nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2012‒05‒15
25 papers chosen by
Clarence Nkengne Tsimpo
University of Montreal and World Bank Group

  1. The Effects of a Universal Child Benefit By Libertad González
  2. Sick Leave Before, During and After Pregnancy By Rieck, Karsten Marshall E.; Telle, Kjetil
  3. Gender, geography and generations : intergenerational educational mobility in post-reform India By Emran, M. Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad
  4. What has driven the decline of infant mortality in Kenya ? By Demombynes, Gabriel; Trommlerova, Sofia Karina
  5. Young women's economic daily lives in rural Ethiopia By Kodama, Yuka
  6. Demography, capital flows and unemployment By Luca Marchiori; Olivier Pierrard; Henri R. Sneessens
  7. Women in cabinet and public health spending: Evidence across countries By Astghik Mavisakalyan
  8. Seeds of hope: Assessing the effect of development aid on the reduction of child mortality By Roberto Burguet; Marcelo Soto
  9. Integration of Low-Skilled Immigrants to the United-States and Work-Family Balance By Girard, Magali
  10. How does Social Security claiming respond to incentives? considering husbands' and wives' benefits separately By Alice M. Henriques
  11. Barriers to Capital Accumulation and the Incidence of Child Labor By Richard C. Barnett; Marco A. Espinosa-Vega
  12. Gender and rural non-farm entrepreneurship By Rijkers, Bob; Costa, Rita
  13. Is Recipiency of Disability Pension Hereditary? By Bratberg, Espen; Nilsen, Øivind Anti; Vaage, Kjell
  14. Economic Growth and Demography By Yuri Yegorov
  15. Toiling children in India : the gender dimension By Kumar, Rajnish; Mitra, Arup; Murayama, Mayumi
  16. How is Economic Hardship Avoided by Those Retiring Before the Social Security Entitlement Age? By Kevin S. Milligan
  17. Effects of siblings and birth order on income redistribution preferences. By Yamamura, Eiji
  18. Guest-Worker Migration, Human Capital and Fertility By Leonid V. Azarnert?
  19. Developing Asia’s Pension Systems and Old-Age Income Support By Park, Donghyun; Estrada, Gemma
  20. Do Migrant Girls Always Perform Better? Differences between the Reading and Math Scores of 15-Year-Old Daughters and Sons of Migrants in PISA 2009 and Variations by Region of Origin and Country of Destination By Nils Kornder; Jaap Dronkers
  21. From Wife to Widow Entrepreneur in French Family Businesses An Invisible-Visible Role in Passing on the Business to the Next Generation By Nicolas Antheaume; Paulette Robic
  22. The Effects of Employment Uncertainty and Wealth Shocks on the Labor Supply and Claiming Behavior of Older American Workers By Hugo Benétez-Silva; J. Ignacio Garcéa-Pérez; Sergi Jiménez-Martén
  23. Rising Food Prices and Children’s Welfare By Nora Lustig
  24. Parental Ethnic Identity and Educational Attainment of Second-Generation Immigrants By Simone Schüller
  25. Measuring the Child Mortality Impact of Official Aid for Fighting Infectious Diseases, 2000-2010 By Roberto Burguet; Marcelo Soto

  1. By: Libertad González
    Abstract: I study the impact of a universal child benefit on fertility and family well-being. I exploit the unanticipated introduction of a new, sizeable, unconditional child benefit in Spain in 2007, granted to all mothers giving birth on or after July 1, 2007. The regression discontinuity-type design allows for a credible identification of the causal effects. I find that the benefit did lead to a significant increase in fertility, as intended, part of it coming from an immediate reduction in abortions. On the unintended side, I find that families who received the benefit did not increase their overall expenditure or their consumption of directly child-related goods and services. Instead, eligible mothers stayed out of the labor force significantly longer after giving birth, which in turn led to their children spending less time in formal child care and more time with their mother during their first year of life. I also find that couples who received the benefit were less likely to break up the year after having the child, although this effect was only short-term. Taken together, the results suggest that child benefits of this kind may successfully increase fertility, as well as affecting family well-being through their impact on maternal time at home and family stability.
