nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2016‒05‒28
six papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale

  1. The Welfare Eff ects of Vertical Integration in Multichannel Television Markets By Crawford, Gregory S.; Lee, Robin S.; Whinston, Michael; Yurukoglu, Ali
  2. How Does a City Benefit from Culture? Evidence from Milan By Riccardo, Borgoni; Alessandra, Michelangeli; Nicola, Pontarollo;
  3. Case Study on Visit Characteristics of Open-air Museum Information Service Users By Akihiro ABE
  4. Incentivizing creativity: A large-scale experiment with tournaments and gifts By Bradler, Christiane; Neckermann, Susanne; Warnke, Arne Jonas
  5. The Power of Cinema on the Korean Peninsula By Samyel Lee
  6. Black Lives Matter: How the Portrayal of Race in the U.S. Media Frames Racial Opinion, Discourse, and Violence By Savanna Washington

  1. By: Crawford, Gregory S.; Lee, Robin S.; Whinston, Michael; Yurukoglu, Ali
    Abstract: We investigate the welfare effects of vertical integration of regional sports networks (RSNs) with programming distributors in U.S. multichannel television markets. Vertical integration can enhance efficiency by reducing double marginalization and increasing carriage of channels, but can also harm welfare due to foreclosure and raising rivals' costs incentives. We estimate a structural model of viewership, subscription, distributor pricing, and affiliate fee bargaining using a rich dataset on the U.S. cable and satellite television industry (2000-2010). We use these estimates to analyze the impact of simulated vertical mergers and de-mergers of RSNs on competition and welfare, and examine the efficacy of regulatory policies introduced by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission to address competition concerns in this industry.
    Keywords: cable television; double marginalization; foreclosure; vertical integration
    JEL: L13 L42 L51 L82
    Date: 2016–03
  2. By: Riccardo, Borgoni; Alessandra, Michelangeli; Nicola, Pontarollo;
    Abstract: Cultural amenities are the expression of a cultural environment, given by a combination of aesthetics factors, styles, rhythms, behaviours, which contribute to make vibrant and more enjoyable a neighbourhood. Within the theoretical framework of the hedonic approach, we propose an empirical strategy to capture the multiple effects of cultural amenities. The results are used to determine whether cultural amenities are optimally provided by the municipality of Milan. It turns out that government should devote far more resources to culture.
    Keywords: culture, city, hedonic approach, multilevel models
    JEL: R11 R12 R23
    Date: 2016–05–16
  3. By: Akihiro ABE (Iwate Prefectural University)
    Abstract: The purpose of this research was to gather knowledge on the behavior characteristics of visitors when they use information services, to clarify kinds of effective information services for fostering understanding of and relationships with open-air museums, and to contribute to sustainable museum management. Here, "open-air museum" does not just refer to traditional museums where items are preserved and displayed by a specialist such as a curator. It also refers to new formats, such as the ecomuseums created in France where the region's residents actively participate in maintenance and management. The scope of this research encompasses a consideration of various configurations of open-air museums (local preservation, relocating collection, restorative construction). Three cultural institutions/regions of Japan (the Hiraizumi World Heritage Site, Kitakami City’s park for traditional houses, and an open-air art museum in Iwate) were chosen. These facilities were already using a guide system for smartphones developed using the results of our previous research. In order to analyze the behavior characteristics of the visitors, we gathered quantitative data, with the cooperation of the facility managers, from the aforementioned guide system's GPS excursion logs and information browsing logs, then attempted analysis visualization using our own original GIS-based tools. By combining this quantitative method with qualitative ones, such as field observations and interviews, we were able to acquire knowledge on behavior characteristics specific to visitors of open-air museums, which unlike mere tourist facilities have a multifaceted role in cultural dissemination, tourism promotion, and regional development. Hereafter, we will implement information service design for other open-air museums in urgent need of development (facilities to preserve/pass on relics of the Great East Japan Earthquake etc.), i.e. we will apply and verify knowledge through action research while systematizing the methodology of information service design.
    Keywords: ICT Service Design, Museum Management, Tourist Behavior
