nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2015‒03‒27
nine papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. INTERNET CHALLENGES FOR CONTEMPORARY CULTURAL MANAGEMENT By Nemanja Backović; Vesna Milićević; Adam Sofronijević
  2. Cultural tourism in Oltenia (Romania) – disregarded opportunity By Liliana Popescu; Amalia Badita; Mirela Mazilu
  3. Global – Trans – Multi? Contemporary art in the lecture room By Wojciech Rubis; Paulina Tendera
  4. Tourism Information Services Design Based on Participatory Approach: The Case of Cultural Heritage Tourism in Japan By Akihiro Abe
  5. The Representation of Arabic Culture in TESOL/TEIL By Tariq Elyas
  6. Measuring the efficiency of heritage institutions: Example of historic buildings in Czech Republic By Zdenek Patek; Michal Straka
  7. Dance Participation and Attendance in Denmark By Marvao, Catarina; Borowiecki, Karol
  8. Creativity and Collaboration in the Online Classroom By Joy Kutaka-Kennedy
  9. How culture matters: The impact of individual values on development By Judit Kapas

  1. By: Nemanja Backović (Faculty of Organizational Sciences, University of Belgrade); Vesna Milićević (Faculty of Organizational Sciences, University of Belgrade); Adam Sofronijević (University library \)
    Abstract: This paper will emphasize contemporary approaches of online management structure for arts and cultural institutions. Turbulent economic environment calls for flexible managerial strategies, which will establish balance between traditional values and continual drive for innovations, due to more complex external business factors. WEB technology follows a large scale of customers’ needs, and thus formulates a new paradigm for cultural management. In this paper Internet influences on the level of cultural management effectiveness will be researched. New presentation concepts and restructuring data bases in institutions network will be examined. Project Europeana will be presented as the example of successful data classification, creation of virtual exhibitions and digital libraries, which will be used as a framework for further quantitative and qualitative analysis of heritage archiving. Paper will also explore some of the representative examples of Internet related presentations of cultural heritage such as Google Books and Google Art project. Selected Serbian national initiatives presenting cultural heritage via Internet will be discussed and various aspects of accessibility of digital materials originating in Serbian heritage institutions will be analyzed. Business strategies modeling via Internet makes final cultural products more accessible for end users, by simple and fast information and knowledge transfer. Present and future impact of museums and library data digitalization will be investigated, with special focus on practice from the Republic of Serbia. By usage of relevant statistical data, cultural institutions in Serbia will be considered. Important culture projects will be shown, including archeological findings and the cultural route of the Roman emperors in Serbia. Development perspectives will be presented, with the proposition of solutions for their online realization. Paper will also look into new trends in higher education available trough Internet, chiefly represented by MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses), in the context of their cultural repercussions and influence they might have as an alternative medium for cultural and educational content broadcast. Challenges that employers, employees and general public face today in this area will be discussed as well as the importance and significance of OA (Open Access) business models in culture and education.
    Keywords: Cultural management; Internet; Digital museum; Culture projects; Virtual library; Online cultural content
    JEL: Z11 M00 Z19
    Date: 2014–06
  2. By: Liliana Popescu (University of Craiova); Amalia Badita (University of Craiova); Mirela Mazilu (University of Craiova)
    Abstract: As the importance of cultural tourism is increasing, ever more states from Europe and not only are using cultural tourism for their tourism development strategies to attract a growing number of tourists. Oltenia’s cultural heritage with value for tourism is manifested through arts and crafts, costumes, religion, festivals, music, dance, folklore, literature, local cuisine, as well as monuments and other constructions testifying for the people’s history. The current analysis, focusing on the cultural patrimony as a major tourist resource, aims to identify and examine what types of tourism plans and strategies have been adopted by the Romanian government to develop and promote cultural tourism in the country as a hole and for specific regions in particular, and what effects they had on the tourism industry, as well as to define the necessary activities for the successful development of cultural tourism in Oltenia. The main goal is to demonstrate that beside balneary spas, the region also owes significant natural and cultural resources to support the development of cultural tourism.
    Keywords: cultural tourism, patrimony, development strategy, regional identity
    JEL: L83 M31
    Date: 2014–05
  3. By: Wojciech Rubis (Jagiellonian University); Paulina Tendera (Jagiellonian University)
    Abstract: The paper presents several, both methodological and personal, remarks on the didactics of the academic subjects connected with art in higher education institutions. The main research question will be: is contemporary art (painting, installation art and film as well as music) created in the global, transcultural or multicultural domain? During classes, in the uterrances of students and lecturers, are these terms synonymous, close in meaning or contradictional? How does the selection of certain linguistic items in class affect the attitudes, values and contents we transfer to the students? It is worth noting that, for example:•by using the language of global culture we communicate in the area of mass media and popular culture. This type of communication is easy and clear, but probably limits the worth of a work of art and the possibilities to convey the deeper values of a piece, which is why it is usually used in reporting utterances, but not in evaluative ones, in the domain of fashion, trends, design... •by using the multicultural language we point to an important, enriching and interpersonal aspect of art as a carrier of a message. Multicultural art is a good tool for the promotion of slogans: equality, solidarity, understanding and tolerance. Multicultural art builds a patchwork of many diverse cultures. This aspect is very important in education towards a conscious life in social structures, which is why its use might be helpful in such domains as pedagogy, cultural studies, cultural management, or ethics. •by using the transcultural language we emphasize the intellectual values and the possibilities of transfer of religious, ideological or emotional contents from one culture to another. The language of transcultural art proves to be the most appropriate for the analyses of high art, traditional art and art aiming at an intellectual reception, as it requires the awareness of what can and what cannot be conveyed in another language. This type of language is used in the course of in-depth art studies, in art majors, philosophy and history of art. One could say that in the 21st century this language has replaced the europocentric methodology reigning in the domain up until the first half of the 20th century.These issues are crucial because of the need to educate the contemporary viewer of art who will be able to take part in the culture of the 21st century in a conscious and mature way, both passively and actively.
