nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2021‒05‒24
eight papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Can meta-organizations sustain the creativity of cultural and creative organizations? By Lola Duprat; Christophe Baret; Ariel Mendez
  2. Art dealers’ inventory strategy: the case of Goupil, Boussod & Valadon from 1860 to 1914 By Geraldine David; Christian Huemer; Kim Oosterlinck
  3. Studying the association of online brand importance with museum visitors: An application of the semantic brand score By A. Fronzetti Colladon; F. Grippa; R. Innarella
  4. Internationalization of winegrape varieties and its implications for terroir-based cultural assets By Kym Anderson; Signe Nelgen
  5. Can Media Pluralism Be Harmful to News Quality? By Federico Innocenti
  6. The Political Effects of Immigration: Culture or Economics? By Alesina, Alberto; Tabellini, Marco
  7. Expanding the Measurement of Culture with a Sample of Two Billion Humans By Awad, Edmond; Cebrián, Manuel; Cuevas Rumin, Angel; Cuevas Rumin, Ruben; Desmet, Klaus; Martín, Ignacio; Obradovich, Nick; Ortuño-Ortín, Ignacio; Ozak, Omer; Rahwan, Iyad
  8. The Impact of Online Competition on Local Newspapers: Evidence from the Introduction of Craigslist By Milena Djourelova; Ruben Durante; Gregory J. Martin

  1. By: Lola Duprat (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Christophe Baret (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Ariel Mendez (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In this article, we analyze how meta-organizations can be able to foster the creativity of cultural and creative organizations. Through the study of a cultural wasteland, we show through three research proposals - dealing with issues of resources, autonomy and reputation - that meta-organizations are a suitable organization for cultural and creative organizations. Meta-organization ensures a contribution of vital resources to creative production, the autonomy necessary for creativity to be expressed and a gain in legitimacy for its members through its creative reputation. The case study carried out also highlights that the strategic dimension of the meta-organization via the collective project and the shared identity plays a much more important role than the organizational dimension via governance and rules does, to ensure its sustainability.
    Abstract: Dans cet article, nous analysons comment les méta-organisations peuvent être de nature à favoriser la créativité d'organisations culturelles et créatives. Grâce à l'étude d'une friche culturelle, nous montrons par le biais de trois propositions de recherche – portant sur les questions de ressources, d'autonomie et de réputation – que les méta-organisations sont un organizing adéquat pour les organisations créatives et culturelles. La méta-organisation assure à la fois un apport de ressources vitales à la production créative, l'autonomie nécessaire pour que la créativité puisse s'exprimer et un gain en légitimité pour ses membres par le biais de sa réputation créative. L'étude de cas réalisée met en outre en évidence que la dimension stratégique de la méta-organisation via le projet collectif et l'identité partagée joue un rôle bien plus important que la dimension organisationnelle via la gouvernance et les règles, pour en assurer la pérennité.
    Date: 2020–06–03
  2. By: Geraldine David; Christian Huemer; Kim Oosterlinck
    Abstract: Proper inventory management is crucial for art galleries. Yet, despite its importance, inventory management has been overlooked in the literature. We distinguish four main strategies used by art dealers to manage their inventory and use this classification to set the inventory strategy of Goupil, Boussod & Valadon, a major art gallery active in France at the end of the 19th century, into perspective. Goupil’s books cover the sale of more than 25,000 artworks between 1860 and 1914. Rapidity to sell was a key element in Goupil’s strategy. Out of the sold artworks, almost 75% were sold within a year. Goupil required a slightly higher mark-up for artists from which he held a large inventory. Mark-up for artists in residence and the likelihood to sell their artworks at a loss were lower, signaling a preoccupation for their long-term market.
    Keywords: *N14; art gallery; Art market; Boussod & Valadon; Goupil; inventory strategy; N44; Z11
    Date: 2020–05–01
  3. By: A. Fronzetti Colladon; F. Grippa; R. Innarella
    Abstract: This paper explores the association between brand importance and growth in museum visitors. We analyzed 10 years of online forum discussions and applied the Semantic Brand Score (SBS) to assess the brand importance of five European Museums. Our Naive Bayes and regression models indicate that variations in the combined dimensions of the SBS (prevalence, diversity and connectivity) are aligned with changes in museum visitors. Results suggest that, in order to attract more visitors, museum brand managers should focus on increasing the volume of online posting and the richness of information generated by users around the brand, rather than controlling for the posts' overall positivity or negativity.
    Date: 2021–05
  4. By: Kym Anderson (Wine Economics Research Centre, School of Economics, University of Adelaide, Australia, and Arndt-Corden Dept of Economics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia); Signe Nelgen (Wine Economics Research Centre, School of Economics, University of Adelaide, Australia, and Hochschule Geisenheim University, Geisenheim, Germany)
    Abstract: Winegrape varieties in the world’s vineyards have become more internationalized since wine globalization accelerated from the 1990s. Simultaneously, economic growth and greater openness to trade have altered beverage consumption cultures in those countries, and in nonwine- producing countries. This chapter draws out the implications of these developments for terroir-based cultural assets in the countries of origin of each winegrape variety, and in the sometimes dispersed countries planting them. It exploits two recently revised, expanded and updated global databases. One covers wine production, consumption and trade; and the other describes winegrape bearing areas by variety and region covering 99% of the world’s winegrape vineyard area and more than 1,700 DNA-distinct winegrape varieties for 2000 and 2016. This latter database reveals that vignerons’ varietal choices are narrowing in the wineproducing countries of the world, converging on the major French varieties. This is despite a strengthening interest by vignerons in ‘alternative’ and native varieties, the latter linked historically to terroir-based cultural assets. Meanwhile, wine consumers are enjoying everwider choice, thanks to much-increased international trade in wine. Data also suggest the quality of the current global mix of varieties has been rising well above that of a generation ago.
