nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒01‒16
six papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Material and symbolic production of fashion in a global creative city. Industry’s perception of the 21st century London By Casadei, Patrizia; Gilbert, David
  2. Art and Markets in the Greco-Roman World By Federico Etro
  3. Coworking Spaces as Clubs? Creativity and Lock-in in Collaborative Spaces Specialized in the Cultural and Creative Sectors By Basile Michel
  4. Das Marvel Cinematic Universe und die Architektur der Weltausstellungen, ein neues urbanes Design zwischen Fiktion und Realität By Patrice Ballester
  5. Visual Privacy: Current and Emerging Regulations Around Unconsented Video Analytics in Retail By Pletcher, Scott Nicholas
  6. Trade in creative services: relatedness and regional specialization in the UK By Casadei, Patrizia; Vanino, Enrico; Lee, Neil

  1. By: Casadei, Patrizia; Gilbert, David
    Abstract: In response to globalization of traditional manufacturing and the growing significance of a symbolic economy, fashion cities are now formed by different mixings of material, design/creative and symbolic forms of production. The intersection between these elements is particularly evident in the global fashion cities, which have experienced a profound process of deindustrialization and a shift between manufacturing and symbolic economies. This paper explores London’s relationship with fashion through the perspectives of key industry actors. We draw upon 30 semi-structured in-depth interviews undertaken between 2016 and 2018 to explore the interplay between material, creative and symbolic forms of fashion production in the city. Interview material is supported by the analysis of data collected from the Office for National Statistics and the Higher Education Statistics Agency. London’s fashion ecosystem is seen as having strong focus on creativity, artistic values and forms of symbolism, which are however regarded as in tension with a viable fashion design industry, an effective business culture and manufacturing system. The paper contributes to the literature on the fashion’s positioning in urban economies by shedding light on the interaction between production, creative and symbolic elements in a global creative city.
    Keywords: creativity; fashion industry; London; manufacturing; semi-structured interviews; symbolism
    JEL: R14 J01 J50
    Date: 2022–11–14
  2. By: Federico Etro
    Abstract: We study art markets in the Greco-Roman world to explore the origins of artistic innovations in classical Greece and mass production of imitative works in the Roman Empire. Economic factors may have played a role, on one side fostering product innovations when few rival Greek city-states competed outbidding each other to obtain higher quality artworks, and on the other side fostering process innovations when a large integrated market promoted art trade across the Mediterranean Sea. The evidence on art prices is consistent with this. Literary evidence on classical Greek painting from V-III centuries BC (largely from Pliny the Elder) shows that the real price of masterpieces increased up to the peak of creativity reached with Apelles. Epigraphic evidence on Roman sculpture from I-III centuries AD (largely from inscriptions on the bases of statues) shows that the real price of statues was stable and largely equalized across the imperial provinces.
    Keywords: Art markets, Ancient economy, Greco-Roman world
    JEL: Z11
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Basile Michel (PLACES - Laboratoire de géographie et d'aménagement - CY - CY Cergy Paris Université, ESO - Espaces et Sociétés - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UM - Le Mans Université - UA - Université d'Angers - UR2 - Université de Rennes 2 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - NantesUniv – IGARUN - Institut de Géographie et d'Aménagement Régional de l'Université de Nantes - Nantes Université - pôle Humanités - Nantes Univ - Nantes Université - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: This article aims to contribute to the analysis of the socio-economic organization of cultural and creative professionals clustered in collaborative workspaces. To do this, the hypothesis of the club, considered as a voluntary association of individuals around resources shared exclusively between selected members, is tested in the case of coworking spaces specializing in the cultural and creative industries. Based on qualitative investigations in 30 spaces in Nantes and Grenoble, the article shows that these places are like clubs, thus highlighting some of their realities: the importance of relational networks in the daily life of these spaces, the existence of a selection process by co-option for new members in order to preserve a high-quality work environment, and the challenge of balancing collective dynamics characterized by social conformism in the stimulation of creativity.
