nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2011‒12‒13
fifteen papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
University Amedeo Avogadro

  1. The French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness By Senik, Claudia
  2. Media fusion and future TV: Examining multi-screen TV convergence in Singapore By Lin, Trisha T. C.
  3. The impact of new terminals on telecommunications carriers and TV media companies By Terada, Shinichiro
  4. Collecting and sharing movies' in the digital era: Audiences:practices and the sociocultural implications in the case of Taiwan By Guo-Chiang Yu, Vinnie
  5. Overview of the charging situation for digital contents in Japan: From the viewpoint of compensation for private sound and visual recording By Kato, Naonori; Nogawa, Hiroki; Ueda, Masahi
  6. I consumi culturali in Italia: analisi socio economica delle tendenze di lungo periodo ed il ruolo delle ‘crisi’ By Massimiliano Mazzanti; Ilaria Mancosu
  7. The Dynamics of Continuous Cultural Traits in Social Networks By Berno Buechel; Tim Hellmann; Michael M. Pichler
  8. Landscape aesthetics: Assessing the general publics’ rural landscape preferences By Peter Howley
  9. Future trends of television By Ludányi, Arnold; Belényesi, Pál
  10. The Implications of Cultural Background on Labour Market Choices: The Case of Religion and Entrepreneurship By Nunziata, Luca; Rocco, Lorenzo
  11. How Partisan is the Press? Multiple Measures of Media Slant By Gans, Joshua S.; Leigh, Andrew
  12. Regulation and media monopoly: A case study of broadcast regulation in Pakistan By Rasul, Azmat; McDowell, Stephen D.
  13. Performance Measurement Systems in Theatres: The Case of the Municipal Theatre of Ferrara By Francesco Badia; Elena Borin
  14. Implications of communication multiplexity for digital inequality: The role of online social networking skills By Hsieh, Yuli Patrick
  15. The Effect of Religiosity and Religious Festivals on Positional Concerns: An Experimental Investigation of Ramadan By Akay, Alpaslan; Karabulut, Gökhan; Martinsson, Peter

  1. By: Senik, Claudia (Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: This article sheds light on the important differences in self-declared happiness across countries of equivalent affluence. It hinges on the different happiness statements of natives and immigrants in a set of European countries to disentangle the influence of objective circumstances versus psychological and cultural factors. The latter turns out to be of non-negligible importance in explaining international heterogeneity in happiness. In some countries, such as France, they are responsible for 80% of the country's unobserved idiosyncratic source of (un-)happiness.
    Keywords: happiness, subjective well-being, international comparisons, France, immigration, European Social Survey
    JEL: I31 H52 O15 O52 Z10
    Date: 2011–11
  2. By: Lin, Trisha T. C.
    Abstract: This study examines Singapore's national media blueprint and industry stakeholders' coping strategies in response to multi-screen TV development. The findings show Singapore muti-screen TV development is still at a nascent stage after launching Media Fushion and FutureTV plans in mid 2009. The policymakers play a key role to follow national media blueprint to unify the inter-industry and cross-country collaboration. TV operators and telcos are found to remediate themselves by harnessing the power of internet and mobile technologies for content innovation and distribution. To tackle the complicated convergent issues in multi-screen TV industry, this study proposes to separately regulate the technology-neutral platforms and diverse audiovisual content. It also recommends a pro-innovative policy with the light-touch licensing scheme and loose content regulation to facilitate the development of the next TV. --
    Keywords: three-screen TV,multi-screen TV,convergence,media fusion,IPTV,mobile TV,cross-platform,TV technologies,TV market,TV policy
    Date: 2011
  3. By: Terada, Shinichiro
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of new terminals emergence, such as smartphones, tablet personal computers and smart TVs, on telecommunications carriers and TV media companies. We choose event study methodology to analyze this research. Our research question is Does the emergence of new terminals generate significant imact on the telecommunications carriers and the TV media companies? The results show that the impacts of new terminals appear differently on telecommunications carriers and on TV media companies. 1) Regarding telecommunications carriers, some of the smartphone and tablet PCs generate significant positive imapct or no impact on smartphoner (or tablet PC)-affiliated telecom carriers, but generate significant negative impact on non-smartphone (or tablet PC)-related telecom carriers, 2) Regarding TV media companies, tablet PCs and smart TVs do not generate any significant impact on any researched TV medeia companies. The results imply some further reasons why the new terminals emergences generate no significant imapct on TV media companies. The paper presents three possible reasons. 1) The new terminals are not so powerful that they do not influence TV media companies. 2) The new terminals are sufficiently powerful but their imapct does not go to the TV industry. 3) The new terminals are sufficiently powerful but the services by the new terminals do not compete against incumbent TV media services. --
    Keywords: smartphone,tablet PC,smart TV,telecommunications carrier,TV media company,event study
    JEL: L10
    Date: 2011
  4. By: Guo-Chiang Yu, Vinnie
