nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒06‒26
seven papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Quasi-experimental network-based design for semantic analysis of small clusters of bi-polar online reviews By Cantone, Giulio Giacomo; Tomaselli, Venera
  2. IP assets and film finance - a primer on standard practices in the U.S. By Alexander Cuntz; Alessio Muscarnera; Prince C. Oguguo; Matthias Sahli
  3. The Art and Gender – A Gender Perspective Analysis The 2022 Calendar – Comorile Muzeului By Daniela Felicia Roman
  4. The Dilemma between the Pursuit of Sustainability and the Cultural Heritage of Moroccan Family Businesses: A Contextualization Study By Azzeddine Allioui; Badr Habba; Taib Berrada El Azizi
  5. The Applied Music Studio: Teaching Students With Special Needs By Tracy Lee Heavner
  6. “The Effect of Competition on Language Diversity in the Movie-Theatre Industry” By Bernat Mallén
  7. People Who Move among Cultures and Languages Japanese Descendants in the U.S. from Peru By Derek K. Pinillos Matsuda

  1. By: Cantone, Giulio Giacomo; Tomaselli, Venera
    Abstract: In online platforms, users sign in and evaluate items (as movies, music, video games, etc) through a numeric score and a textual comment. The underlying structure of users and items configures a bipartite network. Sometimes the opinions of the users are split alongside political or cultural factions. As a result, these items exhibit bi-polar distributions of scores. This manuscript proposes a method of detection of Extremely Bi-polar Items (EBI), and, through a statistical matching of these with an ideal control group of other items, a method to adjust the semantic inference of patterns associated with them. Results of the semantic inference on 436 items and 152, 844 reviews from platform Metacritic confirm findings in literature on the polarising phenomenon of so-called Review Bomb: EBI are associated with reflexive behaviour around political controversies.
    Date: 2023–04–26
  2. By: Alexander Cuntz; Alessio Muscarnera; Prince C. Oguguo; Matthias Sahli
    Abstract: This paper offers a primer on the basic economics of film finance and standard practices in the U.S. movie industry. It takes the U.S. movie industry as a case in point to study how excess risk and uncertainty around financing new projects are processed and managed by private sector entities and what market-based solutions are developed to prevent market failure. The paper summarizes the most common types of financial deals on the ground and reoccurring funding sources for new content production and distribution in the past twenty years. In particular, this research discusses the prominent role of intellectual property (IP) in financial transactions in the audiovisual sector. Research findings are based on a series of semi-structured interviews, commissioned expert memoranda, and a dedicated panel held with selected industry experts in November 2022. In addition, we conduct exploratory analysis and provide descriptive evidence on credit and intangible collateral use in the industry using data from Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) filings and official IP registers. In light of the digital transformation of the audiovisual sector, the research documents industry trends and the most recent changes in the financing of U.S. film. We conclude with an outline of generic policy options for an upgrade of the financing environment in the U.S. and beyond.
    Keywords: Movie industry, finance, intellectual property, collateral, loan, digitization
    JEL: G20 L82 O34 Z11
    Date: 2023–05
  3. By: Daniela Felicia Roman (Alexandru cel Bun Military Academy, Republic of Moldova)
    Abstract: The author started this research based on an article published in The Guardian titled “Mind-blowing: Why do men’s paintings cost 10 times more than women’s?†Shocking: Why do artists’ paintings cost 10 times more than those painted by women painters? Being a feminist and interested in equal opportunities between women and men, the author looks at everything around through a gender lens. The general theme is meritocracy. As a colleague of the author used to say: I do not care if the person applying for a job is a woman or a man, but be the best. If only it were that simple! In the artistic field, as in many other fields, the value is given by the price of the product, in our case, of works of art. As we shall see, not by a long shot.
