nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2018‒12‒10
six papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Fostering the Cultural Identity in Non-formal Art Education By Vaiva Jucevi?i?t?-Bartkevi?ien?; Ri?ardas Bartkevi?ius; Oleksandra Yehorova
  2. Power-Laws in Art. From Renaissance to Contemporary Art By Federico Etro; Elena Stepanova
  3. Cultural memory and the optical unconscious: women of the past in historical audiovisual texts by women directors in Latin America By Maria de los Angeles RODRIGUEZ CADENA
  4. Tourism and social media in the world: An empirical investigation By Asongu, Simplice A; Odhiambo, Nicholas M
  5. Ethno-cultural education: intercultural and social integration of national minorities By Ri?ardas Bartkevi?ius; Vaiva Jucevi?i?t?-Bartkevi?ien?; Agn? Ju?kevi?ien?
  6. The Effect of Media Coverage on Mass Shootings By Jetter, Michael; Walker, Jay K.

  1. By: Vaiva Jucevi?i?t?-Bartkevi?ien? (Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences); Ri?ardas Bartkevi?ius (Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences); Oleksandra Yehorova (National Pedagogical Dragomanov University)
    Abstract: Historically, Lithuania is a multicultural country, where many nations ? Lithuanians, Jews, Russians, Poles, Ukrainians and others ? have beautifully lived together from ancient times. In the face of globalization and migration of nations, a two-way issue arises: how to maintain our own cultural identity and heritage, and how to enrich it, by adopting traditions and customs of other nations. At the same time, it is important to grasp the experience of these issues in neighbouring countries.The aim of the research ? to reveal the approach of young people, who are involved in the artistic activities of non-formal education, towards their cultural identity. This aim dictates research questions: how do young people describe the notion of cultural identity? are they prepared for the integration of cultural heritage of other nations in their artistic activities? what is the extent to which ethnic music and folk art are relevant in the context of their cultural identity today?The theoretical analysis involved the examination of the scientific literature and documents. The empirical research was carried out using questionnaires and interviews. Qualitative research was conducted in 2015-2018.The questionnaire survey (with opened questions) was performed in higher education schools in Lithuania, Latvia, Poland and Ukraine in the processes of non-formal activities (clubs for fine art activities, musical ethno-cultural ensembles). The total sample consisted of 43 informants. The qualitative content analysis was applied processing the accumulated data.Main results show that despite the fact that young people understand very differently the concept of cultural identity, many of them very much appreciate their traditions and ethno-culture. At the same time, they say they want to learn more about other cultures, people of other nations, their art. They highlight the fact, that the multicultural experience and knowledge of ethnic culture makes it possible to be more tolerant for ethnic and cultural differences.
    Keywords: Cultural identity, non-formal education, art education, higher education
    JEL: I20 I23 I21
    Date: 2018–10
  2. By: Federico Etro; Elena Stepanova
    Abstract: We provide evidence of a cubic law of art prices that hints to a general pattern for the distribution of artistic talent. The persistence across heterogeneous markets from historical ones to contemporary art auctions of a power law in the distribution of the average price per artist suggests the possibility of a universal law for talent distribution. We explore scale-free networks of teacher-students to investigate the diffusion of talent over time.
    Keywords: Power laws; Art prices; Talent distribution; Scale-free networks
    JEL: C23 Z11
    Date: 2018
    Abstract: This paper discusses the construction of female characters in television series and movies as compelling expressions of cultural memory through an analysis of the concept of the optical unconscious. Cultural memory is basically defined as the interplay of past and present in socio cultural contexts, and it is expressed in processes of communication through a variety of symbolic systems, such as language, writing, images, artifacts (Erll, Sturken). In TV series "Screams of death and freedom" (Mexico, 2010; Dir. María Fernanda Suárez), "Juana Inés" (Mexico, 2017; Dir. Patricia Arriaga), and movies "Let?s not talk about it" (Argentina,1994; Dir. María Luia Bemberg), and "I, the worst of all" (Argentina, 1990; Dir. Maria Luisa Bemberg) female characters are constructed through the use of slow motion, close-up and other visual narrative techniques which allow a connection with the optical unconscious. The optical unconscious, a concept developed by Walter Benjamin ?which runs parallel to the instinctual unconscious in psychoanalysis-, refers to the contribution of photography and film towards an understanding of human perception, that is, movement and dimensions of reality that otherwise go unacknowledged in the analysis of visual images. In film, close-up and slow motion are not only narrative devices and techniques, but tools that by ?bring[ing] to light entirely new structures of matter? (Benjamin) function as the means to a state of heightened perception -the optical unconscious- and facilitates new ways of seeing and of conceptualizing reality. Directors Arriaga, Bemberg and Suárez display a more intuitive and powerful approach to narration about women of the past through the use of technical resources, such as slow motion. Other than the most common purposeful use of slow motion camera to re orient the viewer?s attention and perspective by highlighting dramatic attitudes and gestures in specific scenes of climax or resolution, Arriaga, Bemberg and Suárez are revealing in themselves, and facilitating in the viewers, a point of entry to the optical unconscious. Thus, they create new ways of seeing. Equally important, the use of those techniques potentially illustrate the close and reciprocal connection between ?historical viewing and historical thinking? (Anderson).