    Abstract: Cet article a pour objectif de contribuer à l'analyse de l'organisation socio-économique de professionnels de la culture et de la créativité regroupés au sein d'espaces collaboratifs de travail. Pour cela, l'hypothèse du club, considéré comme une association volontaire d'individus autour de ressources mutualisées exclusivement entre les membres sélectionnés, est testée dans le cas des espaces de coworking spécialisés dans les secteurs culturels et créatifs. Au travers d'enquêtes dans 30 espaces à Nantes et Grenoble, l'article montre que ces lieux fonctionnent tels des clubs, éclairant ainsi quelques-unes de leurs réalités : l'importance des réseaux relationnels dans la vie quotidienne de ces espaces, l'application d'une sélection des entrées par cooptation pour les nouveaux membres en vue de préserver un environnement de travail de qualité, ou encore l'enjeu de l'équilibre des dynamiques collectives marquées par l'entre-soi dans la stimulation de la créativité.
    Keywords: coworking space,club,creativity,culture,collaborative network,espace de coworking,créativité,réseau collaboratif
    Date: 2022–11–29
  4. By: Patrice Ballester (IEFT - Institut Européenne de Formation au Tourisme - School of Tourism & Hospitality, IGS - Groupe IGS, Euridis - Euridis Business School, ENSAS - École nationale supérieure d'architecture de Strasbourg, ACCRA - Approches contemporaines de la création et de la réflexion artistiques - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg, AMUP - Architecture, morphologie / Morphogénèse urbaine et projet - INSA Strasbourg - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées - Strasbourg - INSA - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées - ENSAS - École nationale supérieure d'architecture de Strasbourg)
    Abstract: Das Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) ist das bisher größte Film-Franchise der Disney Group (Studio Marvel), das das Leben von Superhelden sowohl in der gewöhnlichen als auch in der großen Stadtarchitektur und in Filmsets zeigt, wie auf den New Yorker Weltausstellungen. Dabei stehen die Elemente einer Archfiction im Dienste des Storytellings, aber auch des Freizeitmarketings. Zwischen dem Kino und den Weltausstellungen entsteht eine untrennbare Verbindung durch die architektonische Dekoration als Element der Inszenierung und Erzählung der Stadt in einer Szenografie im Dienste von Unterhaltung und Inszenierung. Die Geschichte und Geographie von Universalausstellungen überschneidet sich mit der Geschichte und Film- und Fernsehpraxis (Animation und Comics) unserer heutigen Welt. Darüber hinaus helfen uns das Kino und seine Mittel, die Städte des MCU durch zwei komplementäre Zeitlichkeiten zu denken und zu sehen: die Diegese und die Vorstellungskraft von Superheldenfilmen und die bewährte Geschichte der in den Vereinigten Staaten abgehaltenen Weltausstellungen. . Schließlich sind die Transmedia und die Architektur von Weltausstellungen eng mit einer Kultur und Architektur der Vergnügungsparks des Disney-Konzerns verbunden, die Entwicklern (Imagineers) ein leicht transponierbares und identifizierbares Universum für Verbraucher bieten, in Marketing und Kommunikation, das gekonnt vom Filmdesign bis zum Denken denkt nach Produktion. Dito für die DC-Comics-Gruppe, DC-Universum mit zum Beispiel Batman and the City - Paul Dini Bruce Timm analysiert den Film "Batman, Mask of the Phantasm", 1993.
    Abstract: The Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) is the Disney group's largest film franchise (Studio Marvel) worldwide to date, showcasing the lives of superheroes in city-style architecture and movie sets, both ordinary and with great spectacles like New-York world's fairs. In this setting, the effects of an archifiction are available in the service of script storytelling, but also of leisure marketing. An inseparable link emerges between cinema and world's fairs through architectural decors as an element of staging and narration of the city in a scenography at the service of entertainment, scenarios and leisure. Moreover, the history and geography of the world's fairs intersect with the history and practice of film - television (animation and comics) of our contemporary world. But the cinema and its devices help us think about and see the cities of the MCU through two additional temporalities: the diegesis and the imaginaryof superhero films and the proven history of world's fairs held in the United States. Finally, transmedia and the architecture of world's fairs are intimately linked to the culture and architecture of the Disney group's amusement parks, offering developers - imagineers a universe that is easily transposable and identifiable for consumers in a carefully thought-out marketing and communication, ranging from film design to post production. Ditto for the DC Comics group, DC universe with for example Batman and the city - Paul Dini Bruce Timm analyzes the film "Batman, Mask of the Phantasm", 1993.