    Keywords: Child benefit, policy evaluation, fertility, regression discontinuity, labor supply, consumption
    JEL: D1 H5 J1 J2
    Date: 2011–09
  2. By: Rieck, Karsten Marshall E. (University of Bergen, Norway); Telle, Kjetil (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: Using registry data on every employed Norwegian woman giving birth to her first child during the period 1995–2008, we describe patterns of certified and paid sick leave before, during and after pregnancy. By following the same women over time, we can explore how observed sick leave patterns are – or are not – related to the women’s exiting (or reentering) employment. The results show that sick leave increases abruptly in the month of conception, and continues to grow throughout the term of pregnancy. Sick leave during pregnancy has been rising substantially compared with pre-pregnancy levels over the period 1995–2008, but this increase seems unrelated to women’s growing age at first birth. In line with hypotheses of women’s “double burden”, observed sick leave rates increase in the years after birth. However, when we handle some obvious selection issues – like sick leave during a succeeding pregnancy – the increase in women’s sick leave in the years after birth dissolves. Overall, we find little, if any, sign of the relevance of “double burden” hypotheses in explaining the excessive sick leave of women compared with men.
    Keywords: Sick leave; pregnancy; female employment; double burden.
    JEL: C23 H55 I18 J13 J22
    Date: 2012–05–08
  3. By: Emran, M. Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad
    Abstract: India experienced sustained economic growth for more than two decades following the economic liberalization in 1991. While economic growth reduced poverty significantly, it was associated with an increase in inequality. Does this increase in inequality reflect deep-seated inequality of opportunity or efficient incentive structure in a market oriented economy? This paper provides evidence on economic mobility in post-reform India by focusing on the educational attainment of children. It uses two related measures of immobility: sibling and intergenerational correlations. The paper analyzes the trends in and patterns of educational mobility from 1992/93 to 2006, with a special emphasis on the roles played by gender and geography. The evidence shows that family background plays a strong role; the estimated sibling correlation in India in 2006 is higher than the available estimates for Latin American countries. There is a persistent gender gap in rural and less-developed areas. The only group that experienced substantial improvements is women in urban and developed areas, with the lower caste women benefiting the most. Almost 70 percent of the variance in children's education can be accounted for by parental education and geographic location. The authors provide possible explanations for the apparently puzzling improvements for urban women in a country with strong son preference.
    Keywords: Population Policies,Primary Education,Education and Society,Population&Development,Rural Development Knowledge&Information Systems
    Date: 2012–05–01
  4. By: Demombynes, Gabriel; Trommlerova, Sofia Karina
    Abstract: Substantial declines in infant and under-5 mortality have taken place in recent years in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Kenya's infant mortality rate has fallen by 7.6 percent per year, the fastest rate of decline among the 20 countries in the region for which recent Demographic and Health Survey data is available. Kenya's rate of postneonatal deaths per 1,000 live births fell by more than half over a five-year period, dropping from 47 to 22, as measured using data from the 2003 and 2008-09 Demographic and Health Surveys. Among the possible causes of the decline are various targeted new public health initiatives and improved access to water and sanitation. A Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition using Demographic and Health Survey data shows that the increased ownership of insecticide-treated bednets in endemic malaria zones explains 39 percent of the decline in postneonatal mortality and 58 percent of the decline in infant mortality. Changes in other observable candidate factors do not explain substantial portions of the decline. The portion of the decline not explained may be associated with generalized trends such as the overall improvement in living standards that has taken place with economic growth. The widespread ownership of insecticide-treated bednets in areas of Kenya where malaria is rare suggests that better targeting of insecticide-treated bednet provision programs could improve the cost-effectiveness of such programs.
    Keywords: Population Policies,Health Monitoring&Evaluation,Early Child and Children's Health,Adolescent Health,Disease Control&Prevention
    Date: 2012–05–01
  5. By: Kodama, Yuka
    Abstract: In rural Ethiopia, livelihood diversification is essential for households to be able to sustain themselves. Declining agricultural profits and a land shortage have accelerated this diversification. While the past literature has ignored young women's economic contributions in its discussions about livelihood diversification, this research indicates that the current rapid educational expansion for girls has changed their economic role in their households. This has resulted in changes in the conventional life courses of women in rural Ethiopia as they have more choices in terms of education, marriage, and the types and location of their economic activities, due to the increasing importance of young women's economic contributions to their households and their improved educational opportunities. The aim of this paper is to elucidate how the economic environment and government educational policy have affected young women's lives in terms of education, marriage, economic activities, and intra-household power relationships, especially with their parents.
