nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2013‒05‒11
twenty-six papers chosen by
Clarence Nkengne Tsimpo
University of Montreal and World Bank Group

  1. Do immigrants follow their home country's fertility norms? By Cygan-Rehm, Kamila
  2. Does Cultural Heritage affect Employment decisions – Empirical Evidence for Second Generation Immigrants in Germany By Anja Koebrich Leon
  3. Pure Ethnic Gaps in Educational Attainment and School to Work Transitions. When Do They Arise? By S. BAERT; B. COCKX
  4. Heterogeneous Effects of Preschool on Child Health Outcomes: Evidence from India By Dipanwita Sarkar; Jayanta sarkar
  5. Global employment trends for women 2012. By International Labour Office
  6. Difference in salary among science Doctorate By Ceesay, Ebrima K
  7. Ora et non Labora? A Test of the Impact of Religion on Female Labor Supply By Pastore, Francesco; Tenaglia, Simona
  8. Risk sharing and internal migration By De Weerdt, Joachim; Hirvonen, Kalle
  9. Declining bargaining power of workers and the rise of early retirement in Europe By Batyra, Anna; de la Croix, David; Pierrard, Olivier; Sneessens, Henri R.
  10. Gender Differences in Life Satisfaction and Social Participation By Humpert, Stephan
  11. Gender and other determinants of trust and reciprocity in an experimental labour market amongst Chinese students By Uwe Dulleck; Jonas Fooken; Yumei He
  12. Female Labour Supply, Human Capital and Welfare Reform By Richard Blundell; Monica Costa Dias; Costas Meghir; Jonathan M. Shaw
  13. Ties that bind: The kin system as a mechanism of income-hiding between spouses in rural Ghana By Castilla, Carolina
  14. Aid and poverty: Why does aid not address poverty (much)? By Shepherd, Andrew; Bishop, Sylvia
  15. Assessing the effectiveness of World Bank investments: The gender dimension By Lauterbach, Claire; Zuckerman, Elaine
  16. Informing the Performance-Based Contract Between First 5 LA and LAUP: Child Progress in the 2011-2012 Program Year. By Yange Xue; Sally Atkins-Burnett; Emily Moiduddin
  17. Fiscal Space and Public Spending on Children in Burkina Faso By John Cockburn; Hélène Maisonnave; Véronique Robichaud; Luca Tiberti
  18. Child Labour and Height in the early Spanish industrialization By José M. Martínez-Carrión; Javier Puche-Gil; José Cañabate-Cabezuelos
  19. Une analyse des déterminants socio-économiques de la fragilité des personnes âgées à partir des données de panel et rétrospectives de SHARE By Nicolas Sirven
  20. Spatial Segregation and Urban Structure By Pierre M. Picard; Pascal Mossay
  21. Global employment trends for youth : 2012. By International Labour Office
  22. How does subjective well-being evolve with age? A literature review By López Ulloa, Beatriz Fabiola; Møller, Valerie; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso
  23. Eliciting illegal migration rates through list randomization By McKenzie, David; Siegel, Melissa
  24. New figures on unfunded public pension entitlements across Europe: Concept, results and applications By Kaier, Klaus; Müller, Christoph
  25. Población rural y urbana a nivel municipal By Francisco José Goerlich Gisbert; Isidro Cantarino Martí
  26. The Vulnerability of Minority Homeowners in the Housing Boom and Bust By Patrick Bayer; Fernando Ferreira; Stephen L. Ross

  1. By: Cygan-Rehm, Kamila
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the role of home country's birth rates in shaping immigrants' fertility. We use the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) to study completed fertility of first generation immigrants who arrived from different countries and at different times. We find that women from countries where the aggregate birth rate is high tend to have significantly more children than women from countries with low birth rates. This relationship is attenuated by selection operating towards destination country. In addition, the fertility rates of source countries explain a large proportion of fertility differentials between immigrants and German natives. The results suggest that home country's culture affects immigrants' long-run outcomes and therefore favor the socialization hypothesis. --
    Keywords: migration,fertility,socialization,culture,Germany