    Abstract: Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) es la franquicia cinematográfica más grande de Disney Group (Studio Marvel) hasta la fecha, que muestra la vida de los superhéroes en escenarios de películas y arquitectura urbana ordinaria y a gran escala, como las Ferias Mundiales de Nueva York. En este contexto, los elementos de una archi-ficción están al servicio de la narración, pero también del marketing del ocio. Surge un vínculo inseparable entre el cine y las exposiciones universales a través de la decoración arquitectónica como elemento de escenificación y narración de la ciudad en una escenografía al servicio del entretenimiento y los escenarios. La historia y la geografía de las exposiciones universales se entrecruzan con la historia y la práctica cinematográfico-televisiva (animación y cómic) de nuestro mundo contemporáneo. Además, el cine y sus dispositivos nos ayudan a pensar y ver las ciudades del MCU a través de dos temporalidades complementarias: la diégesis y la imaginación de las películas de superhéroes y la historia comprobada de las exposiciones universales realizadas en Estados Unidos. Finalmente, el transmedia y la arquitectura de exposiciones universales están íntimamente ligados a una cultura y arquitectura de los parques de atracciones del grupo Disney que ofrece a los desarrolladores (imaginadores) un universo fácilmente transponible e identificable para los consumidores, en marketing y comunicación que está pensando hábilmente desde el diseño cinematográfico hasta post-producción. Lo mismo ocurre con el grupo DC Comics, el universo DC con, por ejemplo, Batman y la ciudad: Paul Dini Bruce Timm analiza la película "Batman, Mask of the Phantasm", 1993.
    Abstract: Le Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) est à ce jour la plus importante franchise cinématographique du groupe Disney (Studio Marvel), mettant en avant la vie des super-héros dans une architecture de ville et des décors de cinéma à la fois ordinaires et à grand spectacle comme les expositions universelles new-yorkaises. Dans ce contexte, les éléments d'une archifiction se déclinent au service de la narration scénaristique, mais aussi du marketing des loisirs. Un lien indissociable se fait jour entre le cinéma et les expositions universelles à travers les décors d'architecture comme un élément de mise en scène et en récit de la ville dans une scénographie au service du divertissement et des scénarios. L'histoire et la géographie des expositions universelles se recoupent avec l'histoire et la pratique cinématographique - télévisuelle (animation et comics) de notre monde contemporain. De plus, le cinéma et ses dispositifs nous aident à penser et à voir les villes du MCU à travers deux temporalités complémentaires : la diégèse et l'imaginaire des films de super-héros et l'histoire avérée des expositions universelles tenues aux États-Unis. Enfin, le transmédia et l'architecture des expositions universelles sont intimement liés à une culture et architecture des parcs d'attraction du groupe Disney offrant aux développeurs (imagineers) un univers facilement transposable et identifiable pour les consommateurs, dans un marketing et une communication savamment réfléchis allant de la conception des films à la post production. Idem pour le groupe DC Comics, DC universe avec par exemple Batman et la ville - Paul Dini Bruce Timm analyse du film "Batman, Mask of the Phantasm", 1993.
    Abstract: Il Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) è il più grande franchise cinematografico del Gruppo Disney (Studio Marvel) fino ad oggi, che mostra le vite dei supereroi nell'architettura cittadina e nei set cinematografici sia ordinari che su larga scala, come le fiere mondiali di New York. In questo contesto, gli elementi di un'archi narrativa sono disponibili al servizio dello storytelling, ma anche del marketing del tempo libero. Emerge un legame inscindibile tra il cinema e le mostre universali attraverso le decorazioni architettoniche come elemento di messa in scena e narrazione della città in una scenografia al servizio dello spettacolo e degli scenari. La storia e la geografia delle mostre universali (esposizione universale) si intersecano con la storia e la pratica cinematografico - televisiva (animazione e fumetto) della nostra contemporaneità. Inoltre, il cinema e i suoi dispositivi ci aiutano a pensare e vedere le città del MCU attraverso due temporalità complementari: la diegesi e l'immaginazione dei film di supereroi e la comprovata storia delle mostre universali tenute negli Stati Uniti. . Infine, la transmedia e l'architettura delle mostre universali sono intimamente legate a una cultura e un'architettura dei parchi divertimento del gruppo Disney che offrono agli sviluppatori (imaginer) un universo facilmente trasponibile e identificabile per i consumatori, nel marketing e nella comunicazione che pensa sapientemente dal film design alla post produzione. Idem per il gruppo DC Comics, universo DC con ad esempio Batman e la città - Paul Dini Bruce Timm analizza il film "Batman, Mask of the Phantasm", 1993.
