nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2011‒12‒05
two papers chosen by
Clarence Nkengne Tsimpo
University of Montreal and World Bank Group

  1. Gender-specific dynamics in working hours By Inge Noback; Lourens Broersma; Jouke van Dijk

  1. By: Inge Noback; Lourens Broersma; Jouke van Dijk
    Abstract: Abstract Gender-specific dynamics in working hours ERSA Barcelona 2011 The Dutch are part-time working champions of the world, not just because the majority of women work part-time, also a growing number of men are working part-time. However, with the aging of the population there is an increasing threat to current welfare levels. The aim of this paper is to assess the possibilities of a rise in wealth through a change in (the trend of) working hours. For the analysis we have created a unique data base which includes workers that have occupied the same job in the period 2003-2005. This means we abstain from dynamics in jobs, (i.e. job finders, job switchers, job losers), which can partly be attributed to changes in participation. Instead we focus completely at working hours of a given job. The analysis is comprised of two parts, first we analyse factors determine the actual number of hours worked for both female and male occupied jobs. Second, we analyse the dynamics in working hours of a given job using a bivariate probit estimation with selection. This model takes into account what factors determine if a person does or does not change working hours and subsequently examines which factors determine whether this change is an increase or a decrease in working hours. Women more frequently change their working hours than men and both rather decrease than increase their working hours. Changes in work situation and household situation are important determinants of changes in working hours, for women also changes in residential context play a role. A decrease in hourly wage and a relative decrease in the burden of taking care of small children are important determinants of increasing working hours, for both men and women. Although men only decrease their working hours after the birth of the first child.
    Date: 2011–09
  2. By: Burge Elvan Erginli; Tuzin Baycan
    Abstract: Urban spaces are dynamic entities and to understand the socio-spatial processes of these entities is hard to analyze and evaluate. Residential mobility is one of the most important socio-spatial dynamics proceeding in an urban space through which socio-economic changes are produced consistently. This study aims to figure out the intra-metropolitan mobility in Marmara Region and to find out the interaction between the districts of Istanbul and the other districts in Marmara Region. Residential mobility of the individuals within Marmara Region has been analyzed and evaluated in order to map out the interaction between the districts of Istanbul and the other districts of Marmara Region. All quantitative data of the study is derived from the census of 1990 and 2000. Turkish Statistical Institute's (TURKSTAT) both censuses of 1990 and 2000 contain 5% sample of all population in Turkey. Two different methods have been consecutively used for the analysis of the data. First, Lebart's Procedure based on Combined Use of Cluster Analysis has been used to summarize and depict the qualitative contrast invisible to the naked eye. Second, Correspondence Analysis -a variant of factor analysis devised for reducing large data sets- has been deployed. By clustering the origin and destination units according to their distinctive and similar arrival and departure profiles, a chaotic picture of a huge original interaction matrix of 1985-1990 and 1995-2000 mobility flows can be perceptible. The results of the empirical study show that the mobility patterns in both periods are very similar to each other. From the south-west, people significantly moved to the south-west, and from the districts of Bursa, people significantly moved to the districts of Bursa. The mobility patterns in the north-east of Marmara and Thracian districts are different in two periods. In the 1985-1990 period, these districts are placed with the districts of Istanbul as origin units. However, in the 1995-2000 period, the interaction between these districts decreased and they generate different groups according to their arrival profiles. Key words: Intra-metropolitan mobility, residential mobility, Marmara Region, Istanbul, interaction, correspondence analysis, Lebart's procedure, data reduction
    Date: 2011–09

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