nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒02‒20
six papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Bringing underprivileged middle-school students to the opera: cultural mobility or cultural compliance? By Philippe Coulangeon; Denis Fougère
  2. Mœbius, an ecological imagination? From the Time Masters, through the World of Edena, to Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind 風の谷のナウシカ By Patrice Ballester
  3. Entrepreneurship and Territorial Cultural Projects: Towards a Development of Territorial Effectuation Concept By Véronique Favre-Bonté; Marie da Fonséca; Benoît Régent
  4. Barcelona in the face of globalization, how to think of the city through the organization and evaluation of major events? By Patrice Ballester
  5. Large Sporting Events and Public Health and Safety By J. James Reade
  6. Decentralized revenue sharing from broadcasting sports By Gustavo Bergantiños; Juan D. Moreno-Ternero

  1. By: Philippe Coulangeon (CRIS - Centre de recherche sur les inégalités sociales (Sciences Po, CNRS) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Denis Fougère (CRIS - Centre de recherche sur les inégalités sociales (Sciences Po, CNRS) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This article assesses the impact of a two-year long project-based learning program conducted by the National Opera of Paris in a large number of middle schools located in underprivileged areas, aiming at preventing school dropout and tackling educational inequalities by providing disadvantaged students with the opportunity to discover the world of opera. Taking a counterfactual approach (propensity score matching), we measure the impact of participation in the program on final exam and continuous assessment grades. The analysis displays mixed results: a significant and positive impact for the students who participate in the program for its whole duration (two years), at least for continuous assessment scores, but a negative impact for those who leave the program after only one year. The contrast between the effects of full and partial participation in the program suggests that these may be primarily due to a selection effect in favor of the most culturally and socially compliant students, in line with Bourdieu's and Passeron's reproduction theory (1997 [1970]) rather than a mobility effect (DiMaggio, 1982) resulting from the transfer of cultural capital to disadvantaged students.
    Keywords: project-based learning, middle school, statistical matching, mixed method, cultural capital
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Patrice Ballester (Euridis - Euridis Business School, M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Education nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, Société de Géographie (Paris))
    Abstract: Moebius, ecologist? Mœbius - Jean Giraud: an artist who has become a world reference, a model and a source of inspiration for contemporary artists, an ecologist through landscape and sovereign thought, often unprecedented, sometimes esoteric. Jean Giraud, alias Mœbius or Gir, is a major author and designer of comics, this on a global scale. Born in 1938 in Nogent-sur-Marne, he entered Applied Arts in Paris in 1954. In 1963, he created with Jean-Michel Charlier – at the time director of the magazine Pilote – the Blueberry series, which he continued after his disappearance and which today has around thirty albums, without counting an equivalent number of works produced in collaboration with other artists, screenwriters and designers. At the same time under the signature of MŒBIUS, it inaugurated in 1962 a new source of inspiration turned towards humor, fantasy and science fiction. He is also the author of numerous illustrations, paintings and advertising works. Co-founder in 1975 of the magazine Métal Hurlant and the publishing house Les Humanoïde Associés, Jean Giraud developed a unique style signed Mœbius. He revolutionized the creative aspect of comics on a screenplay by Alejandro Jodorowsky, he then began the story of the adventures of John Difool in L'Incal (1980), a series whose success places him among the most innovative cartoonists in the field. of Science fiction. He also began the series Le Monde d'Edena in the 1980s, with more personal comments and reflections. He collaborates for the cinema, his drawings hold the attention of great directors with Alien by Ridley Scott (costumes), Blade Runner, Les Maîtres du temps by René Laloux (complete storyboard), Tron by Steven Lisberger (costumes), Abyss by James Cameron (underwater creatures), Willow by George Lucas & Ron Howard. It incorporates Alejandro Jodorowsky's Team for the movie Dune and its famous storyboard which still remains unpublished. He also collaborates with Marvel Comics by drawing an album with Stan Lee (Galactus and the Silver Surfer). From the 2000s, it was the time of major exhibitions and international recognition, Japan, America… The Mœbius – Myazaki exhibition (2004 – 2005) was a revelation and confirmation for the two artists concerning their mutual influence. A major exhibition is dedicated to him at the Cartier Foundation in Paris, entitled MŒBIUS-TRANSE-FORME from October 2010 to March 2011. He died in Paris on March 10, 2012. We approach our reflection on this major author of world comics through four stages: the Deviation – a major turning point for the author and his way of describing, drawing and breaking down his stories. Commitments like Greenpeace are present in his way of conceiving the world. We also analyze the artist's most personal work with "Le monde d'Edena", a poetic and ecological reflection. Finally, in an essay, we show the important links between two animated cinematographic works, "Les Maîtres du Temps" by Renée Laloux and Mœbius in (1981) and "Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind 風の谷のナウシカ» (1984) on a formal and screenplay level (and Arzach as an addendum). The path of the author of science fiction comics is a quest to enter a process of improvement of his being, of men and by derivative of the Planet. Ecology is not treated as a ground swell or an imperative to safeguard the planet in these albums, but as a citizen the one who questions nuclear power, pollution and scandals in France in the 1970s and sometimes the support for NGOs like Greenpeace. We very often find beautiful landscapes and an ode to the importance of nature in the face of technology. The Wilderness or wild nature is an element that stands out in the World of Edena, the evolutions of the landscape are multiple. By way of an opening, there are still elements to highlight such as the care given to flowers and vehicles of all kinds that move with a mode of locomotion that could be described as ecological, Mœbius enjoying drawing vessels, cars and other means of transport. In short, a protean, visionary artist with polymorphic and anticipatory universes.
