nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒10‒03
two papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale

  1. The Impact of the #MeToo Movement on Language at Court -- A text-based causal inference approach By Henrika Langen
  2. The Age-Wage-Productivity Puzzle: A Contribution from Professional Football By Rachel Scarfe; Carl Singleton; Adesola Sunmoni; Paul Telemo

  1. By: Henrika Langen
    Abstract: This study assesses the effect of the #MeToo movement on different quantifiers of the 2015-2020 judicial opinions in sexual violence related cases from 51 U.S. courts. The judicial opinions are vectorized into bag-of-words and tf-idf vectors in order to study their development over time. Further, different indicators quantify to what extent the judges use a language that implicitly shifts some blame from the victim(s) to the perpetrator(s). These indicators measure how the grammatical structure, the sentiment and the context of sentences mentioning the victim(s) and/or perpetrator(s) change over time. The causal effect of the #MeToo movement is estimated by means of Difference-in-Differences comparing the development of the language in opinions on sexual violence and other interpersonal crime related cases as well as a Panel Event Study approach. The results do not clearly identify a #MeToo-movement-induced change in the language in court but suggest that the movement may have accelerated the evolution of court language slightly, causing the effect to materialize with a significant time lag. Additionally, the study considers potential effect heterogeneity with respect to the judge's gender and his/her political affiliation. The study combines causal inference with text quantification methods that are commonly used for classification as well as with indicators from the fields of sentiment analysis, word embedding models and grammatical tagging.
    Date: 2022–09
  2. By: Rachel Scarfe (School of Economics, University of Edinburgh); Carl Singleton (Department of Economics, University of Reading); Adesola Sunmoni (Department of Economics, University of Reading); Paul Telemo (School of Economics, University of Edinburgh)
    Abstract: There is an inverted u-shaped relationship between age and wages in most labour markets and occupations, but the effects of age on productivity are less clear. We use panel data on the productivity and salaries of all elite professional footballers (soccer players) in North America to estimate age-productivity and age-wage profiles, which control for unobserved player characteristics and for entry and exit from this market, finding stark differences. While the productivity of footballers tends to peak in their early to mid-20s and then falls slowly, wages continue to increase throughout most of their careers, up to age 30, after which they fall rapidly. This discrepancy has been observed in other labour markets and poses the question: why are the youngest and oldest workers seemingly underpaid relative to their productivity? We consider a number of possible mechanisms that could be responsible without finding a clear culprit.
    Keywords: Labour productivity, Wages, Aging, Major League Soccer
    JEL: J23 J24 J31 J41 Z22
    Date: 2022–09–09

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