nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2012‒12‒10
seventeen papers chosen by
Clarence Nkengne Tsimpo
University of Montreal and World Bank Group

  1. The Economics of Grief By van den Berg, Gerard J.; Lundborg, Petter; Vikström, Johan
  2. The impact of family policy packages on fertility trends in developed countries By Angela Luci; Olivier Thévenon
  3. One Man's Blessing, Another Woman's Curse? Family Factors and the Gender-Earnings Gap of Doctors By Schurer, Stefanie; Kuehnle, Daniel; Scott, Anthony; Cheng, Terence Chai
  4. The Homeownership Rate among the Elderly and the Life Cycle Hypothesis:European Evidence Using Individual and Household Data By Joaquín Alegre Martín; Llorenç Pou Garcias
  5. Kick It Like Özil? - Decomposing the Native-Migrant Education Gap By Annabelle Krause; Ulf Rinne; Simone Schüller
  6. English Deficiency and the Native-Immigrant Wage Gap By Miranda, Alfonso; Zhu, Yu
  7. Internal Migration and Life Satisfaction: Well-Being Effects of Moving as a Young Adult By Switek, Malgorzata
  8. Terms of Endearment: An Equilibrium Model of Sex and Matching By Peter Arcidiacono; Andrew Beauchamp; Marjorie B. McElroy
  9. The Effect of Additional Police Force on Crime Rate:Evidence from Women's Japan Basketball League By Hiroya Kawashima
  10. GINI Intermediate Report WP 4: Social Impacts of Inequalities By Abigail Mcknight; Brian Nolan
  11. GINI DP 64: Cross-Temporal and Cross-National Poverty and Mortality Rates among Developed Countries By Johan Fritzell; Olli Kangas; Jennie Bacchus-hertzman; Blomgren, J. (Jenni); Heikki Hiilamo
  12. Migrants` Acquisition of Cultural Skills and Selective Immigration Policies By Moritz Bonn
  13. Semiparametric Decomposition of the Gender Achievement Gap: An Application for Turkey By Z. Eylem Gevrek; Ruben R. Seiberlich
  14. The Employment Status of the Elderly in Sri Lanka: Patterns and Determinants By Senanayaka, Tharaka Sameera; Kumara, Ajantha Sisira
  15. Emplois, salaires et mobilité intergénérationnelle By Dominique Meurs; Bertrand Lhommeau; Mahrez Okba
  16. Fécondité et politique de limitation des naissances en Algérie : une histoire paradoxale By Zahia Ouadah-Bedidi; Jacques Vallin
  17. Fécondité et nuptialité différentielles en Algérie : l'apport du recensement de 1998 By Zahia Ouadah-Bedidi

  1. By: van den Berg, Gerard J. (University of Mannheim); Lundborg, Petter (Lund University); Vikström, Johan (IFAU)
    Abstract: We study the short-run and long-run economic impact of one of the largest losses that an individual can face; the death of a child. We utilize unique merged registers on the entire Swedish population, combining information on the date and cause of death with parents' labor market outcomes, health outcomes, marital status, and subsequent fertility. We exploit the longitudinal dimension of the data and deal with a range of selection issues. We distinguish between effects on labor and various non-labor income components and we consider patterns over time. We find that labor market effects are persistent.
    Keywords: sickness absenteeism, depression, child mortality, labor supply, bereavement, employment, marriage, death, divorce, mental health, fertility
    JEL: I12 I11 J14 J12 C41
    Date: 2012–11
  2. By: Angela Luci (Institut national d'études démographiques); Olivier Thévenon (Institut national d'études démographiques)
    Date: 2012
  3. By: Schurer, Stefanie (Victoria University of Wellington); Kuehnle, Daniel (University of Erlangen-Nuremberg); Scott, Anthony (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research); Cheng, Terence Chai (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research)
    Abstract: Using data from a new longitudinal survey of doctors from Australia, the authors test whether observed large gender-pay gaps among general practitioners (GPs) are the result of women's larger willingness to interrupt their careers. On average, female GPs earn A$83,000 or 54% less than male GPs. The difference between men and women with children is A$105,000, and A$45,000 for men and women without children. Of this gap, 66-75% is explained by differences in observable characteristics such as hours worked. The family gap emerges also within the sexes. Female GPs with children experience an earnings penalty of A$15,000-A$25,000 in comparison to women without children; almost 100% of this difference is due to observable characteristics such as hours worked and career interruptions. Male GPs with children experience a family premium of A$35,000 in comparison to men without children, indicating the presence of a breadwinner effect that exacerbates the gender-earnings gap.
