nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2015‒10‒10
nine papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Media, markets and institutional change: evidence from the Protestant Reformation By Jeremiah Dittmar; Skipper Seabold
  2. Analyzing the decision to listen to recorded music. A microeconometric approach By Jose A Bermudez Trivino; Lina M Medina Hurtado; Luis Fernando Aguado Quintero
  3. Verdi and Saygun In The Context Of Association Between Policy And Music By Hilmi Yaz
  4. Challenging the Writer’s Authority: A study of the Participatory Creative Process of the Malay Novelists By Sohaimi Abdul Aziz
  5. Effect of consuming imported cultural goods on trading partners’ tolerance toward immigrants: The case of Japanese anime in Korea By Yamamura, Eiji; Shin, Inyong
  6. Strategy for Potential Development for the Students of Faculty of Music towards Guidelines for Entertainment.. By Saksit Rachruk
  7. Art investment as a portfolio diversification strategy in South Africa By Ferdi Botha, Brett Scott and Jen Snowball
  9. Democratic Culture and Thai Societal Development: Cultural Values and Conflict Perspective on Inequality By Chanida Jittaruttha

  1. By: Jeremiah Dittmar; Skipper Seabold
    Abstract: This research studies the role of competition in the diffusion of radical ideas and institutional change during the Protestant Reformation. We construct a new measure of religious content in the media using data on all known books and pamphlets printed in German-speaking Europe 1454-1600. We find that Protestant content was produced in greater quantity in local media markets with more competing firms when Martin Luther circulated his initial arguments for reform in 1517. We find that competition mattered differentially more for the diffusion of Protestant ideas and for institutional change where city governments had the least legal autonomy from feudal lords. We document the relationship between competition and diffusion directly and using the deaths of printers to isolate plausibly exogenous variation in competition. We show that cities where initial competition was greater, and which were more exposed to Protestant ideas, were more likely to adopt the legal institutions of the Reformation.
    Keywords: Competition; firms; media; technology; institutions; religion; politics; high-dimensional data
    JEL: D02 L82 N33 N94 O3 P48 Z12
    Date: 2015–08
  2. By: Jose A Bermudez Trivino; Lina M Medina Hurtado; Luis Fernando Aguado Quintero (Faculty of Economics and Management, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali)
    Abstract: In order to analyze the determining factors of the decision of listening to recorded music in Colombia, participation equations are estimated in the document. To do so, probit models are estimated using micro–data from the Encuesta de Consumo Cultural 2008 [Cultural Consumption Survey] for Colombia. The empírical results show that higher education, greater passive cultural participation, and positioning in a medium and high social–economic strata are the main determining factors of the decision of listening to recorded music. On the other hand, a factor that decreases the likelihood of listening to recorded music is self-declaring African– Colombian–descendent. This document contributes to the limited empirical literature on the determinants of cultural participation in Latin American countries.
    Keywords: recorded music, cultural participation, probit models, Colombia
    JEL: Z11 D12 C25
    Date: 2015–06
  3. By: Hilmi Yaz (Selcuk University Dilek Sabanci State Conservatory)
    Abstract: When every aspect of new thoughts and types of expressions developing as parallel to the each step performed in art in the world is looked at, all these developments and changes will be seen to have closely been related to political context and social life. Interlocked, affecting and transforming each other, the relationship between policy and daily life also influences the field of art as an indispensable part of life. So, newly developing forms have come to the forth in works by being processed by artists, and new expressions have led to new thinkings in society. As a result of this mutual interaction, the society has also affected the art based on its needs and likes, and also manipulated the artists. As to the effect of the art of opera, such an effect is seen to be formed obviously in the works of opera. It may be suggested that the art of opera, from Italy where it was born to Turkey where opera was tried to be adapted into national culture as a sign of Westernization, has gone through the same stages and formed medium for policy. In this context, one of the most remarkable figures in Italy is Giuseppe Verdi. In Turkey, however, Ahmed Adnan Saygun, is seen to come to the forth. Based on these findings in this study, how political situation has affected composers, and in what way the condition is reflected to their works will be investigated on basis of Verdi and Saygun.
