nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒01‒31
five papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Bringing Underprivileged Middle-School Students to the Opera: Cultural Mobility or Cultural Compliance? By Coulangeon, Philippe; Fougère, Denis
  2. Innovation Ecosystems in the Creative Sector: The Case of Additive Manufacturing and Advanced Materials for Design By Ubaldo Spina; Ramón Compañó
  3. Cultural Diversity and Its Impact on Governance By Tom\'a\v{s} Evan; Vladim\'ir Hol\'y
  5. Analyzing the effectiveness of UEFA's financial fair play regulations: A comparative study of the French Ligue 1 and the English Premier League By Aurélien François; Nadine Dermit-Richard; Daniel Plumley; Robert Wilson

  1. By: Coulangeon, Philippe (CNRS); Fougère, Denis (Sciences Po, Paris)
    Abstract: This article assesses the impact of a two-year long project-based learning program conducted by the National Opera of Paris in a large number of junior high-schools located in underprivileged areas, aiming at preventing school dropout and tackling educational inequalities by providing disadvantaged students with the opportunity to discover the world of opera. Taking a counterfactual approach (propensity score matching), we measure the impact of participation in the program on final exam and continuous assessment grades. The analysis displays mixed results: a significant and positive impact for the students who participate in the program for its whole duration (two years), at least for continuous assessment scores, but a negative impact for those who leave the program after only one year. The contrast between the effects of full and partial participation in the program suggests that these may be primarily due to a selection effect in favor of the most culturally and socially compliant students, in line with Bourdieu's and Passeron's reproduction theory (1997 [1970]) rather than a mobility effect (DiMaggio, 1982) resulting from the transfer of cultural capital to disadvantaged students.
    Keywords: project-based learning, middle school, statistical matching, mixed method, cultural capital
    JEL: I21 I29 Z11 Z18 C21
    Date: 2021–12
  2. By: Ubaldo Spina; Ramón Compañó (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This report provides an ecosystem analysis of cultural and creative industry (CCI) sector with regard to the adoption of new technologies and as case studies additive manufacturing and advanced materials as these two technologies are becoming consolidated in prototyping and manufacturing in many industrial sectors, but are still in their infancy in the CCI. The introduction of these two technologies, however, is the base of emerging new business models as showcased by a number of promising startups. We identified 430 CCI-startups in Europe that operate innovative products or services and that were further analysed via an online survey to which 83 companies participated. In addition, we discuss the role innovation ecosystems for the CCI development in Europe taking four ecosystems as example, namely the ‘Finnish Additive Manufacturing Ecosystem’ in Helsinki, the ‘Design Farm’ in Berlin, the ‘Sustainable and Tech Fashion’ hub in Amsterdam and “Portuguese footwear cluster” in the northern region of Portugal. Our study shows that green and digital transformations make additive manufacturing and advanced materials technologies quite worth looking into for CCI firms. The survey demonstrates a high degree of business dynamism of those companies that have fully embraced additive manufacturing and advanced materials as their operational basis. Furthermore we show that an effective ecosystem are key for deploying novel technologies to the sector, mostly composed by small and very small enterprises.
    Keywords: cultural and creative industries, additive manufacturing, 3D printing, materials, startups, business models,innovation
    JEL: O32 O31 O25
    Date: 2021–12
  3. By: Tom\'a\v{s} Evan; Vladim\'ir Hol\'y
    Abstract: Hofstede's six cultural dimensions make it possible to measure the culture of countries but are criticized for assuming the homogeneity of each country. In this paper, we propose two measures based on Hofstede's cultural dimensions which take into account the heterogeneous structure of citizens with respect to their countries of origin. Using these improved measures, we study the influence of heterogeneous culture and cultural diversity on the quality of institutions measured by the six worldwide governance indicators. We use a linear regression model allowing for dependence in spatial and temporal dimensions as well as high correlation between the governance indicators. Our results show that the effect of cultural diversity improves some of the governance indicators while worsening others depending on the individual Hofstede cultural dimension.
    Date: 2021–12
  4. By: Maria Mercanti-Guérin (IAE Paris - Sorbonne Business School)
    Abstract: Digital twins are a digital representation of the physical world. Among the multiple applications of digital twins, housing is one of the first sectors concerned. The objective of this re-search is to determine whether interior designs conceived by digital twins are more readable by artificial intelligence than human-designed designs (1) and whether these designs generate more consumer preference (2). Our first experiment shows that AI generates fewer annotation or classification errors when analyzing designs conceived via digital twins. Our second experiment shows that consumers' attitudes are more favorable towards designs conceived by digital twins. Aesthetics and complexity, which are two dimensions of object creativity, are perceived negatively. Only the "novelty" dimension which can be assimilated to modernity ex-plains a strong preference for this type of interior. A discussion on AI as a possible brake on creativity and reinforcement of the status quo bias is proposed.