    Keywords: gender-earnings gap, family-earnings gap, labour force attachment, decomposition methods, family physicians, MABEL
    JEL: J24
    Date: 2012–11
  4. By: Joaquín Alegre Martín (Universitat de les Illes Balears); Llorenç Pou Garcias (Universitat de les Illes Balears)
    Abstract: One of the central predictions of the Life Cycle Hypothesis is that individuals run down their wealth during retirement. Although housing wealth is the largest component of total household wealth in most countries, empirical evidence supporting the decumulation hypothesis is mixed. In this paper we examine the housing tenure decision by the aged with microdata at both a household and individual level. The results, based on data from the European Community Household Panel for thirteen European countries, show that for nearly all countries (except for Germany and Denmark), the homeownership rate among the elderly does not decline with age, rejecting the Life Cycle Hypothesis. The results are robust to the (household or individual) level at which the data is analysed. The estimates also show a significant cohort effect for most European countries, so that the later the year of birth, the higher the homeownership rate.
    Keywords: homeownership rate, the elderly, age-cohort effects, Life Cycle Hypothesis.
    JEL: D12 D91 R21
    Date: 2012
  5. By: Annabelle Krause; Ulf Rinne; Simone Schüller
    Abstract: We investigate second generation migrants and native children at several stages in the German education system to analyze the determinants of the persistent native-migrant gap. One part of the gap can be attributed to differences in socioeconomic background and another part remains unexplained. Faced with this decomposition problem, we apply linear and matching decomposition methods. Accounting for differences in socioeconomic background, we find that migrant pupils are just as likely to receive recommendations for or to enroll at any secondary school type as native children. Comparable natives, in terms of family background, thus face similar difficulties as migrant children. Our results point at more general inequalities in secondary schooling in Germany which are not migrant-specific.
    Keywords: Migration, education, human capital, Germany, tracking
    JEL: J15 J24 I21
    Date: 2012
  6. By: Miranda, Alfonso (CIDE, Mexico City); Zhu, Yu (University of Kent)
    Abstract: We focus on the effect of English deficiency on the native-immigrant wage gap for male employees in the UK using the first wave of the UK Household Longitudinal Survey. We show that the wage gap is robust to controls for age, region of residence, educational attainment and ethnicity. However, English as Additional Language (EAL) is capable of explaining virtually all the remaining wage gap between natives and immigrants. Using the interaction of language of country of birth and age-at-arrival as instrument, we find strong evidence of a causal effect of EAL on the native-immigrant wage gap.
    Keywords: English as Additional Language (EAL), native-immigrant wage gap, age-at-arrival
    JEL: J15 J61
    Date: 2012–11
  7. By: Switek, Malgorzata (University of Southern California)
    Abstract: Migration typically leads to higher income, but its association with life satisfaction remains unclear. Is migration accompanied by an increase in life satisfaction? If it is, is the increase in income responsible or are other life domains driving the satisfaction changes? These two questions are addressed using longitudinal data from a Swedish Young Adult Panel Study for 1999 and 2009. Comparing migrants to non-migrants, it is found that internal migration is accompanied by an increase in life satisfaction. This increase is observed for both, migrants who move due to work and those who move due to non-work reasons. This finding holds regardless of other life transitions that may accompany migration, such as marriage and joining the labor market. However, different factors account for the increase in life satisfaction for work and non-work migrants. For non-work migrants, it is greater housing satisfaction that leads to an improvement in life satisfaction. Moreover, no increase in income relative to non-migrants is found for this group. For work migrants, although their income increases compared with non-migrants, this increase does not seem to explain the differential improvement in life satisfaction because of a lack of improvement in their economic satisfaction (compared to non-migrants). Rather, it is the higher relative status arising from occupational advancement that seems to contribute to the higher life satisfaction for work migrants.
    Keywords: internal migration, life satisfaction, relative status, housing satisfaction
    JEL: J0 J61 O15 R23
    Date: 2012–11
  8. By: Peter Arcidiacono; Andrew Beauchamp; Marjorie B. McElroy
    Date: 2012
  9. By: Hiroya Kawashima (Ph.D. student, Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP))
    Abstract: This paper analyzes influence of an additional referee on number of fouls by using the data from Women's Japan Basketball League (WJBL) in order to examine whether number of police officers affects the crime rate. For the season of 2010-2011, the upper league of the WJBL introduced 3 referees system for the adaption of the international standard. Using this natural experiment, the Difference in Difference and the Instrumental Variable method are used to remove endogeneity. The results indicate that increased number of referees decrease number of fouls after considering both reverse causality and unobservable heterogeneity.
    Keywords: Police, Crime, Basketball
    JEL: D0 K0
    Date: 2012–11
  10. By: Abigail Mcknight (London School of Economics, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion); Brian Nolan (School of Applied Social Science, University College Dublin)
    Abstract: Rising inequalities in earnings and household incomes and an fracturing of employment into “good” versus “bad” jobs may have deep-seated social impacts, at the individual, household and societal level. These include increases in poverty and deprivation, in stress and unhappiness, in gender inequalities, in family breakdown and teenage pregnancy, in childhood disadvantage and educational failure, in health inequalities, in crime and disorder, in social immobility, and in polarisation and increasing fragmentation between communities, ethnic groups, regions and social classes. All of these feature, for example, in The Spirit Level by Wilkinson and Pickett (2009) which has been particularly influential in fuelling debate. The relevant research literature at the start of the GINI project covered a very broad field, drawing on a variety of disciplinary perspectives, as summarised at the outset in the State of the Art Review. The project has sought to build on this research, to deepen understanding of key channels of influence and the causal relationships via which such social impacts could potentially arise, and to assess empirically the extent to which they could actually be identified. Here we bring together the key findings of the research on these topics carried out under the project, drawing on the Discussion Papers (DPs) by participants and related publications. We focus in turn on the impact of increasing inequalities on: * Poverty, deprivation and social “risks”; * Gender, the family and fertility; * Health and health inequalities; * Wealth, inter-generational transmission and housing; * Social cohesion and wellbeing.
