nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒05‒15
six papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Exploring Gender and Race Biases in the NFT Market By Howard Zhong; Mark Hamilton
  2. Measuring the strengths of the teams in the UEFA Champions League By L\'aszl\'o Csat\'o
  3. What We Teach about Race and Gender: Representation in Images and Text of Children's Books By Adukia, Anjali; Eble, Alex; Harrison, Emileigh; Runesha, Hakizumwami Birali; Szasz, Teodora
  4. La Notte della Taranta under the shadow of Covid-19 By Giuseppe Attanasi; Marta Ballatore; Michela Chessa; Carlo Ciucani; Sara Gil-Gallen
  5. The potentially misleading nature of the use of stock photos in news reporting: A case in 2022 of the Russo-Ukrainian War By Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.
  6. Perception of Public Libraries as Substantive Knowledge Organizations By Chatterjee, Sidharta; Samanta, Mousumi; Dey, Sujoy

  1. By: Howard Zhong; Mark Hamilton
    Abstract: Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) are non-interchangeable assets, usually digital art, which are stored on the blockchain. Preliminary studies find that female and darker-skinned NFTs are valued less than their male and lighter-skinned counterparts. However, these studies analyze only the CryptoPunks collection. We test the statistical significance of race and gender biases in the prices of CryptoPunks and present the first study of gender bias in the broader NFT market. We find evidence of racial bias but not gender bias. Our work also introduces a dataset of gender-labeled NFT collections to advance the broader study of social equity in this emerging market.
    Date: 2023–03
  2. By: L\'aszl\'o Csat\'o
    Abstract: One of the most popular club football tournaments, the UEFA Champions League, will see a fundamental reform from the 2024/25 season: the traditional group stage will be replaced by one league where each of the 36 teams plays eight matches. Since the ranking is still based on the results of these matches, fairness requires guaranteeing that the opponents of the clubs are of the same strength. This paper investigates whether the currently used rating of the teams, the UEFA club coefficient, can be improved by taking the games played in the national leagues into account. According to our logistic regression models, a variant of the Elo method provides a higher accuracy in forecasting Champions League matches. Therefore, the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) is encouraged to follow the example of the FIFA World Ranking and reform the calculation of the coefficients in order to avoid unbalanced schedules in the novel tournament format of the Champions League.
    Date: 2023–04
  3. By: Adukia, Anjali (Harris School, University of Chicago); Eble, Alex (Columbia University); Harrison, Emileigh (University of Chicago); Runesha, Hakizumwami Birali (University of Chicago); Szasz, Teodora (University of Chicago)
    Abstract: Books shape how children learn about society and norms, in part through representation of different characters. We introduce new artificial intelligence methods for systematically converting images into data and apply them, along with text analysis methods, to measure the representation of skin color, race, gender, and age in award-winning children's books widely read in homes, classrooms, and libraries over the last century. We find that more characters with darker skin color appear over time, but the most influential books persistently depict characters with lighter skin color, on average, than other books, even after conditioning on race; we also find that children are depicted with lighter skin than adults on average. Relative to their growing share of the U.S. population, Black and Latinx people are underrepresented in these same books, while White males are overrepresented. Over time, females are increasingly present but appear less often in text than in images, suggesting greater symbolic inclusion in pictures than substantive inclusion in stories. We then present analysis of the supply of, and demand for, books with different levels of representation to better understand the economic behavior that may contribute to these patterns. On the demand side, we show that people consume books that center their own identities. On the supply side, we document higher prices for books that center non-dominant social identities and fewer copies of these books in libraries that serve predominantly White communities. Lastly, we show that the types of children's books purchased in a neighborhood are related to local political beliefs.
    Keywords: representation, images as data, curriculum, children, education, libraries, race, gender
    JEL: I24 I21 Z1 J15 J16
    Date: 2023–04
  4. By: Giuseppe Attanasi (Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; BETA, University of Strasbourg, France; Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS, GREDEG, France); Marta Ballatore (Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, CEREN EA 7477, Burgundy School of Business, Dijon, France; Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS, GREDEG, France); Michela Chessa (Université Côte d'Azur, France; GREDEG CNRS); Carlo Ciucani (University G. D'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Italy); Sara Gil-Gallen (Author-Workplace-Name: BETA, University of Strasbourg, France)
    Abstract: During Covid-19 pandemic, the tourism and leisure industry faced one of the hardest-hit. Among the targets of the restrictions, most summer gatherings and cultural events were canceled, postponed, or adjusted to the health situation. Little is known about hosts' perception regarding extraordinary changes in the value proposition, as a consequence of such contingencies. To shed light on this aspect, we collected data at the dates and places of the 2020 and 2021 La Notte della Taranta, one of the most notable European festivals of folk music. This event was partially canceled in 2020 and adjusted to the health situation in 2021. Our analysis explores the role of generic behavioral traits and festival-specific features in determining hosts' attitudes on the matter. More precisely, we focus on two main perspectives of hosts: the agreement with the measures taken by organizers in 2020 and 2021; and the perception of tourists' behavior in the last regular edition of 2019. Findings highlight the role of the objective danger of Covid-19. Interestingly, preferences toward ambiguity arise as a consistent and significant determinant for both research questions. This shows that leveraging on generic behavioral traits appears relevant when making extraordinary organizational decisions during an unexpected contingency.
    Keywords: Cultural festival, Covid-19 pandemic, Hosts' perception, Ambiguity aversion
    Date: 2022–09
  5. By: Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.
    Abstract: The ability to transmit accurate information that does not deceive its readership, and the use of images that reflects the truth of the fact that they are supposed to be representing, should be an important principle and basal tenet of any traditional or social media-based news or journalistic organization or platform. It is not uncommon to find images or photos that accompany the text of a news article, and the visual impact of an image, as is often expressed in a cliché, can sometimes add much more value than merely the text itself. Whereas some fake news is patently untrue, another gray zone of journalism that is affected by fake news may encompass bias, spin and deceit. Absent rigorous quality control and editing measures, a news source may inadvertently slip into this gray zone, which encompasses the use of stock photos to represent, or supplement, the text of news items. Focusing on photos by a pro-Ukrainian social media app-based news media outlet, this rather unusual case involves a highly topical personality, the President of Ukraine. This article points to how subtle “truth” can change through the use (or abuse) of stock photos. Several images covering May-September of 2022, specifically photos or videos of an unshaven President Zelenskyy in military attire that switch to images of a shaven individual in a suit, and back again, are examined from a single Telegram-based news source. This case exemplifies, using a “soft” example, the risks of “massaging” truth using stock photos. In times of war, especially in the ongoing Russia-Ukrainian war, the accuracy of news, including the non-fictional imagery that accompanies it, is essential, so as to neither mislead nor bias the readership, and to portray the news as accurately and neutrally as possible.
    Date: 2023–04–14
  6. By: Chatterjee, Sidharta; Samanta, Mousumi; Dey, Sujoy
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine how public libraries promote development of good reading habits among the users who come to access for information. It explores how far–in this digital age, public and academic libraries are able to meet the information needs of society. By developing a theoretical model of access to and usage of information based on axioms that set forth the role of public libraries in the services of society, we attempt to examine and analyze how PLs promote adult literacy drive that have positive contribution to society. Community public library systems are thus examined and their role model clearly decimated. We find that public libraries have still much relevance in supporting readers and promoting literacy drive. Our thinking is that, public libraries can aptly be considered as institutions of national importance in imparting education and knowledge to patrons which is necessary for the growth of learned society.
    Keywords: Education, public libraries, literacy drive, user access, knowledge society
    JEL: L3 Y8 Z1
    Date: 2023–04–23

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