nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2018‒09‒10
five papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Digital Literacy, Media Consumption and Cultural Exclusion - A Study on the Lodha Tribal Community of India By Seemita Mohanty; Kaushik Chattopadhyay
  2. Immigrant Artists: Enrichment or Displacement? By Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Graddy, Kathryn
  3. Fostering, Child Welfare, and Ethnic Cultural Values By El Badaoui, Eliane; Mangiavacchi, Lucia
  4. Visualization of expressing culinary experience in social network, memetic approach By Krzysztof Stepaniuk
  5. Purchase, Pirate, Publicize: Private-Network Music Sharing and Market Album Sales By Lee, Jonathan F.

  1. By: Seemita Mohanty (National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India); Kaushik Chattopadhyay (National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India)
    Abstract: In today?s volatile globalized world, our daily existence is observed to be highly dependent on digital literacy and new media consumption. Yet at the same time, while some social groups exist within a dynamic and highly advanced technology-enabled media life, some others are still happy to sustain a media existence that adheres to, and promotes all that is conventional and predictable. The reasons for this preference towards a traditional media existence could be many ? lack of access to a digitized world, unconcern and indifference towards a technologically-advanced media, or lack of interest from coming out of a familiar and comfortable media space. Nevertheless, it is widely observed that when changes are wrought in communities and societies relating to technological advancements, it is the youth who are both its primary architect, and also the consumers. And in today?s world of instant connectivity, no matter how remote a community is located in a country?s map, the youths certainly find a way out to ?connect? to the outer world, or access the myriad entertainment outlets that new media has to offer. So how does this digital literacy and new media accessibility affect the social and cultural life of closed communities who have always been bound by specific cultural customs and traditions that gives them their unique identity? This change is now also visible among the Lodha tribal community of India, which was never observed before. The Lodhas are one of the Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) of India, and are primarily found in the eastern Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal. They are forest dwellers and depend on the forest produce for their daily subsistence. The young people of the Lodha community are today observed to be moving away from their traditional cultural systems and into a more urbanized existence that is far removed from the life known to their previous generations. The research question that this study seeks to answer is ? ?Is there any interrelationship between new media existence and cultural exclusion among the youths of the Lodha community?? The study would be conducted among the Lodhas of Mayurbhanj district of Odisha to find out the extent of cultural exclusion among the Lodha youths. The study thus seeks to highlight the different aspects of cultural marginalization among the Lodha youth due to the influence of new media, which is being increasingly observed to be highly intrusive and all pervasive.
    Keywords: Digital literacy, cultural exclusion, new media, Lodha community, tribals, India
    Date: 2018–07
  2. By: Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Graddy, Kathryn
    Abstract: In order to investigate the role of immigrant artists on the development of artistic clusters in U.S. cities, we use the US Census and American Community Survey, collected every 10 years since 1850. We identify artists and art teachers, authors, musicians and music teachers, actors and actresses, architects, and journalists, their geographical location and their status as a native or an immigrant. We look at the relative growth rate of the immigrant population in these occupations over a ten year period and how it affects the relative growth rate of native-born individuals in these artistic occupations. We find that cities that experienced immigrant artist inflows also see a greater inflow of native artists.
    Keywords: artistic occupations; artists; Immigration
    JEL: J4 J6 N3 N9 Z1
    Date: 2018–07
  3. By: El Badaoui, Eliane (University Paris Ouest-Nanterre); Mangiavacchi, Lucia (University of the Balearic Islands)
    Abstract: This article examines the effects of fostering on children's labour supply and schooling in host families in Niger. The focus is on the causal role of ethnic inherited cultural values and behaviours in perpetuating fostering. In particular, at the ethnic group level, we rely on the inherited level of community integration, the situation of frequent interethnic violence, and an indicator of great importance attributed to foster parents. We specify a simultaneous equations model with three outcomes for children (school attendance, hours of market work and hours of domestic work) and a treatment variable (fostering). The results show that foster children are more likely to attend school and to have longer hours of domestic work than biological children. Importantly, we find evidence of a schooling fostering for boys and a domestic fostering for girls. We provide heterogeneous effects for different samples and test the robustness of the results to different empirical specifications. All in all, ethnic inherited values and behaviours are found to have an important causal effect on children's welfare.
    Keywords: child fostering, culture, child labour, domestic work, schooling, Niger
    JEL: J13 J22 O12 C34
    Date: 2018–07
  4. By: Krzysztof Stepaniuk (Białystok University of Technology)
    Abstract: Objectives: The scientific aim of the study was the implementation of the assumptions of tourist experience formation model according to Quan and Wang (2004) in the context of meme theory (i.e. carriers of cultural information, Dawkins, 1976) for evaluation and visualization of the expression of regional cuisine culinary experience by social network users. The quality of culinary service influencing consumer's experience is equal to memetic transmission forming and broadcasting. Such type of transmission is acquired and decoded by consumers for further expression, i.a. through social networks. According to meme theory, the formation and expression of culinary experience is the building of memetic maps described by the frequency of the appearance of certain memes. Data and methods: Research included ten catering facilities, serving dishes of the regional cuisine (Polish, Belarussian, Ukrainian, Lithuanian and Tartar), located in the Podlaskie Voivodeship and having an active profile in Facebook social network. 370 comments were considered from the period between May and September 2016, referring to the contents connected only with the culinary offer of the facilities taken into account. The quantitative and qualitative content analysis was performed. The classification of emotion according to Xu et. al (2015) was used in the semantic decomposition of posted comments. Positive (enjoyment, confidence, safety, positive associations) and negative (dissatisfaction, distrust, anxiety, lack of positive associations) content of posted comments referred to the decor of the inside (mechanic factor), the quality of service (humanic factor) and served dishes (functional factor) were distinguished and analysed (Wall and Berry, 2007).Results: The analysis of the obtained meme maps suggests the presence of positive relationship between presence of memes of holistic enjoyment and enjoyment associated with regional dishes (rS=0.67; p
    Keywords: culinary experience,meme transmission,memes,social network,user generated content
    Date: 2018–03–30
  5. By: Lee, Jonathan F.
    Abstract: I quantify the effects of private-network music sharing on aggregate album sales in the BitTorrent era using a panel of US sales and private-network downloads for 2,109 albums during 2008. Exogenous shocks to the network's sharing constraints address the simultaneity problem. In theory, private- network activity could crowd out sales by building aggregate file sharing ca- pacity or increase sales through word of mouth. I find evidence that private- network sharing results in decreased album sales for top{tier artists, though the economic impact is quite modest. However, private-network activity seems to help mid{tier artists. The results are consistent with claims that word of mouth is stronger for lesser-known artists and that digital sales are more vulnerable to increases in file sharing capacity. I discuss policy implica- tions and alternatives to costly legal efforts to shut down private le sharing networks.
    Keywords: Financial Economics
    Date: 2018–01

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