nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2014‒11‒22
five papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. How Diverse can Spatial Measures of Cultural Diversity be? Results from Monte Carlo Simulations on an Agent-Based Model By Daniel Arribas-Bel; Peter Nijkamp; Jacques Poot
  2. Standards, IPR and digital TV convergence: theories and empirical evidence By Matteucci, Nicola
  3. Consumer Policy Guidance on Intangible Digital Content Products By OECD
  4. Estimating the recreational value of Kakum National Park in Ghana By Ankomah, Emmanuel; Adu, Kofi Osei
  5. Endogenous Growth and Demographic Transition in a model of Cultural Transmission By Zakharenko, Roman

  1. By: Daniel Arribas-Bel (VU University Amsterdam); Peter Nijkamp (VU University Amsterdam); Jacques Poot (The University of Waikato, New Zealand)
    Abstract: Cultural diversity is a complex and multi-faceted concept. Commonly used quantitative measures of the spatial distribution of culturally-defined groups 'such as segregation, isolation or concentration indexes' are often only capable of identifying just one aspect of this distribution. The strengths or weaknesses of any measure can only be comprehensively assessed empirically. This paper provides evidence on the empirical properties of various spatial measures of cultural diversity by using Monte Carlo replications of agent-based modeling (MC-ABM) simulations with synthetic data assigned to a realistic and detailed geographical context of the city of Amsterdam. Schelling's classical segregation model is used as the theoretical engine to generate patterns of spatial clustering. The data inputs include the initial population, the number and shares of various cultural groups, and their preferences with respect to co-location. Our MC-ABM data generating process generates output maps that enable us to assess the performance of various spatial measures of cultural diversity under a range of demographic compositions and preferences. We find that, as our simulated city becomes more diverse, stable residential location equilibria are only possible when particularly minorities become more tolerant. We test whether observed measures can be interpreted as revealing unobserved preferences for co-location of individuals with their own group and find that the segregation and isolation measures of spatial diversity are shown to be non-decreasing in increasing preference for within-group co-location, but the Gini coefficient and concentration measures are not.
    Keywords: cultural diversity, spatial segregation, agent-based model, Monte Carlo simulation
    JEL: C63 J15 R23 Z13
    Date: 2014–07–03
  2. By: Matteucci, Nicola
    Abstract: Media convergence presents a few noticeable dimensions, and requests an interdisciplinary research approach. We conduct a long-run analysis of the main initiatives of technological standardization carried out in the realm of “traditional†(cable, satellite and terrestrial) digital TV, focusing on Europe, to assess the technological determinants of its apparent trends to convergence. This analysis inevitably calls into question IPR strategies and policies. In particular, we investigate how private incentives and the public agenda for interoperability have shaped the on-going convergence of the TV sector toward an “IP-based†meta-platform. Despite the widespread usage of open standards and formats, the real potential for interoperability along the digital TV filière has been modest, and mostly limited to the transmission segment. This is mainly due to the strong proprietary features characterizing the TV sector, where viable content production and provision rests on effective control of content IPR. Further, patent portfolio strategies and control of crucial copyrights become increasingly central for competing in the converging TV sector, where former telecom companies, traditional TV operators and new OTT players strive to become gatekeepers of essential layers of the new IP-based delivery platforms. To sum up, while technological opportunities today do enable pervasive media interoperability and affordable convergence at the user-level, private incentives relentlessly push the industry toward standards fragmentation and the construction of walled gardens.
    Keywords: standards, IPR strategies, convergence, DVB, digital TV.
    JEL: L12 L15 L40 L52 L82 O34
    Date: 2013–05
  3. By: OECD
    Abstract: Digital content, such as e-books and apps that are available through streaming, downloads or cloud computing platforms, has become the fastest growing e-commerce product category. To support further growth, it is important that consumers, including children, understand what their rights and obligations are when acquiring and using such products. In particular, consumers need to know about the conditions under which they may copy and share products, and on which devices the products may be used. They also need to be informed about how their personal data may be collected and used, with whom it may be shared and why, and the type of redress that may be obtained when problems arise.
    Date: 2014–10–24
  4. By: Ankomah, Emmanuel; Adu, Kofi Osei
    Abstract: National parks and Conservational area in general play major role in human life. They serve as habitats for animals and insects, protection of water bodies, carbon sequestration, recreational sites, source of income and source of revenue to government. Notwithstanding these benefits there are reports of the destruction and degradation of the natural ecosystem worldwide. This situation has led to serious environmental problems such as loss of biodiversity, global warming, climate change and its attendant effects. If forest reserves come with so many benefits as enumerated above, why then are they being degraded? This study sought to estimate the recreational value of Kakum national park in Ghana. To be able to give an estimate of the recreational value, an economic valuation technique called the Travel Cost method was applied. The travel cost method is a survey based method that uses the cost of travelling to a site to estimate the demand function for the site. The data used for the study was obtained from 300 visitors to the Kakum National Park from August 12 – 14, 2013. The recreational value of the KNP was estimated to be GH¢981,188 in 2013. Based on the findings, the study recommended the following; increased advertisement of the park, provision of additional facilities at the park and public education on the importance of recreation.
    Keywords: Recreational value, national park.
    JEL: Q2 Q23 Q26
    Date: 2014–09–14
  5. By: Zakharenko, Roman
    Abstract: Demographic transition theory is developed highlighting cultural transmission pattern as key driver. Individuals maximize cultural fitness, i.e. rate of own cultural type absorbtion by future generations. With low population density, one's culture can be picked up only by own children, thus cultural fitness equals genetic fitness, individuals allocate all energy surplus to reproduction, and Malthusian regime occurs. With rising population density, cultural transmission between non-relatives accelerates; knowledge production by an individual makes her culture more attractive. Individuals reallocate some of energy surplus from reproduction to knowledge production, causing technological growth. The model fits observed demographic transition patterns.
    Keywords: Endogenous growth, Cultural transmission, Demographic transition
    JEL: J11 O44 Z19
    Date: 2014

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