    Keywords: men’s paintings, women painters, gender equality, equality of opportunity
    Date: 2023–03
  4. By: Azzeddine Allioui (ESCA Ecole de Management, Morocco); Badr Habba (ESCA Ecole de Management, Morocco); Taib Berrada El Azizi (ESCA Ecole de Management, Morocco)
    Abstract: The objective of this research is to explore the relationship between the cultural specificities of governance in the Moroccan context and the sustainability of unlisted Moroccan family businesses in times of crisis. To produce our results, we opted for a qualitative approach based on semi-directive interviews with 20 CEOs of unlisted Moroccan family businesses, 6 of which are large companies, 8 are SMEs, and 6 are VSEs. Our results explain that the search for sustainability by family governance in times of crisis is dependent on three cultural specificities, explicitly: family reputation, religiosity norms, and the logic of strategic imitation. These specificities drive the governance of Moroccan family businesses in terms of internal sustainability, external sustainability, family-enterprise interactions, emotional involvement, risk aversion, and innovation in times of crisis.
    Keywords: Family governance, sustainability, culture, innovation, family reputation, business imitation
    Date: 2023–04
  5. By: Tracy Lee Heavner (University of South Alabama, United States)
    Abstract: With recent advances in technology, it is essential that music educators become knowledgeable of various software programs that could assist in the teaching of students with special needs in applied music lessons. Computer software music programs can be categorized into six areas: listening, transcribing, tuning, developing a steady tempo, accompanying and recording. When listening to music to be learned in the applied lesson, two applications that could assist special needs students are Spotify and YouTube. When transcribing music, Anytune and Tempo SlowMo are two programs that could assist students with transcription. Before beginning a lesson, it is necessary that students tune their instrument. InsTuner is an application that allows performers to chromatically tune any instrument. During a performance, it is essential that students keep a steady tempo. Pro Metronome is a software program that assists in developing this skill. When special needs students are learning their repertoire, Smart Music and Band in a Box are two popular software programs that will accompany them. When recording a performance, Audacity and Garageband are two software programs that will allow students to make a quality recording. Incorporating computer technology into the teaching of applied lessons allows students with special needs to progress at a faster rate and makes learning more exciting and enjoyable. With so many advances in technology occurring every day, applied music teachers should take full advantage of new software applications when teaching students with special needs so maximum learning can take place.
    Keywords: Music Education, Music Technology, Applied Music, Special Needs
    Date: 2023–04
  6. By: Bernat Mallén (AQR-IREA University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: In this paper I investigate the effect of competition on language diversity in a cultural market, the movies market, in which language is a relevant characteristic of the good. I analyse the case of the bilingual region of Catalonia to empirically test the effect of competition in two stages of the supply chain – the distribution and the exhibition – on the availability of films in the weaker language. I create a unique data set of all the screenings in the region over 10 months from different sources using advanced web-scraping techniques. I find that the concentration at the distribution level reduces the percentage of films in Catalan by 4.04 percentage points compared with the counterfactual of perfect competition. The effect of the concentration at the exhibition level is not significant. This implies that without such market failure, the total supply of films in Catalan would be 96% greater. I also look for heterogeneous effects disentangling two types of audiences: children-targeted films and adult-targeted films. I find that children have higher preference intensity over the language because the market is more responsive to them; the concentration at the exhibition level matters when it comes to this type of consumer.
    Keywords: Language diversity, Movie theatres, Dubbing, Bilingualism, Cultural market. JEL classification: D43, L13, L82, Z13
    Date: 2023–05
  7. By: Derek K. Pinillos Matsuda (Gunma University, Japan)
    Abstract: In this paper, the writer will review the trajectory of the Japanese who immigrated to Peru during the first half of the 20th century and ended up in the United States during World War Ⅱ. This hidden history has been told less often; however, they experienced three cultures and languages at that time and have overcome many issues in different countries. Their life trajectory can give the readers a hint to think about people who move and try to settle in a new environment. This paper aims to describe how their trajectory can be illustrated as a transnational movement and try to apply the transnationalism theory to the routes they experienced. In most cases, they moved around in families, and their children experienced a different educational environment at schools. This is because of the educational policy of each country. In some cases, adapting to a new environment was challenging, especially when the language and culture differed. Transnationalism has been focused on people’s adaptation to the new land and how they made transnational bonds with their “motherland, †but not that much on how they transmitted their experiences to the next generation. In this paper, the readers will see how the next generation inherited Japanese descendants’ cultural identity and how their experiences are unique but can be generalized in nowadays transnational movements.
    Keywords: transnationalism, root and routes, Nikkei, cultural identity
    Date: 2023–03

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