    JEL: J13 J15 Z10 Z13
    Date: 2013
  2. By: Anja Koebrich Leon (Institute of Economics, Leuphana University Lueneburg, Germany)
    Abstract: The participation rate of women in the labor market shows a sizeable variation across countries and across time. Following studies conducted for North America, this section tests the hypothesis whether, next to structural conditions, cultural norms with regard to existing role models within society about working women influence a woman’s participation decision. While using the epidemiological approach to economics, which aims to compare economic outcomes between immigrant groups to assess the role cultural factors may play, the persistence of heterogeneity in labor market outcomes across immigrant groups is used to assess the role cultural norms regarding working women may play in explaining differences in labor market outcomes between immigrant groups for first and second generation women in Germany. To overcome the problems associated with a qualitative proxy of culture, such as religiosity or ethnicity, the impact of culture on women working behavior is proxied by past female labor force participation (LFP) rates from the woman’s country of origin or their parents, respectively. Using data from the GSOEP for the years 2001 to 2011, compared to findings from Fernández and Fogli (2009) and Gevrek et al 2011, which use large census data sets, I find statistically significant results for the association between cultural norms towards labor market behavior of women, as measured either by past female LFP in country of origin, country of origin indicator variables or attitudes towards working women prevalent in their home country, merely for first generation immigrants in Germany. However, while cultural heritage was found to play an inferior role for second generation immigrant women, religious identity, as a specific cultural trait, exhibits a strong negative relation with Muslim labor market behavior for both generations.
    Keywords: female labor force participation; cultural norms; ethnicity; ethnic identity; religious identity
    JEL: J15 J21 Z10
    Date: 2013–04
  3. By: S. BAERT; B. COCKX
    Abstract: This article decomposes the observed gaps in educational attainment and school-to-work transitions between grandchildren of natives and immigrants in Belgium into (i) differences in observed family endowments and (ii) a residual “pure ethnic gap”. It innovates by explicitly taking delays in educational attainment into account, by identifying the moments at which the pure ethnic gaps arise, by disentangling the decision to continue schooling at the end of a school year from the achievement within a particular grade, and by integrating the language spoken at home among observed family endowments. The pure ethnic gap in educational attainment is found to be small if delays are neglected, but substantial if not and for school-to-work transitions. It is shown that morethan 20% of the pure ethnic gap in graduating from secondary school without delay originates in tenth grade. Language usage explains only part of the gap in school-to-work transitions for low educated.
    Keywords: dynamic discrete choice, dynamic selection bias, educational attainment, school-to-work transitions, ethnic minorities, discrimination.
    JEL: C35 J15 J70
    Date: 2013–02
  4. By: Dipanwita Sarkar; Jayanta sarkar
    Abstract: The positive impact of early childhood intervention on child’s cognitive, behavioural and schooling outcomes is now well-recognized in the developed countries. However, little is known whether preschools in the developing countries confer similar dividends. This paper focuses on the effect of preschool attendance on childhood health outcomes in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. We employ difference-in-difference method to control for selection on unobservables. Furthermore, allowing for possible heterogeneity in health outcomes across the distribution of health outcomes using quantile treatment effects, we find a significant negative causal effect of preschool attendance that varies across the distribution of a variety of child health outcomes. The result seems to be more pronounced among the male children.