    Keywords: Education, Language, Multicultural Art, Transcultural Art, Globalization
    JEL: I23 I24
    Date: 2014–12
  4. By: Akihiro Abe (Iwate Prefectural University)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to discuss the design of new tourism information services through a case of the Hiraizumi world heritage site in Japan that was registered in 2011. As it promotes tourism through the world heritage registration, Hiraizumi is operating on the major premise that it will safeguard its cultural heritage while also placing importance on developing systems for accepting a diverse range of tourists using the universal design perspective. When doing so there are limits to facility refurbishment and infrastructure development so the town focused its attention on support for information aspects, or in other words support using ICT. Going forward as individual travel becomes more mainstream the ways in which new value is created in cultural tourism are likely to include (1) transmission of the value of the cultural heritage in collaboration with humanities researchers and (2) development of tourist areas in which excursions on foot are possible and information transmission. Most of the cultural heritage of Hiraizumi has been lost. Hiraizumi’s value will not be experienced by simply examining the extant remains. Their recreation and visualization through extended and composite reality technology is anticipated, not only in the academic study of cultural properties, but also in promoting tourism. The strongest demand is for reconstruction and visualization of archaeological sites using augmented reality/mixed reality technologies. Researchers and technicians tend to focus on the pursuit of reality and historical accuracy but when using these technologies for tourism the care should be taken over the cost-effectiveness of system operation in particular. Also, the approach of grasping general tour excursion trends from big data in tourist guide services using mobile phones, and linking that to environmental maintenance of tour sites to be enjoyed by walking, is very interesting from the point of view of community development. We discuss the role and possibilities of new tourism information services based on participatory approach.
    Keywords: Tourism, ICT Services, Participatory Design, Cultural Heritage
    Date: 2014–06
  5. By: Tariq Elyas (King Abdulaziz University)
    Abstract: This article reports on a mixed-method research into cultural representation of Islam in an English language textbook series being used at a Saudi Arabian university. The current study utilized Ideology Critique Methodology and was framed within the Critical Research Paradigm. The research used a structured questionnaire, followed by open-ended questions administered to 30 purposefully chosen language teachers. The study attempted to ascertain, in the light of Muslim teachers’ perceptions, the representation of Islamic (and Saudi) culture, the extent of an international cultural outlook, and presence of any culturally inappropriate or offensive material in the contents of a most popular English language textbook series. The study also evaluated the pedagogical benefits of employing learners’ culture (source culture) in the light of Schema Theory of learning. The study endorsed the idea of appropriation of English according to variable contexts and opposed predominance of western culture in TEIL at the expense of local cultures.
    Keywords: EIL; Intercultural communication; Islamic culture; Saudi Culture; Schema theory; TESOL
    JEL: I23
    Date: 2014–12
  6. By: Zdenek Patek (University of Economics); Michal Straka (University of Economics)
    Abstract: The current society opinion about the public sector is not positive. In general, people perceive the public sphere as an area where the government wastes money or where the public management of non-profit organisations just squanders money provided by the government. We may find this sort of considerations even in the sphere of culture. The goal of this paper is to show that there are a way and a method that can be applied to public institutions for their effective management. It is the application of evaluations in the field of culture which in the future may bring positive results in economic understanding of culture. Culture is often associated with tourism, of which the largest share is the cultural tourism. The main component of cultural tourism is visiting monuments. The basic question in connection with the sights therefore is whether the public manage of these objects is efficient. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a widely applied tool in efficiency evaluation for public sector, however it has scarcely been put into use in the case of historic building such as castles and palaces. The article is a response to the growing need to measure performance in all forms of public management. The purpose is to suggest some ways in which it is possible to evaluate the relative performance of activities of cultural monuments on the territory of the Czech Republic, and also to consider whether UNESCO is more effective than classical monuments or not. Scientific plan is based on the belief that castle managers should manage historical monument in order to achieve certain results.