    Date: 2012–10
  11. By: Johan Fritzell (Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm University/ Karolinska Institutet); Olli Kangas (Research Department, The Social Insurance Institution (KELA)); Jennie Bacchus-hertzman (Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University); Blomgren, J. (Jenni); Heikki Hiilamo (Research Department,, The Social Insurance Institution (KELA))
    Abstract: Introduction Fighting poverty has always been at the centre of welfare state activities. There are several important reasons for such a focus but a key issue is no doubt that poverty is associated with increasing risks for ill-health and also death. That at least extreme poverty and poor health go together seems instinctively obvious and historically one finds numerous classical examples of investigators highlighting the interrelation between scarce economic resources and poor health status. Friedrich Engels’ The condition of the Working Class in England (1845) and Seebohm Rowntree’s investigation in York Poverty: A study of town life (1901) are the two classical examples. In the latter, Rowntree did not only show the high mortality risks among the poorest areas of the working class but also that York at that time had what is nowadays called a ”social gradient” (Marmot 2005). For example, the infant mortality rate in the area with “highest class labour” was close to double to that in the “servant-keeping class”. Interestingly enough, it was also then higher than currently in the nation that according to UN has the highest infant mortality in the world today, Sierra Leone (UN 2011). .....
    Date: 2012–10
  12. By: Moritz Bonn
    Abstract: Based on the requirement of OECD countries to permit substantial inflows of immigrants to compensate for the effects of the demographic change, this paper explores the incentives of heterogeneous migrants to acquire host country specific cultural skills to improve their labor market outcomes. The theoretical results predict that the migrants` ambition in achieving such skills is increased if the scope of their respective cultural group is small, social permeability of migrants in the native society is large and individual integration costs are low. Based on these results, I study whether cultural heterogeneity among the migrant population is welfare enhancing for the native population. I find that as long as migrants do not differ too much with regard to their costs of learning the native culture, cultural heterogeneity is beneficial for the host economy. The model provides an explanation for the shift in the immigration policies of the traditional host countries throughout the twentieth century as well as the current immigration policies in the EU member states.
    Keywords: Immigration, Cultural Interaction, Political Economy
    JEL: F22 J15 O31
    Date: 2012
  13. By: Z. Eylem Gevrek (Department of Economics, University of Konstanz, Germany); Ruben R. Seiberlich (Department of Economics, University of Konstanz, Germany)
    Abstract: Using the data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), this study sheds light on the gender gap in mathematics and science achievement of 15-year-olds in Turkey. We apply a semiparametric Oaxaca-Blinder (OB) decomposition to investigate the gap. This technique relaxes the parametric assumptions of the standard OB decomposition, accounts for the possible violation of the common support assumption and allows us to explore the gender test score gap not only at the mean but also across the entire distribution of test scores. Our findings provide evidence that the failure to recognize the common support problem leads to the underestimation of the part of the gap attributable to observable characteristics. We find that girls outperform boys in science while the gap is not statistically significant in math. School characteristics are the most important observable characteristics in explaining the gap. We also find that the gender test score gap changes across the distribution
    Keywords: Gender test score gap, semiparametric decomposition, propensity score matching
    JEL: I21 C14
    Date: 2012–11–30
  14. By: Senanayaka, Tharaka Sameera; Kumara, Ajantha Sisira
    Abstract: By using the Sri Lanka Household Income and Expenditure Surveys in 2002, 2006/2007, and 2009/2010, this paper examines patterns and determinants of employment status of the Sri Lankan elderly. The study employs multinomial logit model to realize the research objectives. The results of the study reveal that more than 50 percent of the Sri Lankan elderly are currently inactive, yet five percent of the oldest elderly and 18 percent of the elderly with bad health conditions are engaged in labor market activities. The results further demonstrate that younger male elderly, who are married and living in female-headed households are more likely to be employed than to be inactive. The receipts of remittances, social security payments, and bad health conditions reduce the probability of being employed. At present, ethnicity does not play a significant role in determining employment status of the Sri Lankan elderly.
    Keywords: Elderly, Employment Status, Sri Lanka
    JEL: J14 J11
    Date: 2012–11–28
  15. By: Dominique Meurs (Institut national d'études démographiques); Bertrand Lhommeau; Mahrez Okba
    Date: 2012
  16. By: Zahia Ouadah-Bedidi; Jacques Vallin
    Date: 2012
  17. By: Zahia Ouadah-Bedidi
    Date: 2012

This nep-dem issue is ©2012 by Clarence Nkengne Tsimpo. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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