nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒01‒17
eight papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Collective Intelligence: a Determining Factor to Support the Dual Economic and Artistic Ambition of the Creative Entrepreneur? By Isabelle Horvath; Gaëlle Dechamp
  2. Work in progress attempting to apprehend photography in CIDOC CRM modelling : theoretical contribution to modelling traces, information and meaning constructions By Raphaëlle Krummeich
  3. Do Public Libraries Help Mitigate Crime? Evidence from Kansas City, MO By Borges Ferreira Neto, Amir; Nowicki, Jennifer; Shakya, Shishir
  4. Cultural Assimilation: Learning and Sorting By Monteiro, Stein
  5. Heterophily, Stable Matching, and Intergenerational Transmission in Cultural Evolution By Hiller, Victor; Wu, Jiabin; Zhang, Hanzhe
  6. A turning point? Evaluating the impact of the 2019 FIFA Women World Cup in France on sports' clubs in host cities By Guillaume Bodet; Cécile Ottogalli-Mazzacavallo; Aurélie Épron; Virginie Nicaise
  7. Star Power and Risk. A Political Economic Study of Casting Trends in Hollywood By McMahon, James
  8. Montenegro, China, and the Media: A Highway to Disinformation? By Deron, Laure; Pairault, Thierry; Pasquali, Paola

  1. By: Isabelle Horvath (CREGO - Centre de Recherche en Gestion des Organisations [Dijon] - UBFC - Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté [COMUE] - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UB - Université de Bourgogne - UFC - Université de Franche-Comté - UBFC - Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté [COMUE]); Gaëlle Dechamp (COACTIS - COACTIS - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2)
    Abstract: The historical duality between artistic ambition and economic ambition has long been the subject of discussion among researchers. It is expressed in the creative and cultural sector where actors are forced to solve this complex equation between creative and commercial objectives. We propose in this article to understand how the creative entrepreneur manages to manage this paradoxical tension through the development of a collective intelligence located for a mutual and collective learning. The management of paradoxes and temporality allows us to discuss our results by proposing another paradoxical couple of organizations: creative ambition / economic ambition.
    Abstract: La dualidad histórica entre la ambición artística y la ambición económica ha sido objeto de investigaciones desde hace mucho tiempo. Se expresa en el sector creativo y cultural donde los actores se ven obligados a resolver esta compleja ecuación entre los objetivos creativos y los objetivos comerciales. En este artículo proponemos comprender cómo el empresario creativo logra manejar esta tensión paradójica a través del desarrollo de una inteligencia colectiva ubicada, que permite un aprendizaje mutuo y colectivo. La gestión de las paradojas y la temporalidad nos permiten discutir nuestros resultados al proponer otra pareja paradójica de las organizaciones: ambición creativa / ambición económica.
    Abstract: La dualité historique entre l'ambition artistique et l'ambition économique, est l'objet de discussions de chercheurs depuis longtemps. Elle s'exprime dans le secteur créatif et culturel où les acteurs sont contraints à résoudre cette équation complexe entre objectifs de création et objectifs commerciaux. Nous nous proposons dans cet article de comprendre comment l'entrepreneur créatif arrive à gérer cette tension paradoxale grâce au développement d'une Intelligence Collective située permettant un apprentissage mutuel et collectif. Le management des paradoxes et la temporalité nous permettent alors de discuter nos résultats en proposant un autre couple paradoxal des organisations : ambition créative/ambition économique.
    Keywords: Creative entrepreneurship,Collective intelligence,Learning,Paradoxes,Emprendimiento creativo,Inteligencia colectiva,Aprendizage,Paradojas,Entrepreneuriat créatif,Intelligence collective,Apprentissage
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Raphaëlle Krummeich (IRIHS - Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire Homme et Société - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université)
    Abstract: Integrating data in Cultural Heritage (CH) disciplines may inherited from multiple process or methodologies of digital document (DD) analysis wether the DD may contain text or images or other features associated with the document and/or the context of production of the document itself. Asserting historical authentification of informations contained or subsumed in a DD leads different disciplines to build methods that may include conceptual data modelling (see for example Bruseker & al, 2017). In the proposed approach, a DD-here a digital photograph of a technical drawing, is apprehended as an artefact (see for instance, DOLCE developpments by Kassel & al, 2009), a concept of the technical object both a) relational-the object defined by its relationships to the environment, and b) processual-the mode of existence of the technical object is defined by the concrete modalities of its genesis (Guchet, 2017).
