nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2013‒06‒30
three papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
University Amedeo Avogadro

  1. Can Certain Intellectual Property Rights both Protect and Promote Unique Traditional Products and Cultural Heritage from Developing Countries for Economic Benefit? The Case of Georgia By Patrick Martens
  2. Social Influence and the Matthew Mechanism: The Case of an Artificial Cultural Market By Bask, Miia; Bask, Mikael

  1. By: Patrick Martens (Maastricht University)
    Abstract: This paper is focused on traditional products that include agricultural goods such as wines, spirits and cheeses as well as tangible and intangible cultural heritage and sometimes linked to the manufacture of the product. The aims are: firstly to assess the current context of International Economic Law (IEL) and how Georgia is using IEL legal frameworks to protect its traditional products and heritage; secondly, how effectively its own national treatment and policy environment are functioning; and finally, to make preliminary observations and arguments on the impact and potential of Intellectual Property (IP) systems, Geographical Indications (GIs), Traditional Knowledge (TK), Traditional Cultural Expressions (TCE) and Genetic Resources (GR), on the economic development of regions and communities. The local-global dynamic of IEL is contrasted with Georgia‟s own economic and developmental realities. Against this backdrop, the question emerges as to whether the relevant Intellectual Property (IP) systems can not only provide the necessary „defensive‟ legal protection against misappropriation, misuse, theft and bio-piracy, but also support „positive protection‟ – meaning incentives and opportunities for technological innovation, entrepreneurial endeavor and community development. The main conclusion is that is that the positive aspects of protection need more policy development and action.
    Keywords: Geographical Indications; Traditional Knowledge; Traditional Cultural Expressions; Genetic Resources; International Economic Law; defensive protection; positive protection
    JEL: F13
    Date: 2013–06
  2. By: Bask, Miia (Department of Sociology); Bask, Mikael (Department of Economics)
    Abstract: We show that the Matthew effect, or Matthew mechanism, was present in the artificial cultural market Music Lab when social influence between individuals was allowed, whereas this was not the case when social influence was not allowed. We also sketch on a class of social network models, derived from social influence theory, that may gener-ate the Matthew effect. Thus, we propose a theoretical framework that may explain why the most popular songs were much more popular, and the least popular songs were much less popular, than when disallowing social influence between individuals.
    Keywords: Matthew effect; Music Lab; social influence; social network
    JEL: C31 C65 Z19
    Date: 2013–06–26
  3. By: Bruno Schivinski (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland); Dariusz Dabrowski (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland)
    Abstract: Researchers and brand managers have limited understanding of the effects of firm-created and user-generated social media communication on brand equity, brand attitude, and purchase intention. Thus, we investigated 504 Facebook users using a standardized online survey across Poland. To test the proposed model, we analyzed 60 brands across three different industries: non-alcoholic beverages, clothing, and mobile operators. In the data analysis, we applied the structural equation modeling technique. The results of our empirical studies showed that user-generated social media communication had a positive influence on brand equity and brand attitude. In addition, the analysis indicated that firm-created social media communication affected only brand attitude. Both brand equity and brand attitude showed a positive influence on purchase intention. Moreover, measurement invariance was assessed using a multi-group structural modeling equation. The findings revealed that the proposed model was invariant across the researched industries
    Keywords: social-media; brand equity; brand attitude; purchase intention; Facebook
    JEL: M31 M39 D83
    Date: 2013–06

This nep-cul issue is ©2013 by Roberto Zanola. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.