nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2011‒07‒13
27 papers chosen by
Clarence Nkengne Tsimpo
University of Montreal and World Bank Group

  1. The Age Pattern of Retirement: A Comparison of Cohort Measures By Frank T. Denton; Ross Finnie; Byron G. Spencer
  2. Network Effects in International Migration: Education versus Gender By Michel Beine; Sara Salomone
  3. Where on earth is everybody ? the evolution of global bilateral migration 1960-2000 By Ozden, Caglar; Parsons, Christopher R.; Schiff, Maurice; Walmsley, Terrie L.
  4. Empowering Women: Inheritance Rights and Female Education in India By Roy, Sanchari
  5. Racial Disparities in Credit Constraints in the Great Recession: Evidence from the UK By John Gathergood
  6. Familles monoparentales allocataires du RMI ou de l’API et trappes à inactivités : les enseignements de l’enquête sur les expérimentations du rSa en France. By Ai-Thu Dang; Danièle Trancart
  7. The Effect of Public Sector Employment on Women's Labour Market Outcomes By Anghel, Brindusa; de la Rica, Sara; Dolado, Juan José
  8. Questioning Ethnic Fragmentation's Exogeneity - Drivers of Changing Ethnic Boundaries By Philipp Kolo
  9. The Economic Impact of Social Ties: Evidence from German Reunification By Burchardi, Konrad B.; Hassan, Tarek
  10. Does Parental Education Affect Fertility? Evidence from Pre-Demographic Transition Prussia By Becker, Sascha O; Cinnirella, Francesco; Woessmann, Ludger
  11. Population, poverty, and sustainable development : a review of the evidence By Das Gupta, Monica; Bongaarts, John; Cleland, John
  12. Migrant Women on the Labour Market: On the Role of Home- and Host-Country Participation By Kok, Suzanne; Bosch, Nicole; Deelen, Anja; Euwals, Rob
  13. Trends and socioeconomic gradients in adult mortality around the developing world By de Walque, Damien; Filmer, Deon
  14. Human Capital and the Quantity-Quality Trade-Off during the Demographic Transition: New Evidence from Ireland By Alan Fernihough
  15. The Effect of Young Maternal Age on Children's Education Level: Does the Age of Giving Birth Really Matter? (in Japanese) By Kohei Kubota
  16. Does female reservation affect long-term political outcomes ? Evidence from rural India By Deininger, Klaus; Jin, Songqing; Nagarajan, Hari K.; Fang, Xia
  17. Malnutrition, subsequent Risk of Mortality and Civil War in Burundi By Philip Verwimp
  18. Pauvreté et mortalité différentielle chez les personnes âgées By Mathieu Lefebvre; Pierre Pestieau; Grégory Ponthière
  19. The effects of conflict on fertility in Rwanda By Schindler, Kati; Bruck, Tilman
  20. Understanding the Impact of the Economic Crisis on Child and Maternal Health among the Poor: Opportunities for South Asia By Cader, Azra Abdul; Perera, Lakwimashi
  21. The Reverse Gender Gap in Ethnic Discrimination: Employer Priors against Men and Women with Arabic Names By Mahmood Arai; Moa Bursell; Lena Nekby
  22. Growth on a Finite Planet: Resources, Technology and Population in the Long Run By Pietro F. Peretto; Simone Valente
  23. Does female empowerment promote economic development ? By Doepke, Matthias; Tertilt, Michele
  24. Race, Social Class, and Bulimia Nervosa By Goeree, Michelle S.; Ham, John C.; Iorio, Daniela
  25. Life expectancy and income: The Ben-Porath mechanism revisited By Hansen, Casper Worm; Lønstrup, Lars
  26. Crossing boundaries : gender, caste and schooling in rural Pakistan By Jacoby, Hanan G.; Mansuri, Ghazala
  27. Saving, growth, and age dependency for OECD countries By Herzog, Ryan W.

  1. By: Frank T. Denton; Ross Finnie; Byron G. Spencer
    Abstract: Measures of retirement that take a cohort perspective are appealing since retirement patterns may change, and it would be useful to have consistent measures that would make it possible to compare retirement patterns over time and between countries or regions. We propose and implement two measures. One is based on administrative income tax records and relates to actual cohorts; the other is based on a time-series of cross sectional labour force surveys and relates to pseudo-cohorts. We conclude that while the tax-based observations for actual cohorts provide a richer data set for analysis, the estimated measures of retirement and transition from work to retirement based on the two data sets are quite similar.