    Date: 2021–05–19
  3. By: Borges Ferreira Neto, Amir; Nowicki, Jennifer; Shakya, Shishir
    Abstract: We examine the relationship between public libraries and local crime rates. Previous studies have looked at different factors that could account for changes in crime, but few have focused on cultural institutions as a primary factor. Using crime data from the Crime Open Database and library data from the Public Library Survey, we leverage the geolocation of crimes and libraries and explore opening a new public library branch in Kansas City, MO. We use a difference-in-difference strategy. Our results show that public library may reduce crime within its nearby proximity. In particular, we find within the nearby proximity of the library a substantial reduction of burglary, vandalism, robbery, fraud, and assault. However, such effects vanish in the distant proximity of the library.
    Keywords: crime, public library, geolocation, cultural institutions, Kansas City
    JEL: R12 Z19
    Date: 2021–12
  4. By: Monteiro, Stein
    Abstract: Immigration from poorer source countries is larger than from richer countries, so that poor country immigrants have greater exposure to co-ethnics, leading to fewer incentives to learn the local culture and assimilate. In this paper, the exposure channel through which source country richness affects assimilating immigration is modelled through neighbour-hood location choices and incentives to learn the local culture in the host country. Two equilibrium outcomes are identified, in which, there is either only assimilating immigration in at least one neighbourhood of the host country (sorting equilibrium) when immigration is from a rich source country, or there is some non-assimilating immigration in all neighbourhoods (mixed equilibrium) when immigration is from a poor source country. The presence of this exposure channel is tested using data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants in Canada: waves 1-3. Learning, rather than sorting into co-ethnic communities, is the main factor operating in the exposure channel between source country richness and assimilating immigration.
    Keywords: Cultural Assimilation; Language Proficiency; Pre-immigration Experience; Ethnic Enclaves; Sorting; Exposure
    JEL: J61 Z1
    Date: 2021–06–28
  5. By: Hiller, Victor (Universite Paris II Pantheon-Assas (LEMMA), Paris, France); Wu, Jiabin (Department of Economics, University of Oregon, Eugune, OR); Zhang, Hanzhe (Michigan State University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: We demonstrate that marital preferences, the marriage market, and intergenerational transmission mechanisms must be jointly considered to gain a more complete picture of cultural evolution. We characterize cultural processes in settings with different combinations of (i) homophilic and heterophilic marital preferences, (ii) men-optimal or women-optimal stable matching scheme, and (iii) familial, societal, and rational forces of intergenerational transmission. First, with perfect vertical transmission in homogamies and oblique transmission in heterogamies, the presence of even a small fraction of heterophilic proposers leads to complete cultural homogeneity; cultural heterogeneity arises only when proposers are all homophilic. Notably, a stable matching scheme that is optimal for a gender in the short run can lead to suboptimal outcomes for them in the long run. Second, when transmission in heterogamies incorporates Darwinian consideration, persistent or temporary cycles between cultural homogeneity and heterogeneity may arise. Third, with imperfect vertical transmission in homogamies, heterophilic preferences and heterogamies play a significant role in the determination of cultural distribution; cultural substitutability is neither sufficient nor necessary for cultural heterogeneity. Finally, we discuss our model's implications for matriarchal and patriarchal societies, the evolution of gender roles as well as cultural assimilation and identity formation of minorities and immigrants.