    Date: 2013–05–01
  5. By: International Labour Office
    Keywords: women workers, employment, sex discrimination, labour force participation, developed countries, developing countries, travailleuses, emploi, discrimination fondée sur le sexe, taux d'activité, pays développés, pays en développement, trabajadoras, empleo, discriminación por razones de sexo, tasa de actividad de mano de obra, países desarrollados, países en desarrollo
    Date: 2012
  6. By: Ceesay, Ebrima K
    Abstract: Abstract The paper examined the salary difference among science Doctorates for 2004 and 2006.The variation of certain factors such as experience, gender, marital status, Publication, Presentation, hiring and difference in sciences faculties (like natural sciences, social sciences etc.) leads to differences in salary at the end of the doctorate program. The model found out that male and female have different salary due factors such as early marriage, child bearing and household responsibility reduced female salary than its male counterpart even though they all have the same Doctorates. By using factors influences the salary difference, we see despite the entire above determinant, geographic region also play roles for salary difference among sciences doctorate. For example, African pays more economics student than Medical student, but we can see American pays more on Medical students than Economics student. Overall, the result found out that doctorate candidates completed in 2004 there is statistically evidence that there will be salary differences than candidates graduated in 2006.
    Keywords: Doctorate programs, salary, gender differences, locations, competency.
    JEL: J71
    Date: 2012–06–15
  7. By: Pastore, Francesco (University of Naples II); Tenaglia, Simona (ISFOL)
    Abstract: This paper examines the influence of religion on female participation to the labor market using data relative to women aged between 18 and 60 years in 47 European countries drawn from the European Values Study (EVS). We investigate the determinants of the probability of being employed rather than jobless in a LOGIT framework. The results show that women belonging to the Orthodox and, even more, Muslim denominations present a higher risk of non-employment than the agnostics, while being a Protestant increases the probability for a woman to be employed. Although its intensity is slightly weakening, the association between religious affiliation and female labor supply is robust to different sets of controls for individual and household heterogeneity as well as for welfare regimes and country specificities. Once disentangling religiously active and non-active women, we find that there are small differences between them in the case of the Orthodox and Muslim women, while active Catholic women tend to work less and non-active Protestant women tend to work more than average.
    Keywords: female labor supply, religion, welfare state regimes, child care
    JEL: D1 H75 J13 J16 J22 N30 Z12
    Date: 2013–04
  8. By: De Weerdt, Joachim; Hirvonen, Kalle
    Abstract: Over the past two decades, more than half the population in rural Tanzania migrated within the country, profoundly changing the nature of traditional institutions such as informal risk sharing. Mass internal migration has created geographically disperse networks, on which the authors collected detailed panel data. By quantifying how shocks and consumption co-vary across linked households, they show how migrants unilaterally insure their extended family members at home. This finding contradicts risk-sharing models based on reciprocity, but is consistent with assistance driven by social norms. Migrants sacrifice 3 to 7 percent of their very substantial consumption growth to provide this insurance, which seems too trivial to have any stifling effect on their growth through migration.
    Keywords: Population Policies,Consumption,Anthropology,Inequality,Labor Policies
    Date: 2013–04–01
  9. By: Batyra, Anna (Galatasaray University Economic Research Center); de la Croix, David; Pierrard, Olivier; Sneessens, Henri R.
    Abstract: We offer an alternative explanation for the decline in labor force participation of senior workers. Typically, tax and transfer explanations have been proposed. On the contrary, a model with imperfectly competitive labor market allows to consider as well the effects of a drop in bargaining power, which would not be possible in a purely neoclassical framework. We find that a decline in the bargaining power of workers, which has taken place in the last four decades, has largely contributed to the rise in inactivity in Europe. However, we need a combination of these two explanations, along with population aging and a fall in the matching efficiency, in order to correctly reproduce the joint evolutions of other labor market variables such as the employment and unemployment rates.
    Keywords: Overlapping Generations; Search Unemployment; Labor Force Participation; Ageing; Labor Market Policy and Institutions
    JEL: E24 H55 J26 J64
    Date: 2013–05–03
  10. By: Humpert, Stephan
    Abstract: This paper deals with the effects of social participation activities on life satisfaction. Using the German General Social Survey (ALLBUS) for 2010, I present gender specific differences for several social activities, such as club memberships of political, welfare, health or more leisure time orientated groups. These activities have different impacts on male or female satisfaction. While sports and civic engagements improve only female life satisfaction, men are more affected by charity organizations or leisure time activities, such as hobbies. It is an interesting result that political activities and trade unions have no, or even negative effects on life satisfaction.
