
on Discrete Choice Models 
By:  Edwin FourrierNicolai (AMSE  AixMarseille Sciences Economiques  EHESS  École des hautes études en sciences sociales  AMU  Aix Marseille Université  ECM  École Centrale de Marseille  CNRS  Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, TSE  Toulouse School of Economics  UT1  Université Toulouse 1 Capitole  EHESS  École des hautes études en sciences sociales  CNRS  Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique  INRAE  Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Michel Lubrano (School of Economics, Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, AMSE  AixMarseille Sciences Economiques  EHESS  École des hautes études en sciences sociales  AMU  Aix Marseille Université  ECM  École Centrale de Marseille  CNRS  Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) 
Abstract:  The growth incidence curve of Ravallion and Chen (2003) is based on the quantile function. Its distributionfree estimator behaves erratically with usual sample sizes leading to problems in the tails. We propose a series of parametric models in a Bayesian framework. A first solution consists in modelling the underlying income distribution using simple densities for which the quantile function has a closed analytical form. This solution is extended by considering a mixture model for the underlying income distribution. However in this case, the quantile function is semiexplicit and has to be evaluated numerically. The alternative solution consists in adjusting directly a functional form for the Lorenz curve and deriving its first order derivative to find the corresponding quantile function. We compare these models first by Monte Carlo simulations and second by using UK data from the Family Expenditure Survey where we devote a particular attention to the analysis of subgroups. 
Keywords:  bayesian inference,growth incidence curve,inequality 
Date:  2021–03 
URL:  http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:halshs03225236&r= 
By:  Laura Liu; Alexandre Poirier; JiLiang Shiu 
Abstract:  Average partial effects (APEs) are generally not pointidentified in binary response panel models with unrestricted unobserved heterogeneity. We show their pointidentification under an index sufficiency assumption on the unobserved heterogeneity, even when the error distribution is unspecified. This assumption does not impose parametric restrictions on the unobserved heterogeneity. We then construct a threestep semiparametric estimator for the APE. In the first step, we estimate the common parameters using either conditional logit or smoothed maximum score. In the second step, we estimate the conditional expectation of the outcomes using local polynomial regression given generated regressors that depend on firststep estimates. In the third step, we average this conditional distribution over a subset of conditioning variables to obtain a partial mean which estimates the APE. We show that this proposed threestep APE estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal. We then evaluate its finitesample properties in Monte Carlo simulations, and illustrate our estimator in a study of determinants of married women's labor supply. 
Date:  2021–05 
URL:  http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2105.12891&r= 
By:  Xi Zhi "RC" Lim 
Abstract:  We study how violations of structural assumptions like expected utility and exponential discounting can be connected to reference dependent preferences with setdependent reference points, even if behavior conforms with these assumptions when the reference is fixed. An axiomatic framework jointly and systematically relaxes general rationality (WARP) and structural assumptions to capture reference dependence across domains. It gives rise to a linear order that determines references points, which in turn determines the preference parameters for a choice problem. This allows us to study risk, time, and social preferences collectively, where seemingly independent anomalies are interconnected through the lens of referencedependent choice. 
Date:  2021–05 
URL:  http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2105.12915&r= 
By:  Shurojit Chatterji; Souvik Roy; Soumyarup Sadhukhan; Arunava Sen; Huaxia Zeng 
Abstract:  We characterize a class of preference domains called hybrid* domains. These are specific collections of preferences that are singlepeaked at the extremes and unrestricted in the middle. They are characterized by the familiar properties of minimal richness, diversity and norestoration. We also study the structure of strategyproof and unanimous Random Social Choice Functions on these domains. We show them to be special cases of probabilistic fixed ballot rules (or PFBR). These PFBRs are not necessarily decomposable, i.e., cannot be written as a convex combination of their deterministic counterparts. We identify a necessary and sufficient condition under which decomposability holds for anonymous PFBRs. 
Date:  2021–05 
URL:  http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2105.10677&r= 
By:  Gaillac, Christophe; Gautier, Eric 
Abstract:  This paper studies point identification of the distribution of the coefficients in some random coefficients models with exogenous regressors when their support is a proper subset, possibly discrete but countable. We exhibit tradeoffs between restrictions on the distribution of the random coefficients and the support of the regressors. We consider linear models including those with nonlinear transforms of a baseline regressor, with an infinite number of regressors and deconvolution, the binary choice model, and panel data models such as singleindex panel data models and an extension of the Kotlarski lemma. 