    Abstract: Mœbius, écologiste ? Mœbius - Jean Giraud : un artiste devenu une référence mondiale, un modèle et une source d'inspiration pour les artistes contemporains, un écologiste par le paysage et la pensée souveraine, souvent inédite, ésotérique parfois. Jean Giraud, alias Mœbius ou encore Gir, est un auteur et dessinateur majeur de la bande dessinée, ceci à l'échelle mondiale. Né en 1938 à Nogent-sur-Marne, il entre aux Arts Appliqués à Paris en 1954. En 1963, il crée avec Jean-Michel Charlier – à l'époque directeur de la revue Pilote – la série Blueberry, qu'il poursuit après sa disparition et qui compte aujourd'hui une trentaine d'albums, sans compter un nombre équivalent d'œuvres réalisées en collaboration avec d'autres artistes, scénaristes et dessinateurs. Parallèlement sous la signature de MŒBIUS, il inaugure dès 1962 une nouvelle source d'inspiration tournée vers l'humour, le fantastique et la science-fiction. Il est aussi l'auteur de nombreuses illustrations, peintures et travaux publicitaires. Cofondateur en 1975 de la revue Métal Hurlant et de la maison d'édition Les Humanoïdes Associés, Jean Giraud y développe un style unique signé Mœbius. Il révolutionne l'aspect créatif de la bande dessinée sur un scénario d'Alejandro Jodorowsky, il entame ensuite le récit des aventures de John Difool dans L'Incal (1980), série dont le succès le place parmi les dessinateurs les plus innovants en matière de science-fiction. Il débute aussi la série Le Monde d'Edena dans les années 1980, aux propos et réflexions plus personnelles. Il collabore pour le cinéma, ses dessins retiennent l'attention de grands réalisateurs avec Alien de Ridley Scott (costumes), Blade Runner, Les Maîtres du temps de René Laloux (story-board complet), Tron de Steven Lisberger (costumes), Abyss de James Cameron (créatures sous-marines), Willow de George Lucas & Ron Howard. Il incorpore l'Équipe d'Alejandro Jodorowsky pour le film Dune et son célèbre story-board qui reste encore non publié. Il collabore aussi avec Marvel Comics en dessinant un album avec Stan Lee (Galactus et le Silver Surfer). À partir des années 2000, c'est le temps des grandes expositions et d'une reconnaissance internationale, Japon, Amérique… L'exposition Mœbius – Myazaki (2004 – 2005) est une révélation et confirmation pour les deux artistes concernant leur influence mutuelle. Une grande exposition lui est consacrée à la Fondation Cartier à Paris, intitulée MŒBIUS-TRANSE-FORME d'octobre 2010 à mars 2011. Il décède à Paris, le 10 mars 2012. Nous abordons notre réflexion sur cet auteur majeur de la BD mondiale à travers quatre étapes : la Déviation – un tournant majeur pour l'auteur et sa façon de décrire, de dessiner et de décomposer ses histoires. Des engagements comme Greenpeace sont présents dans sa façon de concevoir le monde. Nous analysons aussi l'œuvre la plus personnelle de l'artiste avec « Le monde d'Edena », une réflexion poétique et écologique. Enfin, dans un essai, nous montrons les liens importants entre deux œuvres cinématographiques d'animation, « Les Maîtres du Temps » de Renée Laloux et Mœbius en (1981) et « Nausicaä de la Vallée du Vent Nausicaä de la Vallée du Vent 風の谷のナウシカ» (1984) au plan formel et scénaristique (et Arzach en additif). Le parcours de l'auteur de BD de science-fiction est une quête pour rentrer dans un processus d'amélioration de son être, des hommes et par dérivé de la Planète. L'écologie n'est pas traitée comme lame de fond ou un impératif de sauvegarde de la planète dans ces albums, mais en tant que citoyen celui ce questionne, le nucléaire, les pollutions et les scandales en France dans les années 1970 et parfois le soutien à des ONG comme Greenpeace. On retrouve très souvent de beaux paysages et une ode de l'importance de la nature face à la technologie. Le Wilderness ou la nature sauvage est un élément qui ressort dans le Monde d'Edena, les évolutions du paysage sont multiples. En guise d'ouverture, il reste des éléments à mettre en lumière comme le soin apporté aux fleurs et les véhicules de toute sorte que se déplacent avec un mode de locomotion que l'on pourrait qualifier d'écologique, Mœbius appréciant dessiner les vaisseaux, voitures et autres moyens de locomotion. En somme, un artiste protéiforme, visionnaire et aux univers polymorphes et anticipateurs.