    Keywords: Subjective Well-Being; Social Participation; German General Social Survey (ALLBUS);
    JEL: D60 I31 O52 Z13
    Date: 2013–05–06
  11. By: Uwe Dulleck; Jonas Fooken; Yumei He
    Abstract: Due to economic and demographic changes highly educated women play an important role on the Chinese labour market. Gender has been shown to be an important characteristic that influences behaviour in economic experiments, as have, to a lesser degree, academic major, age and income. We provide a study looking at trust and reciprocity and their determinants in a labour market laboratory experiment. Our experimental data is based on two games, the Gift Exchange Game (GEG) and a variant of this game (the Wage Promising Game, WPG) where the employer's wage offer is non-binding and the employer can choose the wage freely after observing the workers effort. We find that women are less trusting and reciprocal than men in the GEG while this cannot be found in the WPG. Letting participants play the GEG and the WPG, allows us to disentangle reciprocal and risk attitudes. While in the employer role, it seems to be that risk attitude is the main factor, this is not confirmed analysing decisions in the worker role.
    Date: 2013–05–01
  12. By: Richard Blundell; Monica Costa Dias; Costas Meghir; Jonathan M. Shaw
    Abstract: We consider the impact of Tax credits and income support programs on female education choice, employment, hours and human capital accumulation over the life-cycle. We thus analyze both the short run incentive effects and the longer run implications of such programs. By allowing for risk aversion and savings we are also able to quantify the insurance value of alternative programs. We find important incentive effects on education choice, and labor supply, with single mothers having the most elastic labor supply. Returns to labour market experience are found to be substantial but only for full-time employment, and especially for women with more than basic formal education. For those with lower education the welfare programs are shown to have substantial insurance value. Based on the model marginal increases to tax credits are preferred to equally costly increases in income support and to tax cuts, except by those in the highest education group.
    JEL: H2 H3 I21 J22 J24 J31
    Date: 2013–05
  13. By: Castilla, Carolina
    Abstract: I present a model of intra-household allocation to show that when income is not perfectly observed by both spouses, hiding of income can occur even when revelation increases bargaining power. I draw data from Ghana and exploit the variation in the degree
    Keywords: incomplete information, income-hiding, non-cooperative family bargaining
    Date: 2013
  14. By: Shepherd, Andrew; Bishop, Sylvia
    Abstract: Aid is not generally aimed at the poorest people, though most multilateral or bilateral agencies would like to think they get included. However, donors. strategies are generally blind to differentiation among the poor, and have not improved in this respec
    Keywords: aid, poverty, conflict, least developed countries, post-2015
    Date: 2013
  15. By: Lauterbach, Claire; Zuckerman, Elaine
    Abstract: Today it is widely acknowledged that increasing the gender sensitivity of development aid increases its effectiveness. This report evaluates the extent to which the World Bank integrates gender concerns into its policies and investments, pointing out stru
    Keywords: World Bank, development aid, gender, effectiveness
    Date: 2013
  16. By: Yange Xue; Sally Atkins-Burnett; Emily Moiduddin
    Keywords: First 5 LA, LAUP, Child Progress, Early Childhood
    JEL: I
    Date: 2012–09–25
  17. By: John Cockburn; Hélène Maisonnave; Véronique Robichaud; Luca Tiberti
    Abstract: Despite high growth rates in recent decades, Burkina Faso is still a poor country. The government acknowledges the need for a stronger commitment to reach the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), particularly regarding the reduction of poverty. At the same time, the Burkinabe budget deficit has grown in recent years in response to various crises which have hit the country. There are strong pressures to rapidly reduce this budget deficit, but there are active concerns about how this will be achieved. The country thus faces difficult choices: how to ensure better living conditions for children, attain the millennium goals and ensure they have a better future in the present budgetary context? To answer this question, three policy interventions were identified: (i) an increase in education spending, (ii) a school fees subsidy and (iii) a cash transfer to households with children under the age of five. The same total amount is injected into the economy in each of the three cases, facilitating comparison between the three scenarios. The discussions also made it possible to identify the three financing mechanisms that appear most realistic: (i) a reduction in subsidies, (ii) an increase in the indirect tax collection