    Keywords: Measures of retirement, cohort perspective
    JEL: J14 J26
    Date: 2011–06
  2. By: Michel Beine (CREA, University of Luxembourg, IRES, CREAM and CES-Ifo); Sara Salomone (IRES, Université catholique de Louvain and Tor Vergata University)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of networks on the structure of international migration flows. In particular, we investigate whether diaspora externalities are dif- ferent across education levels and gender. Using new data including both dimensions, we analyze the respective impact of networks on the proportion of each category of migrant. Therefore, in contrast to the preceding literature on macro determinants of international migration, we can identify the factors that influence the selection in terms skills and in terms of gender. We find that network effects vary by education level but not by gender.
    Keywords: Migration, Human capital, network/diaspora externalities, Gender
    JEL: F22 O15
    Date: 2011
  3. By: Ozden, Caglar; Parsons, Christopher R.; Schiff, Maurice; Walmsley, Terrie L.
    Abstract: Global matrices of bilateral migrant stocks spanning 1960–2000 are presented, disaggregated by gender and based primarily on the foreign-born definition of migrants. More than one thousand census and population register records are combined to construct decennial matrices corresponding to the five census rounds between 1960 and 2000. For the first time, a comprehensive picture of bilateral global migration over the second half of the 20th century emerges. The data reveal that the global migrant stock increased from 92 million in 1960 to 165 million in 2000. Quantitatively, migration between developing countries dominates, constituting half of all international migration in 2000. When the partition of India and the dissolution of the Soviet Union are accounted for, migration between developing countries is remarkably stable over the period. Migration from developing to developed countries is the fastest growing component of international migration in both absolute and relative terms. The United States has remained the most important migrant destination in the world, home to one fifth of the world’s migrants and the top destination for migrants from some 60 sending countries. Migration to Western Europe has come largely from elsewhere in Europe. The oil-rich Persian Gulf countries emerge as important destinations for migrants from the Middle East and North Africa and South and Southeast Asia. Finally, although the global migrant stock is predominantly male, the proportion of female migrants increased noticeably between 1960 and 2000. The number of women rose in every region except South Asia.
    Keywords: Population Policies,Gender and Development,International Migration,Human Migrations&Resettlements,Voluntary and Involuntary Resettlement
    Date: 2011–06–01
  4. By: Roy, Sanchari (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of property inheritance rights on education of women. Using plausibly exogenous variation created by amendments to female inheritance laws in India, I nd that exposure to improved inheritance rights increased mean female educational attainment by approximately one additional year. I also provide suggestive evidence that the mechanism behind such an e ect may be explained by the existence of complementarity between female inheritance rights and education in the context of household property management rather than by a relaxation of the household budget constraint owing to reduction in dowry payments following the reform.
    Keywords: Property rights; education; gender; dowry
  5. By: John Gathergood
    Abstract: This paper investigates racial disparities in household credit constraints using U.K. survey data. We find a widening disparity in the proportion of racial minority households reporting they face credit constraints compared with non-minority households over the period 2006-2009. By 2009 three times as many racial minority households faced credit constraints compared with White households. The difference in credit constraints across racial minority and non-minority households is not explained by a broad set of covariates. While crosssection variation in reported credit constraints might most likely reflect unobservables, we argue this time series variation is very unlikely to arise due to unobservables and is evidence of growing perceived disparity in credit access between racial groups over the period.
    Keywords: credit constraints, race.
  6. By: Ai-Thu Dang; Danièle Trancart
    Abstract: Until the introduction of the RSA (Revenu de solidarité active -i.e. Active Solidarity Income) on 1st June 2009 in metropolitan France and 1st January 2011 in overseas territories, poor single-parent families were entitled either to the RMI (Revenu minimum d'insertion – i.e. Minimum Income Integration) or to the API ( Allocation de parent isolé – i.e. Lone Parent Benefit). By merging these two benefits, the government gives up the logic of specific policy for low-income single parents with young children. To assess the empirical relevance of inactivity traps that single parents living on transfer income face, we used data from the DREES survey covering a sample of the RMI or API recipients. The survey was conducted in May-June 2008 when the rSa was tested in some areas. Our results highlight the heterogeneity of the study population in terms of socio-demographic characteristics, earlier career paths and career paths during the observation period (October 2007-May 2008). We also show that the probability of access to employment is highly dependent on individual characteristics (age, educational level, health status, having two or more children and having experienced long inactivity periods). Family responsibilities, lack of qualifications and health or transportation problems are the main barriers to get a stable and good job.