    Keywords: Mœbius, Jean Giraud, Hayao Miyazaki, ecology, landscape, nature, comics, animation, economics of culture, science-fiction, écologie, paysage, bande dessinée, économie de la culture
    Date: 2022–12–02
  3. By: Véronique Favre-Bonté (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc); Marie da Fonséca (UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia); Benoît Régent (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc)
    Abstract: This study contributes to the very limited research on territorial entrepreneurship. We have used the effectuation framework for a better understanding of the regional cultural projects we consider to be territorial entrepreneurship. Through two case studies of Territorial Cultural Projects, we show how a territorial entrepreneurship dynamic can be established. This paper thus contributes to the literature on territorial entrepreneurship by identifying both the role of the participants in local entrepreneurship dynamics and the emergence of these dynamics within the territory.
    Abstract: Cette recherche s'inscrit dans les travaux, encore très peu nombreux, qui portent sur l'Entrepreneuriat Territorial. Le cadre de l'effectuation est utilisé pour appréhender les projets culturels de territoire positionnés ici comme de l'Entrepreneuriat Territorial. A travers l'étude de deux cas de Projets Culturels de Territoire nous montrons comment une dynamique territoriale entrepreneuriale peut s'instaurer. Ainsi ce papier contribue à l'état des connaissances sur l'entrepreneuriat territorial en cherchant à identifier d'une part le rôle des acteurs dans les dynamiques locales d'entrepreneuriat, et d'autre part l'émergence de ces dynamiques au sein du territoire.
    Keywords: territorial entrepreneurship, territorial entrepreneurial skills, stakeholders, territorial cultural project, effectuation, projet culturel de territoire, entrepreneuriat territorial, compétence entrepreneuriale territoriale, parties prenantes
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Patrice Ballester (GEODE, UPPA, MSHS-T, UNS-IAE Nice)
    Abstract: The event questions men whether it is political, cultural or touristic. It has its own meaning as it starts something while showing a will, a new possibility to create, to meet and to surprise. The event is in fact an "advent that reaches everything" generally integrating itself into a long process or phase of the evolution of societies in terms of its societal structure. However, if the event exists, it is significant and therefore assessable. How to evaluate an Olympic Games or an international exhibition? Can we evaluate the before (from the statement of position, application file), the during (the course of the tourist, cultural or sporting event) and the after (the closing of the festival and its direct and indirect effects on society)? How then to evaluate all the dimensions of the event generally based on major tourist and urban planning operations? We will take as a field of study a city -- capital -- commercial port which has become a sort of archetype in the context of the organization of mega-events with a tourist vocation, such as the Universal or International Exhibitions and the Olympic Games, namely Barcelona and three very important dates for the Catalan capital: 1888, universal exhibition, 1929 universal and international exhibition, 1992 the modern Olympic Games and 2004 the Universal Forum of Cultures of Unesco, international exhibition. The economic interest of organizing an ephemeral giant event is still relevant and will be confirmed in the future with the role of Asian countries within the IOC and the BIE (Bureau international des expositions). The important thing is to develop a rational argument to communicate on the economic merits of the event. Sustainable development and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) are predominant elements for ephemeral events that are intended to be sustainable over time for future generations.
    Date: 2022–11
  5. By: J. James Reade (Department of Economics, University of Reading)
    Abstract: Large sporting events have non-trivial externalities, where net social benefits can differ from net private benefits. In this chapter we particularly explore the relationship between large sporting events and public health and safety considerations, surveying the relevant literature. The Covid-19 Pandemic has provided a particularly clear example of the manner in which sporting events interact with the wider health and safety infrastructure, where sporting events were postponed, cancelled, and their formats dramatically altered in light of the Pandemic. This in turn then influenced outcomes, and arguably reduced the commercial value of the sporting product being produced via its impact on the production process. We consider these two directions of interaction between sporting events and public health and safety before concluding with some policy-related considerations.
    Keywords: mega events, Olympic Games, public health and safety, sport, organisation
    JEL: Z18 Z23 Z28
    Date: 2023–02–01
  6. By: Gustavo Bergantiños (ECOSOT, Universidade de Vigo); Juan D. Moreno-Ternero (Department of Economics, Universidad Pablo de Olavide)
    Abstract: We study the problem of sharing the revenues from broadcasting sports leagues among participating clubs. First, we characterize the set of rules satisfying two basic axioms: anonymity and additivity. Then, we decentralize the problem letting clubs vote for rules. No majority equilibrium exists when they are allowed to vote for any rule within the characterized set. Nevertheless, if the set is restricted in a meaningful and plausible way (just replacing anonymity by equal treatment of equals) majority equilibrium does exist.
    Keywords: Resource allocation, broadcasting problems, voting, majority, anonymity.
    JEL: D63 C71 Z20
    Date: 2023

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