    Abstract: With the coming of 'multi-platform film-viewing' era, contemporary viewers can enjoy movies not only at the cinema, but also at home via innovative media technology, such as DVDs and Internet. Therefore, movies can be played and stored in different formats, from celluloid films, video tapes, to DVD discs and digital files. For many viewers, movie-collecting, along with film-viewing become of the essential parts of domestic movie-related leisure activities. However, not many existing literatures are focusing on viewers' movie-collecting activity, especially in today's digital media-rich environment, with the exception of some research about viewers' practices of video movie collecting, related activities and the meanings behind their collecting practices (Tashiro, 1996; Dinsmore, 1998; and Bjarkman, 2004). Owing to some specific characteristics of digital media like DVD discs or potable hard drives, sharing collected movies with other people becomes a popular activity for contemporary viewers to conduct. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to examine how modern viewer appropriate available information and communication technologies (ICT) to facilitate their practices of movie-collecting and sharing by adopting qualitative audience research method with respondents recruited from different age cohorts. After analyzing collected data, it is argued that DVD discs and downloaded movie files are used as a kind of social tool for audiences' to build up interaction with their family, friends, classmates or colleagues. Furthermore, sharing collected movies with other people is more significant than actually viewing those collected movies for many respondents participating in this research. --
    Keywords: film audiences,DVD movies,movie-downloading,movie-collecting and sharing,domestic film-viewing culture
    Date: 2011
  5. By: Kato, Naonori; Nogawa, Hiroki; Ueda, Masahi
    Abstract: Japanese copyright law consists of two parts. One has to do with the rights of the content holder. The other is concerned with limitations to the rights of the content holder, such as compensation for private sound and visual recording; that is, charges for copying media where it is difficult to charge individually, as is the case with Digital Rights Management (DRM ). Such compensation permits the holders of the content to collect royalties through a special compensation arrangement. That is, the designated management associations impose the obligation for compensation on the manufacturers of recording devices. Despite the spread of such compensation arrangements, new challenges continue to arise, such the case of SARVH, the designated management association, brought against Toshiba, a manufacturer of DVD recorders. The Tokyo District Court ruled, 'Compensation is not required under copyright law, but just that all possible efforts be made.' It remains unclear whether holders of content can receive sufficient royalties or not. An analysis of the latest decision regarding digital content, from the point of copyright law, clarifies the relationship between DRM and compensation for private sound and visual recording. To accommodate stakeholders' requirements, a new regulation or structure for payment of royalties is proposed. --
    Keywords: copyritht law,DRM (Digital Rights Manegement),compensation,levy
    Date: 2011
  6. By: Massimiliano Mazzanti; Ilaria Mancosu
    Abstract: The paper presents applied analyses of the long run trends for cultural consumption in Italy. The empirical analysis derives from the ISTAT sources by geographical areas and typologies of consumption some insights on the determinants of consumption in the long run. The role of economic crises is specifically investigated. Though it appears that GDP plays a significant role as driver of consumption, manly in the geographical drawing, we note for further research that key cultural consumptions seem to witness slight or no reduction over ‘crisis’ periods, mainly in the 2008-2009 turning point. The nature of positional good and the human capital formation contents could be main reasons for such evidence that are worth of various further researches.
    Keywords: cultural consumption; crises; economic trends; long run
    JEL: Z1
    Date: 2011–11–29
  7. By: Berno Buechel (University of Hamburg); Tim Hellmann (Institute of Mathematical Economics, Bielefeld University); Michael M. Pichler (Institute of Mathematical Economics, Bielefeld University)
    Abstract: We consider an OLG model (of a socialization process) where continuous traits are transmitted from an adult generation to the children. A weighted social network describes how children are influenced not only by their parents but also by other role models within the society. Parents can invest into the purposeful socialization of their children by strategically displaying a cultural trait (which need not coincide with their true trait). Based on Nash equilibrium behavior, we study the dynamics of cultural traits throughout generations. We provide conditions on the network structure that are sufficient for long-run convergence to a society with homogeneous subgroups. In the special case of quadratic utility, the condition is that each child is more intensely shaped by its parents than by the social environment. The model is akin to the classical DeGroot model of opinion formation which we generalize by allowing for strategic interaction.
    Keywords: cultural transmission, social networks, preference formation, cultural persistence, opinion dynamics
    Date: 2011–12
  8. By: Peter Howley (Rural Economy and Development Programme,Teagasc)
    Abstract: The central aim of this study was to gain greater insights into the factors that affect individuals’ preferences for a variety of landscape settings. To achieve this aim, this paper derived dependent variables (based on a factor analysis of respondents mean ratings of 47 landscape images) representing 5 different landscape categories. These variables were then utilized in separate OLS regression models to examine the effect of personal characteristics, residential location and environmental value orientations on landscape preferences. First in terms of visual amenity the results suggest that the general public have the strongest preference for landscapes with water related features as its dominant attribute which was followed by cultural landscapes. Second the results also demonstrate how there is significant heterogeneity in landscape preferences as both personal characteristics and environmental value orientations were found to strongly influence preferences for all the landscape types examined. Moreover the effect of these variables often differed significantly across the various landscape groupings. In terms of land use policy, given the diversity of preferences a one size fits all approach will not meet the general publics’ needs and desires.