rate and (iii) an extension of the timeframe to reduce the public deficit to ten years rather than five. The results indicate that increased public education spending helps raise school participation and pass rates, thus increasing the supply and education level of skilled workers, leading to a reduced incidence and depth of both monetary and caloric poverty. School fees subsidies have more differentiated effects on education: they promote children’s entry into school to a greater degree, but are less effective at inducing them to pursue their studies. Finally, the supply of skilled workers increases slightly, but their average level of education is lower than in the reference scenario. This type of intervention has a beneficial impact on poverty, greater than under increased public education spending. Cash transfers have a limited impact on educational behaviour, and thus on the supply of skilled workers, but substantially reduce the incidence and depth of poverty. The results are qualitatively similar under each financing approach. In sum, if the objective is to achieve improved education and economic performance, the best intervention appears to be to focus on increased public education spending. However, if reducing child poverty is prioritized, it is cash transfers to families that appear more suitable. Regardless of the intervention considered, the most suitable financing mechanism appears to be a temporary increase in the public deficit, because it is accompanied by a smaller negative effect on the quality of life of the most destitute.
    Keywords: Child Poverty, Dynamic General Equilibrium, Micro-Simulation, Burkina Faso
    JEL: I32 D58 C50 O55
    Date: 2013
  18. By: José M. Martínez-Carrión (Universidad de Murcia, Madrid, Spain); Javier Puche-Gil (Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain); José Cañabate-Cabezuelos (Universidad de Murcia, Madrid, Spain)
    Abstract: Child labour has been considered a health risk affecting physical growth. Together with income, diets, diseases and environmental hygiene, child labour is one of the determinants of height. This paper examines whether child labour affected the stature of young workers during the spread of industrialization. With military recruitment heights it is analyzed the impact that child labour might have on physical health and nutritional status. After reporting on what happened during the Industrial Revolution in Britain, France and other industrialized countries, it is highlighted the contribution made by Spanish hygienists, whose importance has increased since the 1880´s. The following sections provide results of height evolution at the beginning of Spanish industrialization in major industrial and mining districts. Our findings emphasize the stature deterioration resulting from child labour, and the remarkable role that anthropometric history plays within economic and social history, and labour history too.
    Keywords: Child labour, height, health, nutrition, labour productivity
    JEL: I18 J28 J81 N33
    Date: 2013–05
  19. By: Nicolas Sirven (IRDES Institut de recherche et documentation en économie de la santé)
    Abstract: Les études récentes sur la demande de soins de long terme ont mis en évidence le rôle de la fragilité en tant que précurseur de la perte d’autonomie, indépendamment des maladies chroniques. La fragilité est définie comme un état de santé vulnérable résultant de la diminution de la réserve physiologique de la personne âgée. Ce concept médical est introduit ici dans un cadre d’analyse économique afin d’étudier le rôle des politiques sociales dans la prévention de la perte d’autonomie et le maintien de la qualité de vie des personnes en perte d’autonomie. En utilisant quatre vagues de données de panel de l’enquête SHARE (Survey on Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe), un indice de fragilité est créé comme métrique de cinq critères physiologiques (modèle de Fried) pour des répondants âgés de 50 ans et plus dans dix pays européens, entre 2004 et 2011. La dimension longitudinale est explorée de deux manières. Premièrement, les différences dans l’évolution de la fragilité sur une période de sept ans sont analysées à partir de variables pertinentes pour la politique sociale (soutien au revenu, aménagement du logement et prévention de l’isolement social) dans un modèle de panel à effets fixes. Deuxièmement, les effets fixes individuels sont décomposés grâce à un modèle à effets aléatoires avec une spécification à la Mundlak. Les données rétrospectives supplémentaires de SHARE sur l’histoire de vie (SHARELIFE) sont ensuite utilisées pour examiner les différences entre les niveaux de fragilité. Les résultats révèlent la présence de plusieurs sources d’inégalités sociales au cours de la vie. Il s’avère donc que les systèmes de protection sociale jouent un rôle majeur dans l’accompagnement, la prévention ou la réduction du processus de perte d’autonomie. Plusieurs implications pour les politiques publiques sont suggérées.
