nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2018‒12‒03
eight papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale

  1. The new media economics of video-on-demand markets: Lessons for competition policy By Budzinski, Oliver; Lindstädt-Dreusicke, Nadine
  2. Música digital no Brasil: uma análise do consumo e reproduções no Spotify By Gabriel Borges Vaz de Melo; Ana Flávia Machado; Lucas Resende de Carvalho
  3. Intergenerational digital activity: A good mixture of education and welfare By Mabrouka EL HACHANI; Christine DEVELOTTE
  4. Media Literacy in Turkey: Different Generations and Different Approaches By A. Elif Posos Devrani
  5. Comfort and Conformity: A Culture-based Theory of Migration By Ruxanda Berlinschi; Jan Fidrmuc
  6. Icelandic tourism - are we sending out the right message? By Hafdís Björg Hjálmarsdóttir; Vera Kristín Kristjánsdóttir
  7. Educación artística, elección de bachillerato y capacidades. Efecto de la creación del bachillerato artístico en la matrícula universitaria By Joaquín
  8. Analyzing the pricing to market behavior of the New World on EU wine market By Balogh, J.M.

  1. By: Budzinski, Oliver; Lindstädt-Dreusicke, Nadine
    Abstract: The markets for audiovisual content are subject to dynamic change. Where once "traditional" (free-to-air, cable, satellite) television was dominating, i.e. linear audiovisual media services, markets display nowadays strong growth of different types of video-on-demand (VoD), i.e. nonlinear audiovisual media services, including both Paid-for VoD like Amazon Prime and Netflix and Advertised-financed VoD like YouTube. Competition policy decisions in such dynamic markets are always particularly challenging. The German competition authority was presented such a challenge when, at the beginning of the 2010s, German television providers sought to enter online VoD markets with the help of cooperative platforms. We review the antitrust concerns that were raised back then in an ex post analysis. In doing so, we first discuss the dynamic development of the German VoD markets during the last decade. In the second part of this paper, we derive four aspects, in which the previous antitrust analysis cannot be upheld from today's perspective. First, relevant implications of modern platform economics were neglected. Second, some inconsistencies in the assessment of the two projects appear to be inappropriate. Third, the emerging competitive pressure of international VoD providers was strongly underestimated. Fourth, the question of market power in online advertising markets looks very different at the end of the decade.
    Keywords: video-on-demand,media economics,two-sided markets,competition,platform economics,commercial television,public service broadcasters,antitrust policy,YouTube,Amazon,Netflix
    JEL: L40 L82 K21 L13 D40
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Gabriel Borges Vaz de Melo (Cedeplar-UFMG); Ana Flávia Machado (Cedeplar-UFMG); Lucas Resende de Carvalho (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: Music is one of the cultural segments that most adapts and innovates, as observed in the recent rise of streaming services. The aim of this article is to show trends and tastes of individuals, taking into account musical genres. For such purpose, it uses data from the Spotify platform. The results show that genres such as “sertanejo universitário” and international pop have great national reach. However, other national genres have a relevant and distinct demand in some Brazilian cities. Therefore, a regionalization of the musical taste in Brazil is evidenced, which suggests a potential of musical niches when inserted in the context of the digital market.
    Keywords: consumption, music, style, streaming, Spotify, Brazil
    JEL: Z1 D11
    Date: 2018–11
  3. By: Mabrouka EL HACHANI (Université Jean Moulin Lyon3 - Laboratoire ELICO); Christine DEVELOTTE (ENS de Lyon - Laboratoire ICAR)
    Abstract: The context of this presentation is the ITAC research project[1], a scientific collaboration between the ICAR and the ELICO research teams and Lyon?s Public Library (BML). Its aim is to study the intergenerational use of digital artifacts at the BML. ITAC focuses on the relational, linguistic, and educational aspects resulting from the interactions. Our study centers on the interactions between a grandmother and her grandson discovering together the games provided on an interactive table. It is also a question of studying the way in which the grandmother transmits to her grandson the manipulative knowledge of communication with the screen. Through a methodological framework inspired by comprehensive ethology (Cosnier, 2001), the analysis will show how both participants benefit from such an activity when it is properly lead by a mediator. In terms of education, the results show that both participants enhanced their digital literacy. In terms of welfare, the senior gets involved in the digital entertainment environment at the same time as she plays with her grandson. It informs us of her degree of appropriation of digital uses. This ease of communication with the screens limits the speeches constantly highlighting the difficulties of seniors to be comfortable with these new technologies. Cosnier. J., 2001. « Entretien avec Jacques Cosnier », Communication et organisation [En ligne], 19 | 2001, mis en ligne le 27 mars 2012, consulté le 08 août 2018. URL : ; DOI : 10.4000/communicationorganisation.2537 [1] page?id=44&forward-action=page&forward-c ontroller=resource&lang=en
    Keywords: Search ; learning ; information and knowledge, Communication, belief
    JEL: I00 D83 C71
    Date: 2018–11
  4. By: A. Elif Posos Devrani (Turkish-German University)
    Abstract: When we look at the starting point of media literacy, we see that it is aimed to gain or improve the ability to reach, analyze, evaluate and transmit the message as part of the education given to children and youth. However, ever-changing digital communication technologies has made the new media as important as the traditional media. Therefore, theoretical and empirical studies in the field of media literacy are expanding to include new media. In addition, when looking at past studies, it can be seen that media literacy studies mostly focused on children and young people. On the other hand, middle age and elderly media users have not been the priority on action plans regarding media literacy in Turkey. In this article, it is aimed to review the previous and ongoing media literacy education perspectives in Turkey and determine the threads, opportunities and potentials of different approaches for different generations.