    Keywords: cultural memory, optical unconscious, history, women, women directors, film studies, television studies.
    Date: 2018–10
  4. By: Asongu, Simplice A; Odhiambo, Nicholas M
    Abstract: The study examines the relationship between tourism and social media from a cross section of 138 countries with data for the year 2012.The empirical evidence is based on Ordinary Least Squares, Negative Binomial and Quantile regressions. Two main findings are established. First, there is a positive relationship between Facebook penetration and the number of tourist arrivals. Second, Facebook penetration is more relevant in promoting tourist arrivals in countries where initial levels in tourist arrivals are the highest and low. The established positive relationship can be elucidated from four principal angles: the transformation of travel research, the rise in social sharing, improvements in customer service and the reshaping of travel agencies. This study explores a new dataset on social media. There are very few empirical studies on the relevance of social media in development outcomes.
    Keywords: Social Media; Tourism
    Date: 2018–12
  5. By: Ri?ardas Bartkevi?ius (Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences); Vaiva Jucevi?i?t?-Bartkevi?ien? (Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences); Agn? Ju?kevi?ien? (Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences)
    Abstract: Multicultural coherence in Lithuania as in all EU is still an aspiration, and its fostering is particularly actual in the face of the "new movement of nations", i.e. with the growing influx of immigrants from different countries and in the context of strengthening of nationalism.As a rule, national minorities remain loyal to the country they live in, however, if they lose their loyalty for a variety of reasons (national and social exclusion, unsatisfactory self-expression needs in the cultural context, etc.) this could have very serious consequences even for the survival of the whole state. Fostering the ethnic culture of ethnic minorities (especially in early age), the search for contact points with the culture of the country in which they live, and intensive communication with the local community ? these could be the factors that correct strained socio-cultural or even political situations. Promoters of the cultural heritage emphasize that the opening up of cultural values to the rest of the world, the preservation of ethno-culture, does not encourage cultural closure, and it is a completely opposite phenomenon to nationalism, chauvinism, fundamentalism. The future of human civilization is multicultural diversity and the cultivation of cultural dialogues.The aim of the research ? to reveal the music and art teachers? approach, who are involved in art activities (preschool education) of children of national minorities, towards their ethno-cultural education. This aim is connected with the research questions: do children of national minorities have the need to cherish their ethno-culture; how do they adopt the ethno-culture of the country they live; how do the parents react to the integration of their children into ethno-cultural activities, which are connected with the country they live and with their own nationality; how could the ethno-cultural education interact with the social integration?The theoretical analysis involved the scientific literature and documents, the empirical research was carried out using interviews. Qualitative research was conducted in 2018.The interviews were performed with the music and art teachers of preschool education from Lithuania and Norway. The total sample consisted of 20 informants. The qualitative content analysis was applied processing the accumulated data.Main results show that that appropriate music and art ethno-cultural activities adapted for education of preschool children could have positive influence on the social integration of children of national minorities in the country in which they live and to strengthen intercultural dialogue.
    Keywords: Ethno-culture, preschool education, national minorities
    JEL: I20 I21 I24
    Date: 2018–10
  6. By: Jetter, Michael (University of Western Australia); Walker, Jay K. (Old Dominion University)
    Abstract: Can media coverage of shooters encourage future mass shootings? We explore the link between the day-to-day prime time television news coverage of shootings on ABC World News Tonight and subsequent mass shootings in the US from January 1, 2013 to June 23, 2016. To circumvent latent endogeneity concerns, we employ an instrumental variable strategy: worldwide disaster deaths provide an exogenous variation that systematically crowds out shooting-related coverage. Our findings consistently suggest a positive and statistically significant effect of coverage on the number of subsequent shootings, lasting for 4-10 days. At its mean, news coverage is suggested to cause approximately three mass shootings in the following week, which would explain 55 percent of all mass shootings in our sample. Results are qualitatively consistent when using (i) additional keywords to capture shooting-related news coverage, (ii) alternative definitions of mass shootings, (iii) the number of injured or killed people as the dependent variable, and (iv) an alternative, longer data source for mass shootings from 2006-2016.
    Keywords: media effects, mass shootings, contagion hypothesis, instrumental variable estimation
    JEL: C26 D91 F52 L82
    Date: 2018–10

This nep-cul issue is ©2018 by Roberto Zanola. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.