nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2013‒11‒02
seven papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
University Amedeo Avogadro

  1. Local government allocation of cultural services By Lars Håkonsen; Knut Løyland
  2. Panorama da Economia Criativa no Brasil By João Maria de Oliveira; Bruno Cesar de Araujo; Leandro Valério Silva
  3. No Escape? The Co-ordination Problem in Heritage Preservation By Gabriel M. Ahlfeldt; Nancy Holman
  4. Media clusters and metropolitan knowledge economy By Karlsson, Charlie; Rouchy, Philippe
  5. Engaging in Corruption: The Influence of Cultural Values and Contagion Effects at the Micro Level By Lee, Wang-Sheng; Guven, Cahit
  6. Risky Sports and the Value of Information By Leiter, Andrea; Rheinberger, Christoph
  7. Nautical Tourism, Carrying Capacity and Environmental Externality in the Lagoon of Marano and Grado By Francesco Silvestri; Stefano Ghinoi; Vincenzo Barone

  1. By: Lars Håkonsen (Telemark Research Institute and Telemark College, Norway); Knut Løyland (Telemark Research Institute, Norway)
    Abstract: In the present paper we analyse the allocation process of cultural services in Norwegian municipalities. The cultural sector on this administrative level is decomposed into the following eight subcategories: children and youth activities, libraries, cinemas, museums, arts dissemination, sports, cultural schools, and other cultural services. By means of budget shares for these eight cultural services and a residual sector consisting of all other municipal services, we estimate a system of demand relations which are interdependently linked to each other by a budget restriction. Our analyses are based on data from 406 out of 429 Norwegian municipalities during the period 2002 to 2010. In the empirical analyses we mainly focus on the effects of income variation for the cultural services. We estimate effects of free income, matching grants to each sector, and user fees and other sector-specific income for each sector. We also estimate crowding-out effects for the cultural sectors of demographic variables indicating higher demand for services like education, child care, and health services. Our results confirm previous results. There are interesting differences within the group of cultural services, and these are partly related to different national standardization and regulation among the cultural services. In the concluding section we discuss some cultural policy implications of the results obtained.
    Keywords: Allocation of cultural services; Local government budget; Demand system
    JEL: Z11 Z18 H72
    Date: 2013–10
  2. By: João Maria de Oliveira; Bruno Cesar de Araujo; Leandro Valério Silva
    Abstract: O conceito de economia criativa e seu estabelecimento como uma disciplina de estudo ganhou expressão e relevância a partir dos anos 2000. Economia criativa é o conjunto de atividades econômicas que dependem do conteúdo simbólico – nele incluído a criatividade como fator mais expressivo para a produção de bens e serviços, guardando estreita relação com aspectos econômicos, culturais e sociais que interagem com a tecnologia e propriedade intelectual. Assim, neste trabalho são apresentados diferentes conceitos e formas de mensuração ao redor do mundo, para depois apresentar uma mensuração da economia criativa no Brasil, tanto a formal quanto a informal. Estimase que a economia criativa formal represente entre 1,2% e 2% do Produto Interno Bruto (PIB) brasileiro e aproximadamente 2% da mão de obra e 2,5% da massa salarial formal. Além disso, os trabalhadores em economia criativa ganham mais e são mais escolarizados que a média. The concept of Creative Economy and its establishment as a discipline of study gained relevance from the 2000s. Creative Economy is the set of economic activities that depend on the symbolic content – being creativity the more significant factor for the production of goods and services. The Creative Economy is closely related to economic, cultural and social factors that interact with technology and intellectual property. Thus, this paper presents different concepts and ways to measure the Creative Economy around the world, and then present a measurement of the Creative Economy in Brazil, both the formal and the informal. It is estimated that the wages Creative Economy represents between 1.2% and 2% of the Brazilian GDP and approximately 2% of the labor workforce and 2.5% of formal wages. Moreover, workers in the Creative Economy earn more and are more educated than average.
    Date: 2013–10
  3. By: Gabriel M. Ahlfeldt; Nancy Holman
    Abstract: Conservation areas (CAs) are among the most restrictive English planning policies. Designation implies a significant limitation of owners' control over the shape and appearance of their properties. The policy, however, can also be argued to solve a sort of 'prisoners' dilemma', in which it might be collectively rationale to preserve the character of an area, but an individual homeowner may be tempted to inappropriately alter their property, thus free-riding on nearby properties' character. The net-benefit of the policy depends largely on the existence of positive 'heritage effects' and acknowledgement from homeowners that policy contributes to neighbourhood stability and the preservation of these positive effects. Our results of a mixed-method analysis of close to 1 million property transactions near to about 8000 CAs and 111 interviews with residents in nine representative CAs in Greater London suggest that positive heritage externalities exist and that residents in CAs tend to value their local environments, acknowledge the need for planning control and execute their right to object to neighbour's planning request.