    Keywords: arts, opera, politics, nationalism
  4. By: Sohaimi Abdul Aziz (School of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia)
    Abstract: The participatory of a reader in the participatory creative process that involves the media convergence has challenged the authority of the writer. This development is further enhanced with the influence of commercialism in the writing of popular novel. But to what extent it is true? This paper will examine the participatory creative process of two Malay novelists who write popular novels. They are Ain Maisarah and Wan Iman Wan Mohd Nazi. The theory of participatory creative process which comprises of three principles, namely, media convergence, participatory cultural and emotional intelligence will be applied in this study. The method used is, textual analysis involving novel analysis and social media. The study found that the novelists still have their authority over their works although there is a huge drive of commercialism in the writing of the popular novels.
    Keywords: participatory creative process, media convergence, participatory cultural, emotional intelligence,
    JEL: Y90
  5. By: Yamamura, Eiji; Shin, Inyong
    Abstract: there is political tension and conflict between countries. Because of this historical background, political conflict exists between Korea and Japan. This paper examines the effect of viewing Japanese anime (animation) on the attitudes of Koreans toward Japanese living in Korea. The major findings of the study show that the more frequently adult Koreans view Japanese anime, the more likely they are to accept Japanese as workplace colleagues and neighbors after controlling for endogeneity bias using instrumental variables. The findings of this paper imply that via the consumption of imported cultural goods, people are exposed to positive traits of the trading partner, and thus consumers have a stronger affinity with the export country. From this, we derive the policy implication that promoting trade of modern cultural goods is effective to increase mutual understanding between trade partners, reducing political tension between them.
    Keywords: Anime; Immigrants; Workplace; Neighbor; Trade; Externality; Cool Japan.
    JEL: D12 D74 F16 Z11 Z18
    Date: 2015–10–02
  6. By: Saksit Rachruk (Faculty of Music Silpakorn University)
    Abstract: The objectives of the research entitled "Strategy for Potential Development for the Students of Faculty of Music towards the Guidelines for Entertainment Industry Implementation" are (1) to study the current situations of the music business; (2) to study the expectations of music and entertainment organizations forward the abilities of graduates finished from the field of music business; (3) to study the factors influencing the guidelines of the potential development for the students of music and entertainment business courses; and (4) to present "strategy for potential development for the students of faculty of music towards the guidelines for entertainment industry implementation" in order to create confidence in strategy applied by experts. The approaches used in the research are both qualitative and quantitative methods, including factor analysis for statistic reference of hypothesis testing and strategic model searching. As surveying the situations and opinion of entertainment and music business group, the researcher found that the graduates with positive work attitude, job loyalty, curiosity and initiatives are required in labor market relevant to entertainment business. In addition, the ability to apply knowledge and skills to their work efficiently, accompanied with a profound understanding in art, business, communication, and marketing, is also needed from the graduates. In-depth interview with executives of record companies and relevant academicians was conducted to analyze the graduates' characteristics required. Factors analysis along with exploratory factor analysis (EFA) resulted in "SHARP" strategy. The musical term "SHARP" means raising a half step in pitch, which is the strategic driver for potential development for the students of Faculty of Music towards the guidelines for entertainment and music industry implementation.
    Keywords: Entertainment Industry, SHARRP Strategy, Strategy for Potential Development
    JEL: I29 L82 L89
  7. By: Ferdi Botha, Brett Scott and Jen Snowball
    Abstract: Art has been suggested as a good way to diversify investment portfolios during times of financial uncertainty. The argument is that art exhibits different risk and return characteristics to conventional investments in other asset classes. The new Citadel Art Price index offered the opportunity to test this theory in the South African context. The Citadel index uses the hedonic regression method with observations drawn from the top 100, 50 and 20 artists by sales volume, giving approximately 29 503 total auction observations. The Index consists of quarterly data from the period 2000Q1 to 2013Q3. A VAR of the art price index, Johannesburg Stock Exchange all-share index, house price index, and South African government bond index were used. Results show that, when there are increased returns on the stock market in the previous period and wealth increases, there is a change in the Citadel Art Price Index in the same direction. No significant difference was found between the house price index and the art price index, and neither between the art and government bond price indices. The art market is also found to be inefficient, thereby exacerbating the risk of investing in art. Overall, the South African art market does not offer the opportunity to diversify portfolios dominated by either property, bonds, or shares.