    Keywords: Ethiopia, Female labor, Women, Rural societies, Household
    JEL: J16 J21
    Date: 2012–03
  6. By: Luca Marchiori (Central Bank of Luxembourg and IRES Université catholique de Louvain); Olivier Pierrard (Central Bank of Luxembourg and IRES Université catholique de Louvain); Henri R. Sneessens (and IRES Université catholique de Louvain)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the already vast literature on demography-induced international capital flows by examining the role of labor market imperfections and institutions. We setup a two-country overlapping generations model with search unemployment, which we calibrate on EU15 and US data. Labor market imperfections are found to significantly increase the volume of capital flows, because of stronger employment adjustments in comparison with a competitive economy. We next exploit the model to investigate how demographic asymmetries may have contributed to unemployment and welfare changes in the recent past (1950-2010). We show that a policy reform in one country also has an impact on labor markets in other countries when capital is mobile.
    Keywords: demographics; capital flows; overlapping generations; general equilibrium; unemployment
    JEL: C68 D91 E24 F21 J11
    Date: 2011
  7. By: Astghik Mavisakalyan
    Abstract: This article studies the effect of women’s cabinet representation on public health policy outcomes. Based on a large sample of countries in the year 2000, the analysis shows that an increase in the share of women in cabinet is associated with an increase in public health spending. There is also an indication of a decrease in the gender gap in life expectancies in places with higher cabinet representation of women. The endogeneity of women’s cabinet representation is accounted for by using the share of daughters that a national leader parents as an instrument.
    JEL: H11 H51 J16
    Date: 2012–05
  8. By: Roberto Burguet; Marcelo Soto
    Abstract: The Millennium Declaration (2000) set as one of its targets a substantial reduction in child mortality. This paper studies whether the massive increase in development aid can account for part of the reduction in child mortality observed in developing countries since the year 2000. To do so, we analyze a panel of more than 130 developing countries over the 2000-2008 period. We use the time trend evolution of aid to identify an exogenous source of variation. Total aid has had no statistically significant effect on child mortality. However, a disaggregate analysis identifies certain sectors of aid that have had a significant impact. The effects have been larger in high mortality countries, including Sub-Saharan Africa. Projections based on our estimates strongly support the concern that most countries in that region will miss the Millennium Goals target on child mortality.
    Keywords: ODA, child mortality, aid effectiveness
    JEL: O11 O15 I15
    Date: 2011–11
  9. By: Girard, Magali
    Abstract: The role played by immigrants in the American economy is well documented and, to a lesser extent, the effect of the migration experience on the families of immigrants. However, little is known of the connections between work and family when it comes to immigrants, especially immigrants in low-skilled jobs, whether it is the effect of labour market experiences on the family or the effect of family patterns on integration into the labour market. Yet, the issue of balancing personal life with professional responsibilities is of growing interest among scholars and policy makers, given the increasing participation of women in the labour market, the increase in non-standard work and the high proportion of immigrants in these work arrangements. 
    Keywords: Sociology, Applied Economics, Economics, General, Ethnic, Cultural Minority, Gender, and Group Studies, family life, immigration, low skilled labor, economics, united states
    Date: 2012–03–03
  10. By: Alice M. Henriques
    Abstract: A majority of women receive most of their Social Security benefits based upon their husbands' earnings history, but previous research has shown that husbands' benefit claiming is inconsistent with maximizing lifetime benefits for the couple. However, that research assumes husbands choose their claim age based on all Social Security incentives facing the household. I show that husbands' claiming behavior responds to the actuarial incentives built into their own retired worker benefit formula, but not to the incentives built into the spouse and survivor formulas that determine their wives' benefits. This failure to incorporate his spouses' incentives reduces wives' lifetime benefits. Variation in incentives comes from rule changes to the Social Security benefit calculation in addition to the age difference between spouses and the relative strength of the wife's labor force history. A variety of robustness checks looking at segments of the population predicted to be more responsive to incentives provide similar results to the main specification.
    Date: 2012
  11. By: Richard C. Barnett; Marco A. Espinosa-Vega
    Abstract: The World Bank documents an inverse relationship between GDP per-capita and child labor participation rates. We construct a life-cycle model with human and physical capital in which parents make a time allocation choice for their child. The model considers two features that have shown potential in explaining differences in states of development across nations. These are: i) a minimum consumption requirement, and ii) barriers to physical capital accumulation. We find the introduction of capital barriers alone is not enough to replicate the aforementioned observation by the World Bank. However, we find the interplay of a minimum consumption requirement and barriers to capital may enhance our understanding of child labor, human capital, and the poverty of nations. Additionally, we find support for policies aimed at reducing capital barriers as means to reduce child labor over an out and out ban on it.