  4. By: Bradler, Christiane; Neckermann, Susanne; Warnke, Arne Jonas
    Abstract: This paper reports the results from a large-scale laboratory experiment investigating the impact of tournament incentives and wage gifts on creativity. We find that tournaments substantially increase creative output, with no evidence for crowding out of intrinsic motivation. By comparison, wage gifts are ineffective. Additional treatments show that it is the uncertain mapping between effort and output that inhibits reciprocity. This uncertainty is prevalent in creative and other complex tasks. Our findings provide a rationale for the frequent use of tournaments when seeking to motivate creative output.
    Keywords: creativity,incentives,tournament,reciprocity,experiment,crowding-out
    JEL: C91 D03 J33 M52
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Samyel Lee
    Abstract: The Korean peninsula is constantly in a dynamic discussion of identity and direction. For South Korean society, it is no surprise that the Korean War and the existential threat that North Korea poses loom large over its collective conscience. Although mostly disregarded within scholarly discussions in international relations, cinema has always been, and continues to be, an insightful, powerful, and transformative forum. This essay discusses the ways in which cinema as an art form has been able to impact the way that South Korean society evolves, especially as an interpretative medium that argues for the ways in which the Korean demos should understand its own history as well as the the ongoing struggle with the enigma that is North Korea. In particular, the essay examines two movies in detail – Brotherhood and Welcome to Dongmakgol – to reveal how the same socio-political discussions are going on beneath the surface of two seemingly completely different genres of Korean War movies. Led by these persuasive works of art, the essay argues, Korean society is already moving in a post-modern and humanist direction and suggests that as a democracy, Korean society should embrace the power of cinema in both internal and external affairs.
    Keywords: Cinema; Film; North Korea; Welcome to Dongmakgol; Post-modernism; Korean War.
    JEL: Y8
    Date: 2015–10
  6. By: Savanna Washington (City University of New York)
    Abstract: In 1915, “The Clansman,†a 3-1/2 hour film, opened at Clune’s Auditorium in Los Angeles seating 2500 people. At the time most films ran 15 minutes or less and screened at “Nickelodeans,†cheap store fronts that generally seated 200 people or less. Later re-titled, “Birth of a Nation,†it was the first movie to introduce modern shot composition, editing, and theatrics in a way audiences had never seen before. Donald Bogle writes, “The film’s magnitude and epic grandeur swept audiences off their feet.†Then president, Woodrow Wilson, said of the film, “It’s like writing history with lightning.†Only the film wasn't history, it was single-minded propaganda written by Thomas Dixon.The film was based on the book written by Thomas Dixon – a Southern white man, entitled, “The Clansman: An Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan,†Dixon lived in North Carolina during the “Reconstruction†period immediately after the American Civil War. Reconstruction was a period marked by the beginnings of enfranchisement for former black slaves, including advances in elected office, which horrified whites in North Carolina (and throughout the South). The negative stereotypes of Blacks in Birth of a Nation, “Literal and unimaginative as some types might now appear, the naïve and cinematically untutored audiences of the early part of the century responded to the character types as if they were the real thing.†(Bogle) It is estimated that by 1930 almost 50 million Americans had seen the film – fully one-third of the population of the country. In 1934, the Payne Fund Studies argued that, “Birth of a Nation showed how great an impact films could have in encouraging audiences’ racism.†Birth of a Nation gave rise to negative black archetypes that continued to be perpetrated in the media for decades after the film and these negative archetypes still frame racial opinion, public discourse, and violence in the United States, 100 years after it was released. In 2014-2015 in the United States, several deaths of unarmed black men at the hands of police renewed public discourse about race in contemporary America. How are African-American communities perceived by the police and the majority culture as a whole? Where do these perceptions emanate? This paper focuses on the history of the perception of Black people in America and how the film, “Birth of a Nation,†distributed 100 years ago this year, continue to shape the narrative of Black people in America.
    Keywords: Black images in media, Black Lives Matter, Birth of a Nation, D.W. Griffith,

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