nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2021‒06‒14
five papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Social protection in the cultural and creative sector country practices and innovations By Galián, Carlos.; Licata, Margherita.; Stern-Plaza, Maya.
  2. Platform Mergers: Lessons from a Case in the Digital TV Market By Ivaldi, Marc; Zhang, Jiekai
  3. Bombs, broadcasts and resistance: Allied intervention and domestic opposition to the Nazi regime during World War II By Adena, Maja; Enikolopov, Ruben; Petrova, Maria; Voth, Hans-Joachim
  4. Soccer Clubs and Diminishing Returns: The Case of Paris Saint-Germain By Vincent (Vincent Peter) Hogan; Patrick Massey
  5. Monotonicity in sharing the revenues from broadcasting sports leagues By Gustavo Bergantiños; Juan D. Moreno-Ternero

  1. By: Galián, Carlos.; Licata, Margherita.; Stern-Plaza, Maya.
    Abstract: This Working Paper is based on the ILO Centenary Declaration for the Future of Work, 2019, which calls on the ILO to direct its efforts to “developing and enhancing social protection systems, which are adequate, sustainable and adapted to developments in the world of work.” In particular, the paper reviews policy and legal frameworks in selected countries that have pursued specific solutions to extend social security to workers in the creative and culture sector, in order to identify entry points and mechanisms for expanding coverage. Policy options ensuring the adequacy and the sustainability of such systems are discussed, taking into account particular employment circumstances in the sector, such as fluctuating employment status, irregular incomes, intermittent nature of work, and geographic mobility. The paper also situates the discussion within the COVID-19 pandemic, offering an overview of social protection measures put in place by governments in the culture and creative sector.
    Keywords: social protection, culture, COVID-19
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Ivaldi, Marc; Zhang, Jiekai
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the analysis of mergers in two-sided markets, notably those in which a platform provides its service for free on one side but obtains all its revenues from the other, as in the digital TV industry. Specifically, we assess a decision of the French competition authority which approved the merger of the broadcasting services of the TV channels involved but imposed a behavioral remedy prohibiting the merger of their respective advertising sales services. To do so, we build a structural model allowing for multi-homing of advertisers and, using a comprehensive dataset, we estimate the demand of viewers and advertisers. Our evaluation provides evidence that the remedy has been ineffective at limiting the increase in prices and amounts of advertising, due to the cross-side externalities between viewers and advertisers. Without resulting in significant positive effects on the viewers' surplus, the remedy has also drastically increased the advertisers' total cost. Nevertheless, the remedy has benefited the competitors of the merging channels. The main lesson of our analysis is that, in the process of designing competition or regulatory policy for two-sided markets, ignoring the interaction between the two sides of platforms can result in unexpected outcomes.
    Keywords: advertising; competition policy; platform merger; TV market; two-sided market
    JEL: K21 L10 L40 L82 M37
    Date: 2020–06
  3. By: Adena, Maja; Enikolopov, Ruben; Petrova, Maria; Voth, Hans-Joachim
    Abstract: Can bombs and broadcasts instigate resistance against a foreign regime? In this paper, we examine the canonical case of bombing designed to undermine enemy morale-the Allied bomber offensive against Germany during World War II. Our evidence shows that air power and the airwaves indeed undermined regime support. We collect data on treason trials and combine it with information on the bombing of over 900 German towns and cities. Using plausibly exogenous variation in weather, we show that places that suffered more bombardment saw noticeably more opposition. Bombing also reduced the combat motivation of soldiers: fighter pilots from bombed-out cities performed markedly less well after raids. We also provide evidence that exposure to BBC radio, especially together with bombing, increased the number of resistance cases. We corroborate these findings with the evidence on people's opinions and behavior using unique survey data collected in 1945.
    Keywords: Media,BBC,bombing,resistance,WWII
    JEL: D74 L82 N44
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Vincent (Vincent Peter) Hogan; Patrick Massey
    Abstract: Paris Saint-Germain, one of France's top soccer clubs, was bought by Qatar Sports Investments (QSI) in 2011. Since then the club's expenditure has risen precipitously as have its victories. In this paper we ask whether this represents value for money. We find in fact, that the efficiency of PSG did not deteriorate following the takeover. However, while PSG operated close to the production frontier in terms of converting resources to points, it scored vastly more points than was necessary to win the league. We estimate that PSG spent e140m more than was necessary to win the French league in 2016/17. Since 2011, PSG is estimated to have overspent by up to e600m. This expenditure could be thought as being merely the price of creditable performance at a European Level. We show, however, that it has brought less success than would be expected.
    Keywords: Sports Finance; Productivity
    JEL: Z23 D24
    Date: 2021–04
  5. By: Gustavo Bergantiños (ECOSOT, Universidade de Vigo); Juan D. Moreno-Ternero (Department of Economics, Universidad Pablo de Olavide;)
    Abstract: We explore the implications of the principle of monotonicity in the problem of sharing the revenues from broadcasting sports leagues. We formalize different forms of this principle as several axioms for sharing rules in this setting. We show that, combined with two other basic axioms (equal treatment of equals and additivity), they provide axiomatic characterizations of focal rules for this problem, as well as families of rules compromising among them. These results highlight the normative appeal of the (focal) equal-split rule.
    Keywords: Game theory, resource allocation, broadcasting, monotonicity
    JEL: D63 C71 Z20
    Date: 2021

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