    Abstract: O Universo Cinematográfico da Marvel (MCU) é a maior franquia de filmes do Grupo Disney (Studio Marvel) até hoje, mostrando a vida de super-heróis em arquiteturas e cenários de filmes comuns e de grande escala, como as Feiras Mundiais de Nova York. Neste contexto, os elementos de uma arquificção estão disponíveis ao serviço da contação de histórias, mas também do marketing do lazer. Surge uma ligação indissociável entre o cinema e as exposições universais através das decorações arquitetónicas como elemento de encenação e narração da cidade numa cenografia ao serviço do entretenimento e dos cenários. A história e a geografia das exposições universais cruzam-se com a história e a prática cinematográfica - televisiva (animação e banda desenhada) do nosso mundo contemporâneo. Além disso, o cinema e seus dispositivos nos ajudam a pensar e ver as cidades do MCU por meio de duas temporalidades complementares: a diegese e a imaginação dos filmes de super-heróis e a comprovada história das exposições universais realizadas nos Estados Unidos. Por fim, a transmídia e a arquitetura das exposições universais estão intimamente ligadas a uma cultura e arquitetura dos parques de diversões do grupo Disney, oferecendo aos desenvolvedores (imagineers) um universo facilmente transponível e identificável para os consumidores, em marketing e comunicação que pensa habilmente desde o design do filme até o pós-produção. Idem para o grupo DC Comics, universo DC com, por exemplo, Batman e a cidade - Paul Dini Bruce Timm analisa o filme "Batman, Máscara do Fantasma", 1993.
    Keywords: Architektur,Stadt,Weltausstellung,Landschaft,Zeitlichkeit,Archifiction,Marvel Cinematic Universe MCU,DC Comics,Iron Man,Captain America,Batman,Architecture,city,world's fair,landscape,temporality,archifiction,Arquitectura,ciudad,Exposición Universal,paisaje,temporalidad,arquificción,Capitán América,ville,exposition universelle,paysage,temporalité,Architettura,città,Esposizione Universale,paesaggio,temporalità,archi narrativa,Capitan America,Arquitetura,cidade,Exposição Universal,paisagem,temporalidade,Homem De Ferro,Capitão América
    Date: 2022–06–11
  5. By: Pletcher, Scott Nicholas
    Abstract: Video analytics is the practice of combining digital video data with machine learning models to infer various characteristics from that video. This capability has been used for years to detect objects, movement and the number of customers in physical retail stores but more complex machine learning models combined with more powerful computing power has unlocked new levels of possibility. Researchers claim it is now possible to infer a whole host of characteristics about an individual using video analytics–such as specific age, ethnicity, health status and emotional state. Moreover, an individual’s visual identity can be augmented with information from other data providers to build out a detailed profile–all with the individual unknowingly contributing their physical presence in front of a retail store camera. Some retailers have begun to experiment with this new technology as a way to better know their customers. However, those same early adopters are caught in an evolving legal landscape around privacy and data ownership. This research looks into the current legal landscape and legislation currently in progress around the use of video analytics, specifically in the retail in-store setting. Because the ethical and legal norms around individualized video analytics are still heavily in flux, retailers are urged to adopt a ‘wait-and-see’ approach or potentially incur costly legal expenses and risk damage to their brand.
    Date: 2022–12–06
  6. By: Casadei, Patrizia; Vanino, Enrico; Lee, Neil
    Abstract: Creative services have become an important, but understudied, part of global trade. This paper presents new evidence on the transformation, geography and industrial relatedness of creative service exports in the UK, using the Inquiry in International Trade in Services (ITIS) database. Creative services exports have grown over the past decade, but there are pronounced patterns of geographical specialization in the export of creative and non-creative services. We develop a measure of relatedness between exports of creative and non-creative services and of manufacturing goods. We argue that creative services are economically significant because of their interrelationship with other local sectors.
    Keywords: creative services; trade; exports; services; relatedness; T&F deal
    JEL: R11 F10 R12
    Date: 2022–10–17

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