    Date: 2021–04
  5. By: Federico Innocenti
    Abstract: I study the effect of polarization and competition on information provision. With a single expert who faces decision-makers with het- erogeneous priors, the expert solves a trade-off between persuading sceptics and retaining believers. With high polarization, an expert has incentives to supply low-quality information to leverage believers' credulity. With multiple experts with opposite biases, competition is harmful if attention is limited. Unbiased and Bayesian decision-makers rationally devote attention to like-minded experts. Echo chambers arise endogenously, whereas decision-makers would be better informed in monopoly. My model can rationalize the spread and persistence of conspiracy theories and fake news.
    Keywords: Bayesian Persuasion, Competition, Echo Chambers, Heterogeneous Priors, Limited Attention, Media Pluralism
    JEL: D82 D83 L82
    Date: 2021–05
  6. By: Alesina, Alberto (Harvard University); Tabellini, Marco (Harvard Business School)
    Abstract: We review the growing literature on the political effects of immigration. After a brief summary of the economics of immigration, we turn to the main focus of the paper: how immigrants influence electoral outcomes in receiving countries, and why. We start from the "standard" view that immigration triggers political backlash and raises support for nativist, anti-immigrant political parties. We present evidence from a variety of studies that the causes of natives' political discontent are unlikely to have (solely) economic roots, but are instead more tightly linked to cultural and social concerns. Next, we discuss works that paint a more nuanced picture of the effects of immigration, which, in some cases, can move natives' preferences in a more liberal direction. We also consider the factors that can explain a seemingly puzzling empirical regularity: the anti-immigration rhetoric has become a banner of right wing parties. We conclude by outlining what, to us, are promising avenues for future research.
    Keywords: immigration, diversity, culture, politics
    JEL: D72 J11 J15 J61 Z1
    Date: 2021–05
  7. By: Awad, Edmond; Cebrián, Manuel; Cuevas Rumin, Angel; Cuevas Rumin, Ruben; Desmet, Klaus; Martín, Ignacio; Obradovich, Nick; Ortuño-Ortín, Ignacio; Ozak, Omer; Rahwan, Iyad
    Abstract: Culture has played a pivotal role in human evolution. Yet, the ability of social scientists to study culture is limited by the currently available measurement instruments. Scholars of culture must regularly choose between scalable but sparse survey-based methods or restricted but rich ethnographic methods. Here, we demonstrate that massive online social networks can advance the study of human culture by providing quantitative, scalable, and high-resolution measurement of behaviorally revealed cultural values and preferences. We employ publicly available data across nearly 60,000 topic dimensions drawn from two billion Facebook users across 225 countries and territories. We first validate that cultural distances calculated from this measurement instrument correspond to traditional survey-based and objective measures of cross-national cultural differences. We then demonstrate that this expanded measure enables rich insight into the cultural landscape globally at previously impossible resolution. We analyze the importance of national borders in shaping culture, explore unique cultural markers that identify subnational population groups, and compare subnational divisiveness to gender divisiveness across countries. The global collection of massive data on human behavior provides a high-dimensional complement to traditional cultural metrics. Further, the granularity of the measure presents enormous promise to advance scholars' understanding of additional fundamental questions in the social sciences. The measure enables detailed investigation into the geopolitical stability of countries, social cleavages within both small and large-scale human groups, the integration of migrant populations, and the disaffection of certain population groups from the political process, among myriad other potential future applications.
    Keywords: Cultural distance; Culture; gender differences; identity; Regional Culture; Subnational Differences
    JEL: C80 F1 J1 O10 R10 Z10
    Date: 2020–09
  8. By: Milena Djourelova; Ruben Durante; Gregory J. Martin
    Abstract: How does competition from online platforms affect the organization, performance, and editorial choices of newspapers? And what are the implications of these changes for the information vot-ers are exposed to and for political accountability? We study these questions using the staggered introduction of Craigslist - the world’s largest online platform for classified advertising - across US counties between 1995 and 2009. This setting allows us to separate the effect of competition for classified advertising from other changes brought about by the Internet, and to compare newspapers that relied more or less heavily on classified ads ex ante. We find that, following the entry of Craigslist, local papers experienced a significant decline in the number of newsroom and management staff. Cuts in editorial staff disproportionately affected reporters covering politics. These organizational changes led to a reduction in news coverage of politics and political corrup-tion, and resulted in a decline in newspaper readership which was not compensated by increased news consumption on other media. Finally, we find some evidence that reduced news coverage of politics was associated with lower voter turnout, and more party-line voting for both citizens and politicians.
    Keywords: newspapers, internet, advertising, political accountability
    JEL: L82 L86 D72
    Date: 2021

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