    Keywords: rSa (Active Solidarity Income), lone parents, minimum incomes, inactivity traps, in-work benefits, activation policies.
    JEL: I38 J08 J22
    Date: 2011
  7. By: Anghel, Brindusa (FEDEA, Madrid); de la Rica, Sara (University of the Basque Country); Dolado, Juan José (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)
    Abstract: This paper addresses the role played by Public Sector (PS) employment across different OECD labour markets in explaining: (i) gender differences regarding choices to work in either PS or private sector, and (ii) subsequent changes in female labour market outcomes. To do so, we provide some empirical evidence about cross-country gender differences in choice of employment in the PS vs. the private sector, using the European Community Household Panel (ECHP), in the light of different theories on gender behaviour in the labour market. We also analyze the main determinants of the hourly wage gaps across these two sectors for males and females separately. Finally, we document the main stylized facts about labour market transitions by male and female workers among inactivity, unemployment, working in the PS and working in the private sector.
    Keywords: labour market transitions, gender gaps, public sector employment
    JEL: J45 J16 J31
    Date: 2011–06
  8. By: Philipp Kolo (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen / Germany)
    Abstract: Ethnic fragmentation is a variable increasingly used in the economic literature to explain differences in economic development level, growth or the incidence of conflicts. Nearly all articles have in common that they treat ethnic fragmentation as a static, exogenous fact. Only recently some contributions outlined first ideas, why different levels of ethnic fragmentation evolved based on biodiversity and evolutionary theories. This article has two main goals. In connecting with these recent findings, the article boldly confirms their results that a ‘base-level’ of fragmentation evolved due to geographical and evolutionary factors. Additionally, it draws the attention to the impact of colonization on fragmentation, especially on how a country was colonized. The main goal, however, is to show that ethnic fragmentation is not only evolving over centuries, but changes over a short period of time. As static factors, e.g. geographical ones, can’t be responsible for changes in the short run, the article offers a structured assessment of factors that may influence diversity levels in the short term. Although migration is the most obvious factor, urbanization and especially education play an even more important role in influencing a country’s ethnic boundaries.
    Keywords: Colonization, Endogeneity, Ethnic fractionalization (ELF), Heterogeneity
    JEL: C23 F54 I29 O10 Z10
  9. By: Burchardi, Konrad B.; Hassan, Tarek
    Abstract: We use the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 to identify a causal effect of social ties on regional economic growth. We show that households who have social ties to East Germany in 1989 experience a persistent rise in their personal incomes after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Moreover, the presence of these households significantly affects economic performance at the regional level: it increases the returns to entrepreneurial activity, the share of households who become entrepreneurs, and the likelihood that firms based within a given West German region invest in East Germany. As a result, West German regions which (for idiosyncratic reasons) have a high concentration of households with social ties to the East exhibit substantially higher growth in income per capita in the early 1990s. A one standard deviation rise in the share of households with social ties to East Germany in 1989 is associated with a 4.6 percentage point rise in income per capita over six years. We interpret our findings as evidence that social ties between individuals can indeed facilitate economic growth.
    Keywords: economic development; German Reunification; migration; networks; social ties
    JEL: J61 L14 O11
    Date: 2011–07
  10. By: Becker, Sascha O; Cinnirella, Francesco; Woessmann, Ludger (University of Warwick, University of Munich)
    Abstract: While  women’s  employment  opportunities,  relative  wages,  and  the  child quantity quality trade-off have been studied as factors underlying  historical fertility limitation, the role of parental education has received  little  attention.  We  combine  Prussian  county  data  from  three  censuses—1816,  1849,  and  1867—to  estimate  the  relationship  between women’s education and their fertility before the demographic  transition.  Despite  controlling  for  several  demand  and  supply  factors,  we  find  a  negative  residual  effect  of  women’s  education  on  fertility.  Instrumental variable estimates, using exogenous variation in women's education driven by differences in landownership inequality, suggest that the effect of women's education on fertility is casual.