    Keywords: media literacy, new media literacy, digital generations
    JEL: D83
    Date: 2018–11
  5. By: Ruxanda Berlinschi; Jan Fidrmuc
    Abstract: This paper proposes a theory of migration decisions in which cultural traits play a role. Individuals are assumed to value comfort (high wages) and conformity (interactions with individuals who share similar world views). Regions are assumed to differ economically (average wages) and culturally (average world views and their diversity). The model shows that self-selection of inter-regional migrants on world views is non-monotonic if one region is more diverse than the other, and it weakens with economic gaps between regions. This non-monotonicity can lead to a dichotomy of outcomes: culturally diverse regions become even more diverse because of migration, while culturally homogeneous regions become even more homogeneous. Consequently, Tieboutian sorting (people moving to the region in which world views are closer to theirs) only holds when regions have similar wages and diversity of world views.
    Keywords: migration, self-selection, culture, diversity, Tiebout model
    JEL: A13 F22 J61 Z10
    Date: 2018
  6. By: Hafdís Björg Hjálmarsdóttir (University of Akureyri); Vera Kristín Kristjánsdóttir (Akureyri University)
    Abstract: Tourism has become a vital part of the Icelandic economy. Iceland has experienced an extremely rapid growth in visitor numbers over the recent years. Visitors? numbers have grown annually at a rate of 20-30%. In the recent years, the relative growth has been larger outside of the summer season. Iceland has been remarkably successful over the past years at attracting new visitors. According to the Icelandic Tourist Board surveys, one of the main reasons visitors come to Iceland is because of the distinctive nature. Visitors come with certain expectations to Iceland. In addition, many factors influence their expectations. Marketing and promotion work from both public and private sectors and the content that the visitors are sharing themselves on the social media platform. The reason for this presentation is that the authors saw a comment from one tour operator in Iceland who was found guilty for giving misleading messages to visitors. According to the theory of integrated marketing communication, it is important to send out the same message and information on every communication platform. All promotional tools have to be integrated as well as it is necessary to build realistic expectations, so it will not come to disappointments among visitors. Main goal of this presentation is to outline a research the authors conducted on promotion material from some main tourist operators in Iceland. The authors chose tour operators from public and private sectors and analyzed their promotion material, and the way they promote themselves according to the theories of IMC. Because Icelandic nature is by far the largest factor attracting visitors, as such, the most valuable resource for the tourism, it is important to preserve it. The authors emphasized to analyze how the nature appeared in the promotion material.The main results are that Icelandic tour operators are sending out misleading messages to foreign visitors.
    Keywords: Icelandic tourism, nature, communication, sensitive wilderness,
    Date: 2018–11
  7. By: Joaquín (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración.)
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the effects of a high school curriculum reform on students' probability to choose Arts as college major. The reform was introduced in 2006 and involved, among other things, the creation of the Art and Expression track in the last two years of the upper secondary level, incorporating for the first time multi-artistic education as a high school diploma. Based on administrative data covering students from the Social and Artistic Area (ASYA, in Spanish) of the Universidad de la República (UdelaR) between 2004 and 2016, the empirical analysis is carried out by applying a difference-in-differences model. After controlling for sex, age and year of graduation from high school as well as place of residence, the results show that the reform increased the probability of choosing a major in Arts by 8.98 pp., conditional on choosing a free entry career of the ASYA, in students who finished public day-time high school between 2004 and 2010. Furthermore, being a woman reduces the impact of the reform, while finishing the secondary school in Montevideo Metropolitan Area increases it. The age of graduation from high school does not have significant effects on the studied probability. Based on Amartya Sen’s (1985) Capabilities Approach and Akerlof and Kranton’s (2000, 2002) Identity Economics, this research constitutes a first approach to the decision making process of students who chose arts in high school to later pursue university artistic formation. In this sense, the contribution to national production on educational evaluation, in general, and to the capabilities and identity literature applied to Uruguay, in particular, stands out.
    Keywords: Economics of Education, artistic education, high school curriculum reform, Identity Economics, capabilities, Uruguay
    JEL: I20 I23 I28 Z11
    Date: 2018–03
  8. By: Balogh, J.M.
    Abstract: In recent decades, New World has increased their wine export to European markets and became considerable market players. Therefore, it is important to investigate whether the major New World wine producers are able to exploit its market power at the Old World s markets. The paper investigates the pricing behavior of major New World wine exporters in their most significant European destination markets using a pricing-to-market (PTM) model in respect of asymmetric effect of exchange rate changes between 2000 and 2016. First, the results suggest that Chile was able to apply price discrimination across Danish, German, Dutch, the UK wine markets. Second, South Africa set their prices in Belgian, Dutch and Swedish markets while the USA discriminated their wine prices in Denmark and Sweden. In contrast, this advantage was not observable in a case of Argentina, Australia. Third, the local-currency price stability was explored in case of Belgium, the Czech Republic and France (Chilean wine prices), Denmark, Germany (South African wine prices) and Germany, UK (US wine prices). Furthermore, the analysis of the asymmetric effects of exchange rates suggests that depreciation of the exporter s currency relative to the Euro had not a significant impact on wine import prices. Acknowledgement :
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis
    Date: 2018–07

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