nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2019‒11‒04
eight papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Conquering the box office: Factors influencing success of international movies in Russia By Gänßle, Sophia; Budzinski, Oliver; Astakhova, Daria
  2. Electronic Arts: Strategic Differentiation in the Global Video Gaming Industry By Thomas Teeter; Ryan Lunsford
  3. Women-Led Films: Different Female Representations in Popular Cinemas. By Fei Jiun Kik
  4. Is it only a game? Video games and violence By Suziedelyte, A.
  5. The Role of Academy, Media and Politics in Resolving Cultural Differences: A Study of Multicultural Societies By Jagdish Batra
  6. Particularities of the Forensic Investigation of Software Piracy and Online Piracy By Adrian Cristian Moise
  7. Analysis of Regional Multiplier of Knowledge Intensive Industries and Creative Jobs based on Economic Base Model: Benefit of Municipal Collaboration (Japanese) By NAKAMURA Ryohei
  8. Advertising and Content Differentiation: Evidence from YouTube By Kerkhof, Anna

  1. By: Gänßle, Sophia; Budzinski, Oliver; Astakhova, Daria
    Abstract: This paper empirically examines factors influencing box office success of international movies in Russia between 2012 and 2016. It adds to existing research on national movie markets, by highlighting the relevance of differences in culture, institutions, language, and consumption habits for movie success. Three groups of success factors are distinguished: distribution related (e.g. budget, franchise), brand and star effects (e.g. top actors or directors), and evaluation sources (e.g. critics and audience rating). We add novel region-specific variables like seasonality, time span between the world and local release, attendance of international stars at Russian movie premieres, and title adaptation to Russian culture. The results indicate that budget, franchise, employment of popular actors and directors, electronic word of mouth and audience ratings exert a significantly positive influence on Russian box office success. However, we find significantly negative effects for international critics and, interestingly, the adaption of movie titles. The main contributions of our study are (i) success factors vary between countries with different cultures, (ii) region-specific factors matter, and consequently (iii) results from one market (e.g. the US) cannot easily be generalised.
    Keywords: motion picture economics,movies,entertainment,box office success,Russia
    JEL: L10 L82
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Thomas Teeter (University of the Incarnate Word, San Antonio, TX); Ryan Lunsford (University of the Incarnate Word, San Antonio, TX)
    Abstract: Electronic Arts Incorporated is a leading global developer of video game software with FY2018 revenues in excess of $5B. And although the organization has demonstrated innovative leadership in the industry for many years and has an established portfolio of “hit†game titles, industry trends have created an increasingly competitive environment. Digital game distribution, for example, has dramatically reduced the cost of product delivery, but has also negated a previous barrier to entry for new competitors. In a $36B industry that has been completely reshaped by digital content and distribution, EA seeks to better engage and retain players via digital capabilities. This case study analyzes EA’s differentiated competitive strategy founded on three pillars: Player-First, Commitment to Digital, and One EA. Each of these strategic focuses has a direct connection to trends in the transforming video game industry, as the company seeks to expand its player base across platforms, geographies, and business models. Together, these highlight the path for the company to operate more efficiently, create more engaging products and services, and develop increased customer loyalty towards EA games.
    Keywords: Electronic Arts Inc., digital content, video games, strategy
    Date: 2019–08
  3. By: Fei Jiun Kik (Tunku Abdul Rahman University College)
    Abstract: This is a comparative study to look into cinematic feminism between English-speaking blockbuster and non-blockbuster films that screening from 2012 to 2015. This study will choose films that led by female character(s) and to explore, compare, and justify the feminism qualities that reflected through the female characters and storylines. In this study, six female-led films are selected: The Hunger Games, Mad Max: The Fury Road, Cinderella, Gone Girl, Brooklyn, and Carol. This study assumes that modern high budget productions are portraying feminism conventionally through unrealistic characters and masculine domination stories; while the non-blockbuster productions are portraying feminism progressively through reflective characters and self-determination stories. Blockbuster films? actresses are commonly created as recognisable female superheroes with strong masculine traits but living in a men-ruled world, or princesses that living in fairy tales. The cinematic feminism is superficial and ambiguous in blockbuster commercial films. Hence, non-blockbuster films? actresses are characterised with conservative and realistic images but given more chances to deal with alternatives, decisions, and progressions throughout the development of the story. Non-blockbuster films? characters and stories are less emphasizing on masculine feminism but more focusing on subtle yet significant feminism expressions. To achieve the objectives and hypotheses, this paper uses two methods ? quantitative method with a designed coding sheet in content analysis; and a qualitative method with film reviews for textual analysis. These two methods are expected to test out and evaluate the cinematic feminism through on-screen characters? gender representations and the storyline?s interpretations in selected films.
