nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒11‒07
two papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Cultural homophily and collaboration in superstar teams By Gabor Bekes; Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano
  2. The effect of monitoring and crowds on crime and law enforcement: A natural experiment from European football By Brad R. Humphreys; Alexander Marsella; Levi Perez

  1. By: Gabor Bekes; Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano
    Abstract: One may reasonably think that cultural preferences affect collaboration in multinational teams in general, but not in superstar teams of professionals at the top of their industry. We reject this hypothesis by creating and analyzing an exhaustive dataset recording all 10.7 million passes by 7 thousand professional European football players from 138 countries fielded by all 154 teams competing in the top 5 men leagues over 8 sporting seasons, together with full information on players' and teams' characteristics. We use a discrete choice model of players' passing behavior as a baseline to separately identify collaboration due to cultural preferences (`choice homophily') from collaboration due to opportunities (`induced homophily'). The outcome we focus on is the `pass rate', defined as the count of passes from a passer to a receiver relative to the passer's total passes when both players are fielded together in a half-season. We find strong evidence of choice homophily. Relative to the baseline, player pairs of same culture have a 2.42 percent higher pass rate due to choice, compared with a 6.16 percent higher pass rate due to both choice and opportunity. This shows that choice homophily based on culture is pervasive and persistent even in teams of very high skill individuals with clear common objectives and aligned incentives, who are involved in interactive tasks that are well defined, readily monitored and not particularly language intensive.
    Keywords: organizations, teams, culture, homophily, diversity, language, globalization, big data, panel data, sport
    Date: 2022–10–07
  2. By: Brad R. Humphreys (West Virginia University, Department of Economics); Alexander Marsella (West Virginia University, Department of Economics); Levi Perez (University of Oviedo)
    Abstract: Technological advancements like the presence of smart phones and body cameras have led to increased monitoring of police, but little evidence exists on their impact. We address these problems using data on fouls from football matches in five European football leagues over six seasons. This period contains exogenous changes in monitoring rule enforcers through introduction of Video Assistant Referee review and limited "bystanders" from Covid-19 restrictions. Results from difference-in-differences models estimated separately for each league indicate that both events influenced the number of fouls called with substantial heterogeneity across leagues and home/away teams.
    Keywords: crime, police monitoring, football fouls
    JEL: H41 K42 Z20
    Date: 2022–10

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