    Keywords: Landscape preferences, environmental attitudes
    Date: 2011–08
  9. By: Ludányi, Arnold; Belényesi, Pál
    Abstract: Television related attitudes are changing rapidly. How are the broadcasters, digital content makers and involved market players planning to pick up the rhythm? What are the regulatory and business challenges that they have to face? The piece addresses these issues. --
    Keywords: TV,audiovisual,regulation,business
    Date: 2011
  10. By: Nunziata, Luca (University of Padova); Rocco, Lorenzo (University of Padova)
    Abstract: We suggest a methodology for identifying the implications of alternative cultural and social norms embodied by religious denomination on labour market outcomes, by estimating the differential impact of Protestantism versus Catholicism on the propensity to be an entrepreneur, on the basis of the diverse minority status of both confessions across European regions. Our quasi-experimental research design exploits the stronger degree of attachment to religious ethic of religious minorities and the exogenous historical determination of the geographical distribution of religious minorities in Europe. Our analysis of European Social Survey data collected in four waves between 2002 and 2008 in 22 European countries, indicates that cultural background has a significant effect on the individual propensity to become an entrepreneur, with Protestantism increasing the chances to be an entrepreneur by around 3% with respect to Catholicism. Our findings, stable across a number of robustness checks, provide further evidence on the need to take cultural elements into consideration when analysing economic behaviour.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, self-employment, religion, culture, Protestantism, Catholicism
    JEL: J24 J21 Z12 Z13
    Date: 2011–11
  11. By: Gans, Joshua S. (University of Melbourne); Leigh, Andrew (Australian National University)
    Abstract: We employ several different approaches to estimate the political position of Australian media outlets, relative to federal parliamentarians. First, we use parliamentary mentions to code over 100 public intellectuals on a left-right scale. We then estimate slant by using the number of mentions that each public intellectual receives in each media outlet. Second, we have independent raters separately code front-page election stories and headlines. Third, we tabulate the number of electoral endorsements that newspapers give to each side of politics in federal elections. Overall, we find that the Australian media are quite centrist, with very few outlets being statistically distinguishable from the middle of Australian politics. It is possible that this is due to the lack of competition in the Australian media market. To the extent that we can separate content slant from editorial slant, we find some evidence that editors are more partisan than journalists.
    Keywords: media slant, media bias, competition, economics of elections
    JEL: D72 L82
    Date: 2011–11
  12. By: Rasul, Azmat; McDowell, Stephen D.
    Abstract: --
    Date: 2011
  13. By: Francesco Badia; Elena Borin
    Abstract: In recent years, cultural organisations have introduced and tested new management tools to achieve their institutional goals of efficiency, effectiveness and social cohesion. This process has been widely linked to New Public Management for public sector cultural organisations, but the introduction of these tools has been an interesting process in private cultural organisations too. This paper aims at considering more specifically one kind of management tools: performance measurement systems. Their goal is to give to the management a set of information of quantitative and qualitative nature that could guide the strategic choices in the long-term. With this work, we will consider the real possibilities of application of a good performance measurement system in cultural organisations, with a particular focus on theatres. Our research starts with the analysis of the theoretical framework of performance measurement systems and theatres management. The theoretical approach is supported by the analysis of a case study, the Municipal Theatre of Ferrara (Italy). In this way, we will try to verify and discuss opportunities and critical points implied by the introduction of a performance measurement system in theatres.
    Keywords: New Public Management; Management Tools; Performance Measurement; Theatres; Municipal Theatre of Ferrara
    JEL: H83 L30 M10 M41 Z11
    Date: 2011–11–30
  14. By: Hsieh, Yuli Patrick
    Abstract: --
    Date: 2011
  15. By: Akay, Alpaslan (IZA); Karabulut, Gökhan (Istanbul University); Martinsson, Peter (University of Gothenburg)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of religion on positional concerns using survey experiments. We focus on two of the dimensions of religion – degree of religiosity and religious festivals. By conducting the experiments during both the most important day of Ramadan (the Night of Power) and a day outside Ramadan, we find that Ramadan overall has a small and negative impact on positional concerns. Detailed analyses based on the sorting of individuals' degree of religiosity reveal that the decrease in the degree of positional concerns during Ramadan is mainly explained by a decrease in positionality among individuals with a low degree of religiosity. We also discuss the broader welfare implications of our findings.
    Keywords: religion, positional concerns, Ramadan, Islam
    JEL: C90 D63
    Date: 2011–11

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