    Keywords: Demographic transition; female education; fertitility; Nineteenth Century Prussia
  11. By: Das Gupta, Monica; Bongaarts, John; Cleland, John
    Abstract: There is a very large but scattered literature debating the economic implications of high fertility. This paper reviews the literature on three themes: (a) Does high fertility affect low-income countries'prospects for economic growth and poverty reduction? (b) Does population growth exacerbate pressure on natural resources? and (c) Are family planning programs effective at lowering fertility, and should they be publicly funded? The literature shows broad consensus that while policy and institutional settings are key in shaping the prospects of economic growth and poverty reduction, the rate of population growth also matters. Recent studies find that low dependency ratios (as fertility declines) create an opportunity for increasing productivity, savings and investment in future growth. They find that lower fertility is associated with better child health and schooling, and better health and greater labor-force participation for women. They also indicate that rapid population growth can constrain economic growth, especially in low-income countries with poor policy environments. Population growth also exacerbates pressure on environmental common property resources. Studies highlight the deep challenges to aligning divergent interests for managing these resources. However, part of the pressure on these resources can be mitigated by reducing the rate of population growth. Although family planning programs are only one policy lever to help reduce fertility, studies find them effective. Such programs might help especially in the Sub-Saharan African region, where high fertility and institutional constraints on economic growth combine to slow rises in living standards.
    Keywords: Population Policies,Environmental Economics&Policies,Achieving Shared Growth,Economic Theory&Research,Health Systems Development&Reform
    Date: 2011–06–01
  12. By: Kok, Suzanne (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Bosch, Nicole (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Deelen, Anja (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Euwals, Rob (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)
    Abstract: The behaviour of migrant women on the labour market is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the culture of the home and host country. Part of the literature investigates the role of home-country culture. This study extends the literature by including a measure for the influence of host-country culture as an additional determinant of the participation of migrant women. The empirical model explains participation from demographics and educational attainment, and uses home- and host-country female participation as proxies for culture. Evidence on the basis of the Dutch Labour Force Survey 1996-2007 suggests that both differences in home-country female participation and the trend in native female participation, as a measure for host-country culture, affect the participation of migrant women. The results suggest that host-country participation is at least as important as home-country participation.
    Keywords: female labour force participation, immigration, cultural transmission
    JEL: J16 J22 J61
    Date: 2011–06
  13. By: de Walque, Damien; Filmer, Deon
    Abstract: The authors combine data from 84 Demographic and Health Surveys from 46 countries to analyze trends and socioeconomic differences in adult mortality, calculating mortality based on the sibling mortality reports collected from female respondents aged 15-49. The analysis yields four main findings. First, adult mortality is different from child mortality: while under-5 mortality shows a definite improving trend over time, adult mortality does not, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. The second main finding is the increase in adult mortality in Sub-Saharan African countries. The increase is dramatic among those most affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Mortality rates in the highest HIV-prevalence countries of southern Africa exceed those in countries that experienced episodes of civil war. Third, even in Sub-Saharan countries where HIV-prevalence is not as high, mortality rates appear to be at best stagnating, and even increasing in several cases. Finally, the main socioeconomic dimension along which mortality appears to differ in the aggregate is gender. Adult mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa have risen substantially higher for men than for women—especially so in the high HIV-prevalence countries. On the whole, the data do not show large gaps by urban/rural residence or by school attainment.
    Keywords: Population Policies,Health Monitoring&Evaluation,Demographics,Statistical&Mathematical Sciences,Early Child and Children's Health
    Date: 2011–06–01
  14. By: Alan Fernihough (University College Dublin)
    Abstract: In this article I measure the child quantity-quality relationship in 1911 Ireland. My analysis shows that sibship size had a strong impact on the probability of school enrollment in both Belfast and Dublin. However, the magnitude of the relationship varied considerably across different cohorts, most noticeably between the two cities. The existence of this relationship shows how the demographic transition played a vital role in the expansion of human capital and is highly consistent with the theoretical foundations of various long-run growth theories.