    Keywords: cultural evolution; marital preferences; stable matching; intergenerational cultural transmission; imitative dynamics; evolutionary game theory
    JEL: C73 C78 D10 Z10
    Date: 2021–12–31
  6. By: Guillaume Bodet (L-VIS - Laboratoire sur les Vulnérabilités et l'Innovation dans le Sport (EA 7428) - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon); Cécile Ottogalli-Mazzacavallo (L-VIS - Laboratoire sur les Vulnérabilités et l'Innovation dans le Sport (EA 7428) - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon); Aurélie Épron (L-VIS - Laboratoire sur les Vulnérabilités et l'Innovation dans le Sport (EA 7428) - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon); Virginie Nicaise (L-VIS - Laboratoire sur les Vulnérabilités et l'Innovation dans le Sport (EA 7428) - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon)
    Abstract: Aim and objectives The impact and legacy of major sport events remain an important issue, for public and sport decision-makers, local communities as well as for the academic community (Preuss, 2015). This question is particularly important as existing knowledge does not universally support strong impact and legacies (Thompson et al., 2019), and that sport events are intrinsically extremely diverse and are hosted in similarly diverse context and locations (Spaaij, 2009). One growing objective, and thus justification, for organising sporting events relates to the social impact/legacy they can have (Chalip, 2008). For this reason, and responding to a call from the Local Organising Committee of the FIFA WWC France 2019, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the event on sports clubs – football and non-football in France, which is one component of event legacy (Preuss, 2019). The event studied is particularly interesting considering that women's sporting events have been understudied and that women's football have been rapidly developing in terms of participation, image and media attention (Hallmann, 2012). Methodology The methodology followed a two-phase process. First, a questionnaire was conveniently administrated to sport clubs of the 9 hosting and 1 non-hosting city. The main goal was to characterize the situation of women and the club's policy regarding women's participation. The sample includes 96 clubs, comprising 17 football clubs. The second step based on phone interviews with club's board members, aimed to evaluate the WWC's specific impact on their club. The convenient sample is made of 60 clubs, comprising 3 football and 3 non-football clubs in each of the 10 cities. Findings The phase-1 results showed that only a minority of clubs had a formal engagement towards the promotion of women sports, but half of them declared having dedicated actions to promote gender equality. Overall, the phase-2 results indicate that although the event was very well received in the host cities it did not have any perceived impact on non-football clubs. If football clubs estimate that the event changed images and perceptions of women's football, they rarely observed an impact in their club, mainly through the arrival of few (
    Date: 2021–10–27
  7. By: McMahon, James
    Abstract: This paper builds an empirical and theoretical model to analyze how the financial goal of risk reduction changed the insides of Hollywood's star system. For the moviegoer looking at Hollywood cinema from the outside, the function of the star system has remained the same since the 1920s: to have recognizable actors attract large audiences to Hollywood's biggest and most expensive productions. The composition of this system is, however, sensitive to many historical changes in the business and culture of cinema. If the evolution of Hollywood's star system is shaped by broader social factors, risk reduction would be a key factor after 1980. This paper uses Internet Movie Database (IMDb) casting data to analyze how the star system was a factor in this period of risk reduction. Film casting assists risk reduction when a star system is built on controlled repetition. Repetitive casting - choosing the same people to star in a series of films - is a form of control because repetitive selection is the inequality of opportunity by another name: if an in-group is internally repetitive when alternatives exist, an out-group is repeatedly excluded. There are two key conclusions to the analysis of the IMDb dataset. First, casting repetitiveness/inequality in the blockbuster era of Hollywood (1980-present) is low compared to Hollywood's "classical" studio system (1930-1948). Second, the historically low repetitiveness/inequality can be misleading if we ignore sector characteristics such as firm size and level of theatrical distribution. Within the top-tier, whether measured by size of distributor or number of opening theatres in theatrical release, Hollywood relies on repetitive casting. The theoretical part of this paper will identify the role of capitalist power in the formation of a star system. Capitalist power, in this case, is defined as the ability of Hollywood to control everything from the industrial production of films to the broader social relations of cinema. This control is never absolute, but the role of capitalist power in the star system has a key purpose: to make sure that casting decisions are complementary to business interests.
    Keywords: culture,Hollywood,inequality,risk
    JEL: P16 Z1
    Date: 2022
  8. By: Deron, Laure; Pairault, Thierry; Pasquali, Paola
    Abstract: On June 21, 2021, the French public television channel France 2 aired a report in which it was stated that Montenegro, a heavily indebted nation, was at risk of "having to cede some of its land to China" as a result of its inability to pay back a loan for the construction of a highway. According to reporters, Montenegro's Port of Bar could be annexed by China "completely legally," thanks to an "extraordinary contract" that had been "never seen before in Europe (...)." In reality, reporters erroneously presented a standard sovereign immunity waiver as evidence that China is entitled to seize land in Montenegro in the case of a payment default, reflecting their lack of understanding of normal international legal practice. Deron, Pairault, and Pasquali argue that criticism of problematic Chinese lending practices must be based on facts, not unfair and misguided denunciation.
    Date: 2021

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