nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2021‒07‒19
six papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Originality, influence, and success: A model of creative style By Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Mauri, Caterina Adelaide
  2. Image Content, Complexity, and the Market Value of Art By Stephen Sheppard
  3. Women Artists By Abby LeBlanc; Stephen Sheppard
  4. Digital Representation of the Coffee Culture and Cultural Heritage by Chinese Indonesian and Malaysian Coffee Brands By Wang Changsong
  5. Exploring markets: Magic the gathering - a trading card game By Weber, Daniel
  6. The Geoecological Evaluation of the Heritage Interest of Polygonal Soils Inherited in Alpine Mountains. The Example of the Col du Noyer (Massif du Dévoluy, Hautes Alpes, France) By Pierre Pech; Mahé Ajinca; Sylvain Abdulhak; Eric Hustache; Laurent Simon; Brigitte Talon

  1. By: Borowiecki, Karol Jan (Department of Business and Economics); Mauri, Caterina Adelaide (Department of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: Creative workers strive to achieve success and influence by producing original output. In this paper we introduce a model of style, which enables us to define and measure originality and influence. We apply the model to classical music composed since the 15th century. Using extensive data on the content of musical compositions, popular success, and biographical information, we apply and test the proposed methodology. We find that more original composers tend to be more influential upon the work of their later peers and more successful with present-day audiences. A positive association between originality and influence also holds across works by a given composer. This opens paths for numerous other applications of this methodology.
    Keywords: Creativity; innovation; influence; style; music history; creative industries
    JEL: J24 N30 O31 Z11
    Date: 2021–07–06
  2. By: Stephen Sheppard (Williams College)
    Abstract: This paper presents an approach to measuring the complexity and content of art images that is based on information theory and can be replicated using widely-available analytic tools. The approach is combined with other machine learning algorithms to produce image content measurements for a sample of over 313,000 works offered for sale at auction over the past four decades. The work was produced by 1090 artists employing a variety of styles and using a variety of media and support. Drawing on approaches from economics, mathematics, computer science and psychology, models are estimated to measure the association of image complexity and other image characteristics with the auction price for which the painting was sold. The results support the hypothesis that art buyers have a preference for image complexity and are willing to pay for it. A one standard error increase in the entropy of the image is estimated to be associated with an increased market value of 138%, other factors held equal. We also examine and estimate the impact of faces, likelihood of the image containing racy or adult content, and other content measures. While these don't have as large an estimated impact as image complexity, many of them have large impacts that suggest such measures should be more widely applied in understanding the determinants of the market values of art.
    Keywords: Art Market, Image Processing, Information, Complexity
    JEL: Z11 C81
    Date: 2021–07–01
  3. By: Abby LeBlanc (Williams College); Stephen Sheppard (Williams College)
    Abstract: Women account for slightly more than half of persons who identify some version of visual artist (artist, graphic designer, or photographer) as their occupation in the US, and account for slightly less than half of the recipients of MFA degrees in the US. While there are no available statistics on values and sales of works by these artists in the primary market of galleries, studios and private dealers there is considerable evidence from the secondary auction market. In both our sample of more than 313 thousand works offered for sale by more than 1080 artists, and in the larger sample analyzed by Adams, et al. (2021), works by female artists constitute approximately 7% of the works offered for sale at global auction houses. The works sell for substantially lower prices, with unadjusted discounts generally in excess of 40%. Even adjusting for a variety of characteristics, the impacts of artist's gender remain persistently negative with effects disconcertingly close to, but slightly larger than, observed wage and earnings gaps in the wider labor market. Systematic differences in the auction prices of art works by women artist have been observed and discussed for more than 50 years, but have evolved little over time.As is the case with gender disparities in the wider labor market, the causes for these gaps can be difficult to determine with precision. This makes the identification of structural changes that could be effective in reducing the gap a challenge. In this paper we build on the published studies in this area and consider these challenges. We consider a variety of possible explanations including whether works by women artists are substantially different in characteristics or content than works by other artists, whether they are avoided by the premier auction houses, and whether they tend to fail to sell at auction more frequently. We consider alternative approaches to estimating the impact of artist's gender on the valuation of artworks. We compare the estimated impacts of gender to the estimated impacts of ethnicity and national origin of the artist. We combine the insights from this analysis to narrow down the range of possible explanations for why these differences continue to be observed.