Keywords:  Identification; Random Coefficients; Quasianalyticity; Deconvolution 
Date:  2021–05 
URL:  http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tse:wpaper:125629&r= 
By:  Eiji Yamamura 
Abstract:  Internet survey experiment is conducted to examine how providing peer information of evaluation about progressive firms changed individual's evaluations. Using large sample including over 13,000 observations collected by twostep experimental surveys, I found; (1) provision of the information leads individuals to expect higher probability of rising of stocks and be more willing to buy it. (2) the effect on willingness to buy is larger than the expected probability of stock price rising, (3) The effect for woman is larger than for man. (4) individuals who prefer environment (woman's empowerment) become more willing to buy stock of proenvironment (genderbalanced) firms than others if they have the information. (5) The effect of the peer information is larger for individuals with "warm glow" motivation. 
Date:  2021–05 
URL:  http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2105.12292&r= 
By:  Nail Kashaev; Victor H. Aguiar 
Abstract:  We generalize the stochastic revealed preference methodology of McFadden and Richter (1990) for finite choice sets to settings with limited consideration. Our approach is nonparametric and requires partial choice set variation. We only impose a monotonicity condition on attention first proposed by Cattaneo et al. (2020) and a stability condition on the marginal distribution of preferences. Our framework is amenable to statistical testing. These new restrictions extend widely known parametric models of consideration. 
Date:  2021–05 
URL:  http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2105.11268&r= 
By:  Miguel Carriquiry (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía); Maximiliano Machado (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía); Matías Piaggio (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) 
Abstract:  The provision of drinking water is essential for the health of human beings. In spite of a wide distribution network and of official information about the drinkability and quality of the pipe water provided to households in Montevideo, most of them have chosen to avoid or at least partially substitute its consumption by boiling it, installing filters or by buying bottled water. These choices can be seen as defensive consumption,and provide an opportunity to infer the value that households assign to water quality, through the use nonmarket valuation techniques. This work identifies factors affecting the decision of using defensive methods in Montevideo together with the magnitude of such expenses. Using data from a survey (conductedas part of this study), we estimate a selection modelin which the first stage identifies factors affecting the probability of employing defensive methods, whereas the second stage identifies the determinants of the expected magnitudes of these expenses. Our findings indicate that socioeconomic variables, perceivedquality and health factors affect both the likelihood of employing defensive methods and the expected magnitude of these expenditures. We find that on average, the monthly per capita expenditure is about $7 dollars, while it is $18 dollars for the average household. This indicates that on aggregate, the population of Montevideo spends about 111 million dollars per year to cope with a perceived deterioration of the water quality received at their homes. The information generated in this studyis a key element for costbenefit analysis in order to formulate public policies to improve the water provision services (and/or the perceived water quality) in the city and to reduce contamination in the watercourses from pointor diffuse sources. 
Keywords:  Water, Willingness to Pay, Ecosystem Services, Averting Behavior 
JEL:  Q25 Q53 O13 
Date:  2020–11 
URL:  http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ulr:wpaper:dt2020&r= 
By:  Hartleb, J.; Schmidt, M.E.; Huisman, D.; Friedrich, M. 
Abstract:  We present a mixedinteger linear program (MILP) for line planning with integrated mode and route choice. In contrast to existing approaches, the mode and route decisions are modeled according to the passengers' preferences while commercial solvers can be applied to solve the corresponding MILP. The model aims at finding line plans that maximize the profit for the public transport operator while estimating the corresponding passenger demand with choice models. Both components of profit, revenue and cost, are influenced by the line plan. Hence, the resulting line plans are not only profitable for operators but also attractive to passengers. By suitable preprocessing of the passengers' utilities, we are able to apply any choice model for mode choices using linear constraints. We provide and test means to improve the computational performance. In experiments on the Intercity network of the Randstad, a metropolitan area in the Netherlands, we show the benefits of our model compared to a standard line planning model with fixed passenger demand. Furthermore, we demonstrate with the help of our model the possibilities and limitations for operators when reacting to changes in demand in an optimal way. The results suggest that operators should regularly update their line plan in response to changes in travel demand and estimate the passenger demand during optimization. 
Keywords:  line planning, mixedinteger linear program, MILP 
Date:  2021–05–20 
URL:  http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ems:eureri:135542&r= 