    Keywords: Demande en santé, Soins de long-terme, Soutien au revenu, Prévention, Econométrie de panel, Spécification à la Mundlak.
    JEL: I12 J14 C23
    Date: 2013–04
  20. By: Pierre M. Picard (CREA, University of Luxembourg and CORE, Université Catholique de Louvain); Pascal Mossay (Department of Economics, University of Reading and CORE)
    Abstract: In this paper, we study social interactions between two populations of individuals living in a city. Agents consume land and benefit from intra- and inter-group social interactions. We show that in equilibrium segregation arises: populations get separated in distinct spatial neighborhoods. Two- and three-district urban structures are characterized. For high population ratios or strong inter-group interactions, only a three-district city exists. In other cases, multiplicity of equilibria arises. Moreover, for sufficiently low population ratios or very weak inter-group interactions, all individuals agree on which spatial equilibrium is best.
    Keywords: social interaction, segregation, multiple centers, urban districts
    JEL: R12 R14 R31
    Date: 2013
  21. By: International Labour Office
    Keywords: youth employment, youth unemployment, labour force participation, youth, economic recession, developed countries, developing countries, emploi des jeunes, chômage des jeunes, taux d'activité, jeunesse, récession économique, pays développés, pays en développement, empleo de jóvenes, desempleo de jóvenes, tasa de actividad de mano de obra, juventud, recesión económica, países desarrollados, países en desarrollo
    Date: 2012
  22. By: López Ulloa, Beatriz Fabiola; Møller, Valerie; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso
    Abstract: This literature review provides an overview of the theoretical and empirical research in several disciplines on the relation between ageing and subjective well-being, i.e., how subjective well-being evolves across the lifespan. Because of the different methodologies, data sets and samples used, comparison among disciplines and studies is difficult. However, extant studies do show either a U-shaped, inverted U-shaped or linear relation between ageing and subjective well-being. --
    Keywords: Life satisfaction,Ageing,U-shape
    Date: 2013
  23. By: McKenzie, David; Siegel, Melissa
    Abstract: Most migration surveys do not ask about the legal status of migrants due to concerns about the sensitivity of this question. List randomization is a technique that has been used in a number of other social science applications to elicit sensitive information. This paper trials this technique by adding it to surveys conducted in Ethiopia, Mexico, Morocco, and the Philippines. It shows how, in principal, this can be used both to give an estimate of the overall rate of illegal migration in the population being surveyed, as well as to determine illegal migration rates for subgroups such as more or less educated households. The results suggest that there is some useful information in this method: higher rates of illegal migration in countries where illegal migration is thought to be more prevalent and households who say they have a migrant are more likely to report having an illegal migrant. Nevertheless, some of the other findings also suggest some possible inconsistencies or noise in the conclusions obtained using this method. The authors suggest directions for future attempts to implement this approach in migration surveys.