    Keywords: Art markets, Gender, Discrimination, , ,
    JEL: Z11 J15 J16
    Date: 2021–07–02
  4. By: Wang Changsong (Department of Journalism and Advertising, Xiamen University Malaysia, Sepang, Malaysia Author-2-Name: Taufiqur Rahman Author-2-Workplace-Name: Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Jl. Brawijaya, Kasihan, Bantul, 55183, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Ahadzadeh Ashraf Sadat Author-3-Workplace-Name: Xiamen University Malaysia, Jalan Sunsuria, Bandar Sunsuria, 43900, Sepang, Malaysia Author-4-Name: Ayu Amalia Author-4-Workplace-Name: Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Jl. Brawijaya, Kasihan, Bantul, 55183, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Author-5-Name: Erwan Sudiwijaya Author-5-Workplace-Name: Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Jl. Brawijaya, Kasihan, Bantul, 55183, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - The existing literature contains no studies examining the issue of coffee culture and cultural heritage in the context of coffee brands' websites evaluations. There are some well-known local coffee manufacturer brands in Indonesia and Malaysia respectively, and some of them are actually created by immigrated Chinese businessmen many decades ago. This study aims to delineate an understanding on digital representation of coffee culture and cultural heritage of Chinese Indonesian and Malaysian coffee brands through discourse methods associated with the analysis of intertextuality, and/or content which refers to content in other presentation forms and texts. Methodology/Technique - These coffee brands' websites reinforce local identities, through the creation and diffusion of a discourse of identification. Computer-mediated discourse analysis (CMDA) was carried out by focusing on one coffee brand in Malaysia and Indonesia respectively whose owners are Chinese diasporas. This study follows the basic methodological orientation of CMDA which is language-focused content analysis. Findings - The results indicate that the Malaysian coffee brand accommodates Malaysia Chinese culture and heritage while the Chinese Indonesian coffee brand does not illustrate its own ethnic roots in all digital branding and marketing activities. Both brands in this study prioritise the coffee process technology on their websites. Novelty - The existing literatures primarily discusses food culture from sociohistorical perspective. Coffee cultures have been increasingly transnational in both Indonesia and Malaysia. Some earlier studies talked about the dynamics of coffee production in these regions, however, this study specifically examines the discourse of coffee culture represented by the most representative coffee brands in these two countries where little attention is given to their websites and relevant content patterns.
    Keywords: Corporate Websites, Coffee Brands, Cultural Heritage, Indonesia, Malaysia.
    JEL: L2 L23
    Date: 2021–06–30
  5. By: Weber, Daniel
    Abstract: Exploring Markets" is planned as a paper series discussing niche markets with interesting characteristics. The paper on hand focuses on the secondary market of the trading card game "Magic the Gathering", in which players play against each other with decks composed of cards they have collected. Recent high-volume trades raise the question if the investment in pop culture collectibles in general and in Magic the Gathering trading cards in particular can be considered as a legitimateand viable investment form. To answer this question, price developments and market characteristics are analyzed. The paper explicitly aims at people that have never heard of Magic the Gathering and are curious about its basic mechanisms and economics.
    Keywords: Market Study,Trading Card Games,Collectibles
    JEL: Z19
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Pierre Pech (LADYSS - Laboratoire Dynamiques Sociales et Recomposition des Espaces - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - UP8 - Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - UPD7 - Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Mahé Ajinca; Sylvain Abdulhak; Eric Hustache; Laurent Simon; Brigitte Talon
    Keywords: Polygonal grounds,geoecological assessment,nature protection,heritage enhancement
    Date: 2021–06–15

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