    Keywords: status quo,creativity,AI,digital twins
    Date: 2021–11–25
  5. By: Aurélien François (CETAPS - Centre d’études des transformations des activités physiques et sportives - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - IRIHS - Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire Homme et Société - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université); Nadine Dermit-Richard (CETAPS - Centre d’études des transformations des activités physiques et sportives - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - IRIHS - Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire Homme et Société - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université); Daniel Plumley (Sheffield Hallam University); Robert Wilson
    Abstract: This article assesses the effectiveness of the UEFA Financial Fair Play (FFP) regulations, one of the few financial regulatory tools for open leagues in Europe in two top divisions in Europe. The objective of FFP borrows from the theoretical concept of ‘soft budget constraint' in sport finance and regulation literature. Introduced by UEFA in 2011 and fully implemented from 2013, FFP requires clubs qualifying for European competitions to comply with the financial concept of "break-even", where football expenses should not exceed football revenues. This study uses the French Ligue 1 (L1) and the English Premier League (PL) as a case study for analysing the effectiveness of FFP and includes thirteen clubs (seven French and six English) in total. The selection of clubs was guided firstly by data access but was also restricted to clubs regularly participating in European competitions between 2011, when FFP came into effect, and 2018. The scope of the study enabled us to measure the effect of FFP with regard to the break-even rule and the payroll ratios before and after its full application by comparing the periods 2008-2013 and 2013-2018 using descriptive statistics and tests of comparisons. The results are contrasted according to the national context of the clubs studied and the indicators analysed. First, they show a general improvement in the profitability of the clubs in the sample, although the results are statistically significant only in the case of the PL. Concerning the payroll ratios, the first measure (payroll/operating expenses) decreased significantly for all clubs, with significant differences found comparatively in the case of the L1. The second measure (payroll/operating income) also decreased, but the decrease was only significant at the sample level when the trading activity was included in operating income. From a theoretical perspective, this contribution makes it possible to compare the conclusions obtained with existing works, be it predictive or empirical in nature. From a managerial point of view, it calls for UEFA to remain vigilant in respect of FFP. While the results appear to suggest that FFP has been effective in improving the financial equilibrium of clubs and their payroll ratios, the link between better financial health and good governance remains a key challenge for the industry moving forward.
    Abstract: Cet article ambitionne d'évaluer l'efficacité du système de Fair-play financier (FPF), un des rares outils de régulation des ligues ouvertes en Europe. Elle s'inscrit dans le cadre de la régulation financière des ligues de sports collectifs en empruntant des éléments théoriques au concept de « contrainte budgétaire lâche ». Instauré par l'UEFA en 2011 et pleinement appliqué à partir de 2013, le FPF impose aux clubs qualifiés en coupes d'Europe de respecter une règle d'équilibre financier limitant leurs montants de dépenses issues de l'activité football à ceux de leurs recettes, sans l'aide d'apports extérieurs. Pour parvenir à cet objectif, nous avons retenu sept clubs évoluant en Ligue 1 française (L1) et six en Premier League anglaise (PL). Cette sélection a d'abord été guidée par l'accès aux données et a été restreinte aux clubs participant régulièrement aux compétitions européennes entre 2011, année d'entrée en vigueur du FPF, et 2018. Le périmètre ainsi constitué nous a permis de mesurer l'effet du FPF au regard de la règle d'équilibre et des ratios de masse salariale avant et après sa pleine application en comparant les périodes 2008-2013 et 2013-2018 à partir de statistiques descriptives et de tests de comparaisons. Les résultats sont contrastés en fonction du contexte national des clubs étudiés et des indicateurs analysés. Ils montrent d'abord une amélioration générale de la profitabilité des clubs sur l'ensemble de l'échantillon même si, au niveau national, les résultats ne sont statistiquement significatifs que dans le cas de la PL. Concernant les ratios de masse salariale, le premier étudié (masse salariale/charges d'exploitation) a diminué de façon significative sur l'ensemble des clubs même si la significativité des tests de comparaison n'a été constatée, cette fois-ci, que dans le cas de la L1. Le second (masse salariale/revenus d'exploitation) a également diminué mais la baisse n'est significative à l'échelle de l'échantillon que lorsque l'activité de transfert est intégrée aux revenus d'exploitation. D'un point de vue théorique, cette contribution permet de confronter les conclusions obtenues aux travaux existants qu'ils soient de nature prédictive ou empirique. D'un point de vue managérial, elle invite l'UEFA à rester vigilante car, si les résultats sont plutôt flatteurs laissant à penser que le FPF a été efficace dans l'amélioration de l'équilibre financier des clubs et de leurs ratios de masse salariale, le lien entre meilleure santé financière et bonne gouvernance est toutefois interrogé en fin d'article.
    Keywords: Financial Fair-Play,Financial Regulation,Effectiveness,Cross-national comparisons,European Football,Fair-play financier,Régulation financière,Efficacité,Comparaisons internationales,Football européen
    Date: 2021–11–30

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