    Date: 2011–09
  12. By: Rijkers, Bob; Costa, Rita
    Abstract: Despite their increasing prominence in policy debates, little is known about gender inequities in non-agricultural labor market outcomes in rural areas. Using matched household-enterprise-community data sets from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Indonesia and Sri Lanka, this paper documents and analyzes gender differences in the individual portfolio choice and productivity of non-farm entrepreneurship. Except for Ethiopia, women are less likely than men to become nonfarm entrepreneurs. Women's nonfarm entrepreneurship isn't strongly correlated with household composition or educational attainment, but is especially prevalent amongst women who are the head of their household. Female-led firms are much smaller and less productive on average, though gender differences in productivity vary dramatically across countries. Mean differences in log output per worker suggest that male firms are roughly 10 times as productive as female firms in Bangladesh, three times as those in Ethiopia and twice as those in Sri Lanka. By contrast, no significant differences in labor productivity were detected in Indonesia. Differences in output per worker are overwhelmingly accounted for by sorting by sector and size. They can't be explained by differences in capital intensity, human capital or the local investment climate, nor by increasing returns to scale.
    Keywords: Access to Finance,Gender and Development,Housing&Human Habitats,Economic Theory&Research,Population Policies
    Date: 2012–05–01
  13. By: Bratberg, Espen (Universitetet i Bergen,); Nilsen, Øivind Anti (Norwegian School of Economics,); Vaage, Kjell (University of Bergen)
    Abstract: This paper addresses whether children’s exposure to parents receiving disability benefits induces a higher probability of receiving such benefits themselves. Most OECD countries experience an increasing proportion of the working-age population receiving permanent disability benefits. Using data from Norway, a country where around 10% of the working-age population rely on disability benefits, we find that the amount of time that children are exposed to their fathers receiving disability benefits affects their own likelihood of receiving benefits positively. This finding is robust to a range of different specifications, including family fixed effects.
    Keywords: Disability; intergenerational correlations; siblings fixed effects
    JEL: H55 J62
    Date: 2012–05–09
  14. By: Yuri Yegorov
    Abstract: The goal of this article is to discuss the interaction between Russian demographic problems and its specialization on the extraction of natural resources. We have several simultaneous processes since 1990s: specialization in extraction of natural resources and demographic problem caused by low fertility in 1990s. Russia has no labor scarcity at present, but will face it in 10 years. Also, its proven oil resources are only for 20 years, and this calls for a necessity of economic diversification. While resource-extraction technology is less labor intensive, movement to technological development will require more labor, and this labor should be skilled. Thus, Russia faces a problem of optimal transition from resource extraction to technological development with simultaneous labor training in the environment of its growing scarcity. Capital from resource export can be used for both investment in new technologies and demographic recovery. Fertility is also endogenous here, depending on consumption level. The policy implications are very important. While there is little reason for boosting fertility initially (since extraction sector is not labor intensive), demography has high inertia, and it will be too late after, especially when oil resources will be close to depletion. The formal modelling is done is the framework of two sector growth model. A sequence of models of dynamic growth, starting from more simple towards more complex, is suggested.
    Date: 2011–09
  15. By: Kumar, Rajnish; Mitra, Arup; Murayama, Mayumi
    Abstract: Child labour in several low income households is rather pursued for gaining experience and at times for meagre incomes, which are possibly spent on household food expenditure. Though the contribution made by the child labour to the overall wellbeing does not turn out to be substantial, without child labour these households would have been much worse off than the households which can afford not to have child labour. The probability of working is higher for a male child compared to a girl child. This is because the girl children are often engaged in household activities and even when they are engaged in income earning jobs they are shown as helpers. Parents' income as such may not be having a positive impact on child's education rather it is the educational level of the parents which matters in determining whether the child would go to school and continue her/his education. To substantiate the gender bias, the probability of falling ill among the girl children is found to be higher compared to the boys. Parents' educational attainments beyond a certain level again tend to reduce the probability of falling ill.
