identification of peer effects in a static framework and employ an instrumental variable technique and control for state fixed effects in order to mitigate them. We then move to a dynamic framework and exploit differences in the timing of leaving the parental home among peers. Our results indicate that there are statistically significant peer effects on the nest-leaving behavior of young adults.
    Keywords: Peer effects, Friends, Living arrangements, Leaving parental home
    JEL: D1 J1 J6 Z13
    Date: 2013–05
  20. By: Sugata Ghosh; Andros Gregoriou; Anirban Mitra
    Abstract: We study the relationship between ethnic diversity and economic performance and, in particular, focus on economic growth under democracy and dictatorship. We build a theory which emphasizes the public spending channel, and show that the relationship between public spending and ethnic diversity is qualitatively different under the two regimes. Our model also delivers that if the dictator is sufficiently corrupt, then growth is bound to be higher under a democracy irrespective of the degree of ethnicity. We then consider a panel of the most and least ethnically diverse nations and address potential endogeneity problems. Our empirical results robustly show that democracy has a significantly positive effect on growth, irrespective of the degree of ethnicity. We also show that the marginal effect of ethnicity on growth in the presence of democracy is always positive, irrespective of the type of estimator used. Finally, we establish that the negative marginal impact of increases in ethnicity can always be overcome by democracy.
    Date: 2013–03
  21. By: Leguizamon, Sebastian; Leguizamon, Susane; Christafore, David
    Abstract: We examine the varying influence of the presence of homosexual couples on average home prices with different compositions of educational attainment and race. We find that a higher number of homosexuals in relatively higher educated areas is associated with higher average prices and lower average prices in areas with less educated residents. The magnitude of positive influence and negative influence is lower when the number of black residents increases. This suggests that education is associated with a greater revealed tolerance for homosexuals, but the influence of education is less for areas with a higher percent black, perhaps due to homophily.
    Keywords: Sexual Orientation; Homophily; Race; Education; Prejudice
    JEL: J15 R21
    Date: 2013–05–17

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