    Keywords: Designation, England, Heritage, Property Value, Prisoner’s Dilemma
    JEL: R52 D23 C7
    Date: 2013–10
  4. By: Karlsson, Charlie (Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), Center of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS) KTH, Sweden); Rouchy, Philippe (Bleking Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Large media clusters have emerged in a limited number of large cities, characterizing the geographical concentration of the global media industry. This paper starts by exploring the effect of the rapid advancement of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) had on the media economy. It concludes that the role of the “weightless economy” on media cluster has enhanced its production and distribution functions. We review the specificities of media cluster that ties agglomeration to creative, diversified attributes of production and distribution. The implication is that media firms hold strong tendencies to cluster in urban regions since they make full usage of its resources, namely its export capabilities and import transformation strength. Finally, we invite researchers to consider Jacobs’ metropolitan and global reciprocating system of city growth as a valid unit for analysing media clusters. The question leads envisaging if media clusters' strong metropolitan base allows them to grow further through globalised circuits. The paper concludes that large, media clusters drive on intellectually dense network of information, which can only be cultivated through large agglomerations existing capabilities. Consequently, the research question focuses upon the economic role of knowledge in media creation and export replacement. We emphasize the strength of Jacob’s model of media cluster for understanding its mechanism of value creation and endogenous system of globalisation.
    Keywords: clustering; media industry; agglomeration; weightless economy; creative industry; globalization; regional development
    JEL: L82 R11
    Date: 2013–10–21
  5. By: Lee, Wang-Sheng (Deakin University); Guven, Cahit (Deakin University)
    Abstract: Previous empirical work on corruption has generally been cross-country in nature and focused on utilizing country-level corruption ratings. By using micro-level data for over 20 European countries that directly measure individual characteristics, corruption experiences, gender roles, trust and values to examine the determinants of corruption, this paper goes beyond the search for associations between various macro factors and perceptions of corruption that is prevalent in the economic literature. One focus of the paper is on how cultural norms such as gender roles and risk preferences influence corruption and whether there are gender differences in the determinants of corruption. In addition, this paper also seeks to determine if there are contagion effects in corruption at the micro level. Using a seemingly unrelated probit approach, this paper provides empirical estimates of how past experiences with corruption affects both how bribery is viewed and the actual act of offering a bribe.
    Keywords: risk preference, gender roles, corruption, seemingly unrelated probit
    JEL: K42 O17
    Date: 2013–10
  6. By: Leiter, Andrea; Rheinberger, Christoph
    Date: 2013–02
  7. By: Francesco Silvestri (eco&eco Economia ed Ecologia Ltd. Bologna and Dept. of Economics and Marketing, University of Ferrara); Stefano Ghinoi (Dept of Statistics, Alma Mater Studiorum Bologna); Vincenzo Barone (eco&eco Economia ed Ecologia Ltd. Bologna)
    Abstract: Tourism and environmental preservation are often conflicting activities, mainly in areas such as coastal lagoons, where seaside mass-tourism comes into contact with a very sensitive ecological system. In this paper we deal with a classical problem of both environmental and tourism economics, the internalization of environmental costs of tourism, focusing on the nautical fruition of the Lagoon of Marano and Grado (North-Eastern Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia Region). Using different instruments, both theoretical (Carrying Capacity framework, Polluter-Payer principle, Coase compensation) and empirical (Cluster analysis, Log-log regression, Forecasting model, cost and benefit calculation through actual market values), we get the result that a standard Coasian equilibrium (unit external cost equal to unit private benefit) doesn’t hold, and a higher coverage of the local berths endowment (i. e. a higher vessels transit in the Lagoon) is more effective for nature conservation than a tempered fruition. Another interesting result is that the best available solution to internalize environmental externality is a mixed one, comprehensive of a command and control rule (a speed-limit prescription), and a compensation scheme.
    Keywords: Tourism Carrying Capacity, Nature conservation, Externalities, Empirical studies
    JEL: Q01 Q26 Q57
    Date: 2013–09

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