    Keywords: Effectiveness, Monuments, Data Envelopment Analysis
    JEL: Z10 H21 M11
    Date: 2014–12
  7. By: Marvao, Catarina (Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics); Borowiecki, Karol (University of Southern Denmark, Department of Business and Economics, Odense)
    Abstract: Dancing may be one of the most competitive professions available career-wise. The lack of job opportunities and the competitiveness, the inherent expense in costumes and training and the high risk of injuries mean that only few dancers are able to make it their profession. However, dancing is an activity that comes with positive externalities, as various socio-economic benefits are experienced by those who practice dance non-professionally. Despite the importance of dancing, very little is known with respect to the profiles of dancers. This chapter, by availing of an information database on cultural preferences and habits in Denmark for 2004, illustrates the profiles of dancers and dance audiences and so deepens the current knowledge on the functioning of the dance market. We show that there exists a very strong positive correlation between cultural participation and the well-being of a society. These links are carefully described in the chapter.
    Keywords: Dance; cultural preferences; welfare; competitiveness
    JEL: A12 I31 Z11 Z19
    Date: 2015–03–08
  8. By: Joy Kutaka-Kennedy (National University)
    Abstract: Online and collaborative learning have been identified as driving trends in higher education today (Johnson, Adams, Becker, Estrada, & Freeman, 2014). Over 6.7 million students have taken at least one online class, more than 32% of all higher education students (Allen & Seaman, 2011). However, many students report dissatisfaction with content, process, and lack of engagement, especially when online learning is a static, instructor-led discussion (Adams, Defleur, & Heald, 2007). Fredericks (2004) posited that student engagement facilitates success and retention. He identified behavioral engagement with academic and social activities, emotional engagement with positive and negative reactions to people and activities, and cognitive engagement with reflective and integrative thinking. Creative and collaborative assignments by nature can engage students on behavioral, emotional and cognitive levels; their increased engagement leads to improved learning outcomes. Done appropriately, online education can be an engaging, creative venue for teaching and learning with the proper tools and supports. Contrary to popular misconception and fears, online learning can be creative, dynamic student experience. This session will present one assignment that actively engages student creativity resulting in a practical classroom tool for special education teachers. Students are required to create a Parent Newsletter to provide information about the teacher, his/her classroom procedures, and resources for families. They then share and critique each other’s work in small, online groups with clear documentation of everyone’s participation and responses. Using peers’ feedback, students can refine their newsletters and submit it for final grading; an additional benefit is they have ideas and templates to write future newsletters for their own classroom. Students report that they use these newsletters in their own classrooms.Going beyond their role as content experts, online instructors can promote creativity and collaboration through a judicious mix of lectures, video clips, assigned readings, and discussions. Assessment of creative and collaborative assignments can also pose challenges, as aesthetic quality is often very individualized. How does one compare works from Mozart to Rodin to Chagall? Although creative and artistic endeavors cannot be evaluated with the same kind of metrics that multiple choice tests can employ, rubrics with general descriptors of gradations of quality can be useful. Furthermore, providing examples of weak, acceptable, and exemplary products can also provide guidance on grading criteria. The rewards of creative and collaborative assignments far outweigh the challenges of assessment and evaluation.
    Keywords: Creativity; Collaboration; Online education;
    JEL: I23 I29 I21
    Date: 2014–07
  9. By: Judit Kapas (University of Debrecen)
    Abstract: Recently, the view that culture matters for economic development has gained much ground within institutional economics; scholars have provided us with empirical evidence on the positive effect of culture on economic performance. This evidence shows, in some cases, the overwhelming effect of culture vis-à-vis that of formal institutions (Williamson 2009). In these investigations, culture is generally measured by the subjective evaluation of those answering the question “Do you think that most people can be trusted?†in the World Values Survey. However, whether an answer to this question really refers to culture has recently been doubted by a growing number of scholars, a problem which goes back to a somewhat ambiguous definition of culture. Another problematic issue here is that these empirical investigations do not rely on an economic theory concerning the effects of culture on economic performance, at least when it comes to the mechanisms through which culture may effect development.One way to overcome these shortcomings – more importantly the “black box†view of culture – is to move from general statements about culture to a narrower, and consequently more reliable dimension of culture. My argument is that Schwartz’s (2006) theory of cultural value orientations developed in cross-cultural psychology can be fruitfully used for two reasons. First, this theory relies on a priori theorizing about three basic issues that all societies confront, rather than post hoc examination of data. Secondly, it captures only one, but an unambiguous, aspect of culture: individual values.So, in this paper I argue that an analysis of individual values on economic development contributes to a clarification of the effects of culture by “unbundling†culture itself. Using individual values allows me to rely on theories of institutional economics – namely Williamson’s (2000) theory about the levels of institutions and of Boettke et al’s (2008) theory on institutional stickiness – to make hypotheses about their effects on development, and then empirically investigate them. The cross-country empirical investigation using the Schwartz Values Survey data on individual values provides evidence for the main hypothesis: individual values have no effect on development after controlling for formal institutions, and this result is different from the effect of the culture index derived from the World Values Survey and that of Hofstede’s “individualismâ€, and is very robust.
    Keywords: culture, economic development, institutions, individual values
    JEL: E02 O10
    Date: 2014–12

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