    Keywords: Quantity-Quality, Human Capital, Demographic Transition, Unified Growth Theory
    Date: 2011–07–05
  15. By: Kohei Kubota
    Abstract: There is evidence that young mothers do not have the opportunity to accumulate human capital for themselves, which can have a negative effect on theirchildren's outcomes. This study investigates the effect of young maternal ageon children's educational level. No significant direct effect of young maternalage was found, but it did have a significant indirect effect on parental economic conditions and maternal preferences. Our results suggest that young maternal age has no negative effect on children's educational level.
    Date: 2011–06
  16. By: Deininger, Klaus; Jin, Songqing; Nagarajan, Hari K.; Fang, Xia
    Abstract: Although many studies have explored the impacts of political quotas for females, often with ambiguous results, the underlying mechanisms and long-term effects have received little attention. This paper uses nation-wide data from India spanning a 15-year period to explore how reservations affect leader qualifications, service delivery, political participation, local accountability, and individuals’ willingness to contribute to public goods. Although leader quality declines and impacts on service quality are often negative, gender quotas are shown to increase the level and quality of women's political participation, the ability to hold leaders to account, and the willingness to contribute to public goods. Key effects persist beyond the reserved period and impacts on females often materialize only with a lag.
    Keywords: Housing&Human Habitats,Population Policies,Gender and Law,Gender and Health,Parliamentary Government
    Date: 2011–06–01
  17. By: Philip Verwimp
    Abstract: The paper investigates the effect of child malnutrition on the risk of mortality in Burundi, a very poor country heavily affected by civil war. We use anthropometric data from a longitudinal survey (1998-2007). We find that undernourished children, as measured by the height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) in 1998 had a higher probability to die during subsequent years. In order to address the problem of omitted variables correlated with both nutritional status and the risk of mortality, we use the length of exposure to civil war prior to 1998 as a source of exogenous variation in a child’s nutritional status. Children exposed to civil war in their area of residence have worse nutritional status. The paper finds that one year of exposure translates into a 0.15 decrease in the HAZ, resulting in a 10% increase in the probability to die for the whole sample as well as a 0.34 decrease in HAZ per year of exposure for boys only, resulting in 25% increase in the probability to die. We show the robustness of our results. Food and income transfer programs during civil war should be put in place to avoid the long-term effects of malnutrition.
    Keywords: malnutrition; mortality; children; war; Africa; instrumental variables
    Date: 2011–06
  18. By: Mathieu Lefebvre; Pierre Pestieau; Grégory Ponthière
    Abstract: Cette note a pour objectif d’illustrer, dans le cas de la Belgique et de ses régions, un problème particulier posé par la mesure de la pauvreté. Etant donné que la mortalité varie selon le niveau de revenu – les personnes aux revenus plus élevés vivant plus longtemps, en moyenne, que les personnes aux revenus plus faibles – les taux de pauvreté calculés pour les classes âgées dépendent non seulement de ce que l’on pourrait appeler la vraie pauvreté, mais aussi de la sélection induite par la mortalité différentielle selon le revenu. En calculant les taux de pauvreté que l’on observerait si des personnes avec différents niveaux de revenus avaient toutes la même espérance de vie, on peut ainsi estimer la vraie pauvreté, en neutralisant les interférences dues à la mortalité différentielle. Cet ajustement des mesures de pauvreté est particulièrement intéressant pour la Belgique, où les écarts de longévité entre Flamands et Francophones et entre riches et moins riches sont importants.
    Date: 2011
  19. By: Schindler, Kati; Bruck, Tilman
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study the short and long-term fertility effects of mass violent conflict on different population sub-groups. The authors pool three nationally representative demographic and health surveys from before and after the genocide in Rwanda, identifying conflict exposure of the survivors in multiple ways. The analysis finds a robust effect of genocide on fertility, with a strong replacement effect for lost children. Having lost siblings reduces fertility only in the short term. Most interesting is the continued importance of the institution of marriage in determining fertility and in reducing fertility for the large group of widows in Rwanda.