    Keywords: Diversification, financial instability, art investment, Wealth, Citadel Art Price Index
    JEL: Z11 G10
    Date: 2015
    Abstract: Rapid changes in communication technologies led to important changes in methods and instruments of public relations activities. Institutional communication activities which were carried out by means of web pages of internet media have started gaining importance in the area of social media upon the rise of this phenomenon. Public relations activities such as crisis management, corporate image, and organizational identity, promotion, informing and communicating have been started to be used efficiently in the area of social media. Social media not only changed the areas of communication but also changed the content of messages and the media settings of message senders and receivers. Additionally social media introduced the concepts such as "user generated content" and "customer generated media" and gathered its position in commercial planning by this feature. Social media became an indispensible component of tourism marketing. Traditional communication media have changed significantly upon the introduction and development of social media. Communicating with customers became an easy and low cost process. Creating trademark consciousness, ingathering trademark related groups, determining the target market and the attributes of target market became an easier process by means of social media instruments. It might be said that social media is perceived as a very efficient instrument regarding to the touristic product preferences of people. It provides more reliable information which is produced by the experienced and informed people directly related to the subjects such as tourism agency, destination, accommodation etc. and it provides such information by changing the information gathering methods of users. The rise of social media usage in tourism industry might be associated to the travel related advices made by social media users directly and to the efficient operation of mouth to mouth communication. Use of social media in tourism industry for the purposes of public relations is probed from various perspectives and some applications are to be presented in this study.
    Keywords: Tourism, social media, public relations.
    JEL: M31
  9. By: Chanida Jittaruttha (Chulalongkorn University, Faculty of Political Science, Public Administration Department)
    Abstract: Democratic culture is the valuable set of cultural elements produced by members of the democratic movements as part of their effort to create democracy (Holden, 2008). Public administration scholars generally agree that democratic culture is a prerequisite to and a keystone of ‘new democratic governance’, which is now widely accepted as a critical paradigmin public affairs. (Hood, 1991; Rhodes, 1991; Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2004; Bozeman, 2007).As Balkin (2004) stated that democratic culture is about individual liberty as well as collective self- governance; it concerns each individual's ability to participate in the production and distribution of culture on democracy.This article aimed to study the level of democratic culture composed in three components, affecting to Thai societal development forwarded on three stages that were perceived by Thai people. It also investigates barriers to democratic culture and to provide determining indicators, which can promote strong democratic culture and advanced democracy among public sphere. Both questionnaires and interview schedule were synthesized from relevant literatures to explore a field. After data collecting, findings are as follows: (a) citizen perception on both democratic cultureand Thai societal development are of at high level (mean value 3.51 and 3.64), (b) relationship between democratic culture and Thai societal development were negatively correlated in one way direction at low level (r=.599),(c) apparent values and behaviors of democratic perceived culture has disparity from those expected ones in some dimensions, (d) major barriers to democratic culture derived from Thai’s culture in historical sociology dimension:inequality rooted upon nepotism, patronage or spoil system, high power distance, pyramid scheme, (e) obstructions to Thai societal development derived from corruption, distrust culture,bureaucracy and parliament intervention, undemocratic and unethical leaders, autocratic rule, and law enforcement deficiency, and (f) alignments or indicators to cultivate democratic culture influencing to Thai societal development are democratic values, empower citizen, democratic and ethical leaders, efficient bureaucracy, ideologies and professionalism of public servant, development of citizen’ s knowledge, equality of law enforcement, participative management, ethics and governance in society, human capital development and well- being of citizen. The article, although,postulates sufficient evidence to conclude that citizen perception on democratic culture is at high level and highlights where existing measures match the theories, but also shows a number of “weak democratic culture” and barricades of democratization especially over the content of democratic beliefs correlated with societal development and possible alignments for reconstructing democratic culture among Thai citizen.
    Keywords: Democratic Culture, Democracy, Societal Development

This nep-cul issue is ©2015 by Roberto Zanola. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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