    Keywords: India, Child labor, Gender, Household, Slums, Education, Health
    JEL: J13 J16 J24 J31
    Date: 2012–03
  16. By: Kevin S. Milligan
    Abstract: Governments around the world are reacting to extended lifespans and troubled pension finances by increasing the age of retirement benefit entitlement. One concern that arises is how those who are not working before reaching entitlement age are able to bridge their consumption to the age of entitlement. This paper studies those who retire before the age of full pension entitlement in the United States using data drawn from the Health and Retirement Study. The major finding is that four out of five people who have zero earnings at pre-entitlement ages are able to find a way to lift their incomes over the poverty line. For men, pension and annuity income is important while for women, spousal income helps most to get them over the line. Reaching the early retirement entitlement age at 62 also has a significant impact on poverty avoidance.
    JEL: J14 J26
    Date: 2012–05
  17. By: Yamamura, Eiji
    Abstract: The Japanese General Social Survey was used to determine how individual preferences for income redistribution are affected by family structure, such as the number of siblings and birth order where individuals grow up. After controlling for various individual characteristics, the important findings were as follows. (1) The first-born child was less likely to prefer income redistribution when the child was male. However, such a tendency was not observed when the child was female. (2) The larger the number of elder brothers, the more likely an individual preferred income redistribution. However, the number of elder sisters did not affect the preference. (3) The number of younger siblings did not affect a male’s preference for redistribution regardless of the sibling’s sex. The number of younger brothers did not affect a female’s preference, whereas the number of younger sisters was associated with females preferring income redistribution. These findings regarding the effect of birth order are not consistent with evidence provided by a study conducted in a European country (Fehr et al 2008).
    Keywords: Birth order; Siblings; preference for redistribution
    JEL: D13 D31
    Date: 2012–05–05
  18. By: Leonid V. Azarnert?
    Abstract: This work focuses on a temporary guest-worker-type migration of individuals from the middle class of the wealth distribution. The article demonstrates that the possibility of a low-skilled guest-worker employment in a higher wage foreign country lowers the relative attractiveness of the skilled employment in the home country. Thus it prevents a fraction of individuals from acquiring human capital. Therefore, even if all individuals who acquired education remain in the home country, the actual number of educated workers in the source economy decreases, and the aggregate level of human capital in this economy would thus be negatively affected.
    Keywords: Migration, Human Capital, Fertility, Brain Drain, Economic Growth
    JEL: F22 F43 J13 J24 J61 O15
    Date: 2011–09
  19. By: Park, Donghyun (Asian Development Bank Institute); Estrada, Gemma (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: Old-age income support is becoming an issue of growing importance throughout Asia. This is especially true in East and Southeast Asia where the population is aging. This paper provides a broad overview of the current state of pension systems in the People’s Republic of China, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam; analyzes the pension systems; and identifies their major structural weaknesses. The paper concludes with some specific policy directions for pension reform to strengthen the capacity of Asian pension systems in delivering economic security for the large and growing population of elderly looming on the region’s horizon.
    Keywords: asia; pension systems; old-age income support; population aging; pension reform
    JEL: H55 J11 J14
    Date: 2012–05–07
  20. By: Nils Kornder (University of Maastricht); Jaap Dronkers (University of Maastricht)
    Abstract: As a follow-up of earlier analyses of the educational performance of all pupils with a migration background with Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) waves 2003 and 2006, we analyze the differences between the educational performance of 15-year old daughters and sons of migrants from specific regions of origin countries living in different destination countries. We use the newest PISA 2009 wave. Instead of analyzing only Western countries as destination countries, we analyze the educational performance of 16,612 daughters and 16,804 sons of migrants in destination countries across Asia, Europe, Latin America, and Oceania. We distinguish 62 origin countries and 12 origin areas in 30 destination countries. We test three hypotheses: 1) The daughters of migrants from poorer, more traditional regions perform much better in reading than comparable sons of migrants from the same origin regions, while the daughters of migrants from more affluent and liberal regions perform slightly better in reading than comparable sons of migrants from the same regions. 2) Individual socioeconomic background has a stronger effect on the educational performance of daughters of migrants than on the performance of sons of migrants. 3) The performance of female native pupils has a higher influence on the performance of migrant daughters than the performance of male native pupils has on the performance of migrant sons. The first hypothesis can only partly be accepted. Female migrant pupils have both higher reading and math scores than comparable male migrant pupils, and these gender differences among migrant pupils are larger than among comparable native pupils. The additional variation in educational performance by region of origin is, however, not clearly related to the poverty or traditionalism of regions. Neither the second nor the third hypothesis can be accepted, given our results.