    Keywords: films, feminism, cinema, blockbuster, storyline, gender, portrayals.
    Date: 2019–07
  4. By: Suziedelyte, A.
    Abstract: Popular media often links violent video games to real-life violence, although there is limited evidence to support this link. I analyze how adolescent boys' violent behavior is affected by the releases of new violent video games in the U.S. Variation in children's exposure to the releases comes from variation in video game release and interview dates and thus is plausibly exogenous. I find that child reportedviolence against other people, in fact, decreases after a new violent video game is released. Thus, policies that place restrictions on video game sales to minors are unlikely to reduce violence.
    Date: 2019
  5. By: Jagdish Batra (O.P. Jindal Global University)
    Abstract: The tsunami of globalization in our times has brought about the interface of various cultures in the world. While the social and political actions taken in some countries in the interest of creation of a homogeneous multicultural society are appreciable, education in schools and colleges needs to be attuned to that end. Drawing primarily on the findings of sociologist Bhikhu Parekh and philosopher Martha Nussbaum, my paper discusses related issues and stresses the fact that the goal of a truly multicultural society may not be achievable on the basis of commonality of economic interests, but the appreciation and interiorization of the sentiment of vasudhaiv kutumbukam, i.e., all the world is one family, can certainly help mankind.
    Keywords: culture, globalization, multicultural, acculturation, integration, assimilation, diaspora
    JEL: F01
    Date: 2019–07
  6. By: Adrian Cristian Moise (Spiru Haret University of Bucharest, Romania)
    Abstract: Starting from the analysis of the Law no 8/1996 on copyright and related rights in Romania, and continuing with the analysis of the main provisions of the European Union Directive 2001/29/EC on copyright and related rights in the information society and the European Union Directive 2009/24/EC on the legal protection of computer programs, the article presents and analyzes aspects of the criminal investigation of software piracy and online piracy. The article analyzes both some of the criminal investigation acts commonly used in software piracy such as technical-scientific findings and forensic expertise of copyrighted software or related rights, and some methodological issues related to forensic investigation of software piracy and online piracy.
    Keywords: copyrights, forensic investigation, online piracy, software piracy
    Date: 2019–08
  7. By: NAKAMURA Ryohei
    Abstract: The traditional economic base model in the field of regional science contributes to identifying regional income producing industries and labor absorption. The economic base model has some conditional assumptions while it is quite tractable. Recently, papers by Moretti and others show significant regional multiplier effects of innovative jobs. They refocused on the traditional economic base model. However, their approach has several deficiencies concerning the identification of basic/non-basic industries and ambiguity of multiplier generating mechanisms. This paper focuses on regional specialization of knowledge intensive industries and creative jobs which are the driving forces of regional development in the framework of the economic base model. The estimations of regional economic multiplier in terms of employment are carried out using two-digit employment and three-digit job classification data at local municipality level with two-period data. Using these data, I explain regional differences by degree of specialization of knowledge intensive industries and creative workers. By doing this, I propose contemporary regional economic policy. Furthermore, by comparing multiplier effects at local municipality level and regional employment area level, benefits of municipal consolidation are shown.
    Date: 2019–10
  8. By: Kerkhof, Anna
    Abstract: Does advertising revenue increase or diminish content differentiation in media markets? This paper shows that an increase in the technically feasible number of ad breaks per video leads to an increase in content differentiation between several thousand YouTube channels. I exploit two institutional features of YouTube's monetization policy to identify the causal effect of advertising on the YouTubers' content choice. The analysis of around one million YouTube videos shows that advertising leads to a twenty percentage point reduction in the YouTubers' probability to duplicate popular content, i.e., content in high demand by the audience. I also provide evidence of the economic mechanism behind the result: popular content is covered by many competing YouTubers; hence, viewers who perceive advertising as a nuisance could easily switch to a competitor if a YouTuber increased her number of ad breaks per video. This is less likely, however, when the YouTuber differentiates her content from her competitors.
    Keywords: advertising,content differentiation,economics of digitization,horizontal product differentiation,long tail,media diversity,user-generated content,YouTube
    JEL: D22 L15 L82 L86
    Date: 2019

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