    Keywords: Population Policies,Gender and Law,Post Conflict Reconstruction,Population&Development,Gender and Social Development
    Date: 2011–06–01
  20. By: Cader, Azra Abdul (Asian Development Bank Institute); Perera, Lakwimashi (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: The economic crisis hit many countries in 2007 and the effects are still being felt, especially in poorer developing nations. Much of the debate surrounding the economic crisis and its impacts has focused on the financial and economic aspects—import/export impacts, economic growth losses, labor force cutbacks, and fiscal imbalances. The social impact, especially on poor and vulnerable groups, has received less mention. Yet, if countries are to address the overall impacts of the economic crisis, it is vital that they also consider investing time and money to deal with social impacts more effectively. There are fears, however, that a reduction in spending on vital sectors (including the healthcare sector) to ensure economic recovery could affect poor and vulnerable populations and, in turn, erase the progress that has been made thus far. The decision to reduce such spending could also come from donors, who tend to favor a market-led recovery process in economic crises, thereby neglecting vital social service sectors that cater to the needs of poor populations. This spending can supplement government services or fill resource gaps and as a result reductions could have negative impacts on beneficiary populations, particularly the poor and vulnerable. Addressing child and maternal health issues within the context of the economic crisis is one key area to consider given its short, medium, and long-term effects on populations in developing countries. In South Asian countries, child and maternal health-related indicators tend to be disturbing despite the rapid growth rates in many of these countries. The number of infant deaths is still quite high, nutrition of children and women continues to be problematic, and maternal health and pre/post natal care remains poor. This paper presents an overview of child and maternal health in the South Asia region, but also recommends that interventions take into account a series of factors if the impacts of the economic crisis are to be minimized: There is a need for more information and research on the impacts of the crisis; Investing in social protection and safety nets is imperative; Food security should be integrated into social protection; Vulnerable households require support to cope with the crisis despite their own efforts and coping strategies; State investments that support vulnerable populations should be protected in times of crisis.
    Keywords: poverty reduction; economic crisis impact; social impact; child maternal health; south asia poverty; social protection
    JEL: I10 Y20
    Date: 2011–07–01
  21. By: Mahmood Arai; Moa Bursell; Lena Nekby
    Abstract: We examine differences in the intensity of employer priors against men and women with Arabic names in Sweden by testing how much more work experience is needed to eliminate the disadvantage of having an Arabic name on job applications. Employers are first sent CVs of equal merits in a field-experiment setup. Arabic-named CVs are thereafter enhanced with more relevant work experience than Swedishnamed CVs. Results indicate a reverse gender gap in employer priors as initial differences in call-backs disappear for female applicants when CVs for Arabic-named applications are enhanced, but remain strong and significant for male applicants. Thus, contrary to what is often assumed about the interaction of gender and ethnicity, we find that Arabic men face stronger discrimination in the labor market than Arabic women.
    Keywords: Employment Gaps; Gender; Ethnicity,; Field Experiments; Discrimination
    JEL: J15 J16 J71
    Date: 2011–07
  22. By: Pietro F. Peretto (Department of Economics, Duke University); Simone Valente (ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: We study the interactions between technological change, resource scarcity and population dynamics in a Schumpeterian model with endogenous fertility. There exists a pseudo- Malthusian equilibrium in which population is constant and income grows exponentially: the equilibrium population level is determined by resource scarcity but is independent of technology. The stability properties are driven by (i) the income reaction to increased resource scarcity and (ii) the fertility response to income dynamics. If labor and resources are substitutes in production, income and fertility dynamics are self-balancing and the pseudo-Malthusian equilibrium is the global attractor of the system. If labor and resources are complements, income and fertility dynamics are self-reinforcing and drive the economy towards either demographic explosion or human extinction. Introducing a minimum resource requirement, we obtain a second steady state implying constant population even under complementarity. The standard result of exponential population growth appears as a rather special case of our model.
    Keywords: Endogenous Innovation, Resource Scarcity, Population Growth, Fertility Choices
    JEL: E10 L16 O31 O40
    Date: 2011–06
  23. By: Doepke, Matthias; Tertilt, Michele
    Abstract: Empirical evidence suggests that money in the hands of mothers (as opposed to their husbands) benefits children. Does this observation imply that targeting transfers to women is good economic policy? The authors develop a series of noncooperative family bargaining models to understand what kind of frictions can give rise to the observed empirical relationships. Then they assess the policy implications of these models. The authors find that targeting transfers to women can have unintended consequences and may fail to make children better off. Moreover, different forms of empowering women may lead to opposite results. More research is needed to distinguish between alternative theoretical models.