    Date: 2012–05
  21. By: Nicolas Antheaume (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - Université de Nantes : EA4272); Paulette Robic (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - Université de Nantes : EA4272)
    Abstract: In this article we highlight the role played by widows in French Family businesses. We take a historical point of view in order to highlight the significance of our topic. We show the role of French family law in enabling widows to become entrepreneurs. Then we relate the life of the wife of a company owner, in a French family business created at the beginning of the 20th century. We show why and how a spouse becomes an entrepreneur when her husband dies. We demonstrate what key roles she plays in maintaining the business within the realm of the family.
    Keywords: invisibility ; visibility ; widow entrepreneur ; wife ; family business
    Date: 2012–05–04
  22. By: Hugo Benétez-Silva; J. Ignacio Garcéa-Pérez; Sergi Jiménez-Martén
    Abstract: Unemployment rates in developed countries have recently reached levels not seen in a generation, and workers of all ages are facing increasing probabilities of losing their jobs and considerable losses in accumulated assets. These events likely increase the reliance that most older workers will have on public social insurance programs, exactly at a time that public finances are suffering from a large drop in contributions. Our paper explicitly accounts for employment uncertainty and unexpected wealth shocks, something that has been relatively overlooked in the literature, but that has grown in importance in recent years. Using administrative and household level data we empirically characterize a life-cycle model of retirement and claiming decisions in terms of the employment, wage, health, and mortality uncertainty faced by individuals. Our benchmark model explains with great accuracy the strikingly high proportion of individuals who claim benefits exactly at the Early Retirement Age, while still explaining the increased claiming hazard at the Normal Retirement Age. We also discuss some policy experiments and their interplay with employment uncertainty. Additionally, we analyze the effects of negative wealth shocks on the labor supply and claiming decisions of older Americans. Our results can explain why early claiming has remained very high in the last years even as the early retirement penalties have increased substantially compared with previous periods, and why labor force participation has remained quite high for older workers even in the midst of the worse employment crisis in decades.
    Keywords: employment uncertainty, wealth shocks, retirement, labor supply, life-cycle models
    JEL: J14 J26 J65
    Date: 2011–06
  23. By: Nora Lustig (Division of Policy and Practice,UNICEF)
    Abstract: After three consecutive decades of decline, world prices of food commodities have risen over the past few years at an alarming pace. Rising food prices are a cause of major concern because high food prices bring significant and immediate setbacks for poverty reduction, nutrition, social stability, inflation and a rules-based trading system. Food prices are unique since food is unlike any other good. Food is essential for survival; it is the most basic of basic needs
    Keywords: child poverty, child disparities, policy design, measuring poverty, development strategies,food prices,basic needs,poverty reduction, nutrition, social stability
    Date: 2012
  24. By: Simone Schüller
    Abstract: A lack of cultural integration is often blamed for hindering immigrant families' economic progression. This paper is a first attempt to explore whether immigrant parents' ethnic identity affects the next generation's human capital accumulation in the host country. Empirical results based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) indicate that maternal majority as well as paternal minority identity are positively related to the educational attainment of second-generation youth - even controlling for differences in ethnicity, family background and years-since-migration. Additional tests show that the effect of maternal majority identity can be explained by mothers' German language proficiency, while the beneficial effect of fathers' minority identity is not related to language skills and thus likely to stem from paternal minority identity per se.
    Keywords: Ethnic Identity, Second-Generation Immigrants, Education
    JEL: I21 J15 J16
    Date: 2012
  25. By: Roberto Burguet; Marcelo Soto
    Abstract: Aid for fighting infectious and parasitic diseases has had a statistically significant role in the under-five mortality reduction in the last decade. Point estimates indicate a country average reduction of 1.4 deaths per thousand under fives live-born attributable to aid at its average level in 2000-2010. The effect would be an average drop of 3.3 in the under-five mortality rate at the aid levels of 2010. By components, a dollar per capita spent in fighting malaria has caused the largest average impact, statistically higher than a dollar per capita spent in STD/HIV control. We do not find statistically significant effects of other infectious disease aid, including aid for the control of tuberculosis.
    Keywords: ODA, child mortality, infectious diseases
    JEL: F35 J13 O15
    Date: 2012–03

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