    Keywords: Population Policies,Anthropology,Banks&Banking Reform,International Migration,Human Migrations&Resettlements
    Date: 2013–04–01
  24. By: Kaier, Klaus; Müller, Christoph
    Abstract: A major aim of the recent updates of National Accounting standards (SNA2008 and ESA2010) is to provide a more complete picture of households' wealth. In this course it will become mandatory for European countries to publish annual estimates of unfunded public pension entitlements (UPPE) from 2017 onwards. This study describes the methodological concepts behind this new figure of national accounts. After a review of past studies on the subject of UPPE we provide a large cross-country comparison for 18 EU countries of this new pension wealth figures and discuss a number of possible applications for policy makers and researchers. This includes the use to estimate the offset between UPPE and savings (Feldstein 1974). Finally, we show the distribution of households' wealth across Europe including financial wealth, dwellings and UPPE. Many prosperity differences between countries with Beveridgean and Bismarkian pension systems as well as between western and central eastern European countries are eliminated when considering these three wealth categories. In addition, a direct comparison of UPPE with replacement rates shows that these two proxies for the generosity of pension systems are completely uncorrelated at the cross-country level. --
    Keywords: households' wealth,pension liabilities,pension entitlements,household saving
    JEL: E21 H55 H63
    Date: 2013
  25. By: Francisco José Goerlich Gisbert (Universitat de València); Isidro Cantarino Martí (Dpto. Ingeniería del Terreno)
    Abstract: This paper presents an exercise in the estimation of rural and urban population at municipal level. Our starting point is a population density grid at 1 km2 resolution and national coverage, which has been elaborated previously by the authors. Applying standard criteria in European official statistics (Eurostat) we determine the population that lives in urban clusters (contiguous grid cells with a minimum population density of 300 inhabitants per km2 and a minimum population of 5,000 inhabitants) and outside these clusters, which are called rural areas. Using similar criteria (contiguous grid cells with a minimum population density of 1,500 inhabitants per km2 and a minimum population of 50,000 inhabitants) we determine the population living in urban centers or high density clusters. Transforming this rural/urban grid in rural and urban municipal population is accomplished by means of simple Geographical Information System operations (GIS). In this way, we determine, for each commune, the population that lives in rural areas, in urban clusters and in urban centers, if any of these is present in the commune. Eventually, and also by means of Eurostat criteria, we offer a rural/intermediate/urban typology at municipal and regional level, which we compare with the standard OECD’s typology. Este trabajo presenta un ejercicio de estimación de la población rural y urbana a nivel de municipio. Partimos para ello de una grid de densidad poblacional con resolución 1 km2 y ámbito nacional, elaborada previamente por los autores. La aplicación de criterios estándar en la estadística oficial europea (Eurostat) nos permite determinar la población que vive en aglomeraciones urbanas (celdas contiguas con una densidad mínima de 300 habitantes por km2 y un mínimo de población de 5.000 habitantes) y fuera de ellas, es decir en áreas rurales. Mediante criterios similares (contigüidad, densidad mínima de 1.500 habitantes por km2 y un mínimo de población de 50.000 habitantes) determinamos la población que vive en centros urbanos. La trasformación de esta grid rural/urbana en poblaciones rurales y urbanas a nivel de municipio se realiza mediante simples operaciones en el contexto de los Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG), de esta forma para cada municipio somos capaces de determinar la población que vive en áreas rurales, en aglomeraciones urbanas y en centros urbanos, si es que estos últimos están presentes en un municipio concreto. Finalmente, y también mediante la aplicación de criterios Eurostat, ofrecemos una tipología rural/intermedio/urbano tanto a nivel municipal como a nivel regional, y se compara la clasificación estándar de la OECD.
    Keywords: Rejillas de población, núcleos urbanos, población rural, demografía. Population grids, urban areas, rural population, demography.
    Date: 2013–04
  26. By: Patrick Bayer; Fernando Ferreira; Stephen L. Ross
    Abstract: This paper examines mortgage outcomes for a large, representative sample of individual home purchases and refinances linked to credit scores in seven major US markets in the recent housing boom and bust. Among those with similar credit scores, black and Hispanic homeowners had much higher rates of delinquency and default in the downturn. These differences are not readily explained by the likelihood of receiving a subprime loan or by differential exposure to local shocks in the housing and labor market and are especially pronounced for loans originated near the peak of the boom. Our findings suggest that those black and Hispanic homeowners drawn into the market near the peak were especially vulnerable to adverse economic shocks and raise serious concerns about homeownership as a mechanism for reducing racial disparities in wealth.
    JEL: J15 R2
    Date: 2013–05

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