    Keywords: Economic Theory&Research,Gender and Law,Debt Markets,Inequality,Public Sector Economics
    Date: 2011–06–01
  24. By: Goeree, Michelle S. (University of Zurich); Ham, John C. (University of Maryland); Iorio, Daniela (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona)
    Abstract: In this paper we explore a serious eating disorder, bulimia nervosa (BN), which afflicts a surprising number of girls in the US. We challenge the long-held belief that BN primarily affects high income White teenagers, using a unique data set on adolescent females evaluated regarding their tendencies towards bulimic behaviors independent of any diagnoses or treatment they have received. Our results reveal that African Americans are more likely to exhibit bulimic behavior than Whites; as are girls from low income families compared to middle and high income families. We use another data set to show that who is diagnosed with an eating disorder is in accord with popular beliefs, suggesting that African American and low-income girls are being under-diagnosed for BN. Our findings have important implications for public policy since they provide direction to policy makers regarding which adolescent females are most at risk for BN. Our results are robust to different model specifications and identifying assumptions.
    Keywords: bulimia nervosa, race, income, education
    JEL: I1
    Date: 2011–06
  25. By: Hansen, Casper Worm (Department of Business and Economics); Lønstrup, Lars (Department of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper we show that it may be optimal for individuals to educate themselves more and decrease future labor supply (choose earlier retirement) when life expectancy increases. This result reconciles the findings of Hazan [Hazan, M., 2009. Longevity and Lifetime Labor Supply: Evidence and Implications. Econometrica 77, 1829.1863] with theory. Further, the paper contributes to a better understanding of the conflicting empirical findings on the causal effect on income per capita from increased life expectancy.
    Keywords: Life-cycle model; life expectancy; schooling; retirement
    JEL: D91 J22 J24 J26 O11
    Date: 2011–02–16
  26. By: Jacoby, Hanan G.; Mansuri, Ghazala
    Abstract: Can communal heterogeneity explain persistent educational inequities in developing countries? The paper uses a novel data-set from rural Pakistan that explicitly recognizes the geographic structure of villages and the social makeup of constituent hamlets to show that demand for schooling is sensitive to the allocation of schools across ethnically fragmented communities. The analysis focuses on two types of social barriers: stigma based on caste affiliation and female seclusion that is more rigidly enforced outside a girl's own hamlet. Results indicate a substantial decrease in primary school enrollment rates for girls who have to cross hamlet boundaries to attend, irrespective of school distance, an effect not present for boys. However, low-caste children, both boys and girls, are deterred from enrolling when the most convenient school is in a hamlet dominated by high-caste households. In particular, low-caste girls, the most educationally disadvantaged group, benefit from improved school access only when the school is also caste-concordant. A policy experiment indicates that providing schools in low-caste dominant hamlets would increase overall enrollment by almost twice as much as a policy of placing a school in every unserved hamlet, and would do so at one-sixth of the cost.
    Keywords: Primary Education,Education For All,Disability,Adolescent Health,Tertiary Education
    Date: 2011–06–01
  27. By: Herzog, Ryan W.
    Abstract: Using threshold effects we find that as countries experience an increase in old-age dependency rates, countries with lower domestic saving rates, moderate current account deficits, and are more open to trade can actually experience an increase in GDP growth rates. These countries have greater access to capital markets which will allow them to sustain economic growth in light of substantial increases in their old-age dependency rates. Countries with a lower savings rate are able to rely on domestic consumption and more importantly can rely on foreign investment to offset the decline in worker productivity caused by exodus of domestic workers. Although the effects of an increase in the old-age dependency rate on GDP growth rates are smaller for countries with lower saving rates, these countries also have significantly lower growth rates prior to the increase in the old-age dependency rate. We conclude the effects of population ageing for many high saving countries will depend on their desire to reduce saving rates at old-age dependency rates begin to increase. The ability for lower saving countries to maintain stable growth rates hinges on their ability to sustain current account deficits.
    Keywords: Dependency Rates; Growth; Ageing; Saving Rates; Capital Mobility
    JEL: O57 O40 J11
    Date: 2011–07–06

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