nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2011‒11‒14
ten papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
University Amedeo Avogadro

  1. Cultural Heritage and the governance of the UNESCO sites of Campania By Barbara Martini
  2. Cultural Heritage and the Location Choice of Dutch Households in a Residential Sorting Model By Mark Van Duijn; Jan Rouwendal
  3. The happy artist? An empirical application of the work-preference model By Lasse Steiner; Lucian Schneider
  4. Creativity in the Lille metropolitan area : the example of the image sector By Lusso Bruno
  5. Culture-led Urban Regeneration- An Example from Zong-Ye Historical District in Tainan By Chengche Chen; Hsienhsin Cheng
  6. Application of Digitizing Methods to Urban Area with an Example-- Zong-Ye Historic District, Tainan City By Cheng Hsienhsin; Chen Chengche
  7. From Talent to Creative City: Towards a conceptual framework By Sebastien Chantelot; Peres Stephanie; Virol Stephane
  8. Creative city: A new challenge of strategic urban planning? By Christina Vlachopoulou; Alex Deffner
  9. Pricing under the Threat of Piracy: Flexibility and Platforms for Digital Goods By Dirk Bergemann; Thomas Eisenbach; Joan Feigenbaum; Scott Shenker
  10. Do newspaper articles on card fraud affect debit card usage? By Anneke Kosse

  1. By: Barbara Martini
    Abstract: The 'good tourism' is capable of generating development in terms of cohesion and sustainability in the territory where it is located. The literature for a long period, has considered the good tourisms in the same way as all other goods. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that by using a different definition of 'good tourism', Cultural Heritage, and appropriate mechanisms for management of the 'Great Cultural Attractions', territorial governance, it is possible to exploit the full potential of the asset. The territorial governance model proposed is bottom-up which includes the participation of all stakeholders in the area will be applied to the Campania Region which has five UNESCO sites. This approach should be able to create a virtuous cycle of growth in the region.
    Date: 2011–09
  2. By: Mark Van Duijn; Jan Rouwendal
    Abstract: Local amenities are an important factor in the location choice of households. Heterogeneity in preferences of households tends to sort households over different locations which satisfy best their preferences given their constraints. In this paper, we analyze the effect of cultural heritage on the location choice of households using a residential sorting model. Cultural heritage is often a determining factor of the specific atmosphere of a location and is valued as such by its residents. Since the attractiveness of a residential location may be affected by amenities in the surrounding locations, spatial econometrics is used to deal with these interdependencies. Our model accounts for unobserved characteristics of locations, heterogeneity of households and spatial correlation between the observed (and unobserved) attractiveness of locations. The results show, for instance, that the willingness to pay of highly educated households to reside in municipalities close to a high concentration of cultural heritage is higher than other types of households.
    Date: 2011–09
  3. By: Lasse Steiner; Lucian Schneider
    Abstract: The artistic labor market is marked by several adversities, such as low wages, above-average unemployment, and constrained underemployment. Nevertheless, it attracts many young people. The number of students exceeds the available jobs by far. A potential explanation for this puzzle is that artistic work might result in exceptionally high job satisfaction, a conjecture that has been mentioned at various times in the literature. We conduct the first direct empirical investigation of artists’ job satisfaction. The analysis is based on panel data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Survey (SOEP). Artists on average are found to be considerably more satisfied with their work than non-artists, a finding that corroborates the conjectures in the literature. Differences in income, working hours, and personality cannot account for the observed difference in job satisfaction. Partially, but not fully, the higher job satisfaction can be attributed to the higher self-employment rate among artists. Suggestive evidence is found that superior “procedural” characteristics of artistic work, such as increased variety and on-the-job learning, contribute to the difference in job satisfaction.
    Keywords: Job satisfaction, artists, work-preference, cultural economics
    JEL: Z10 J24 J28 J31
    Date: 2011–10
  4. By: Lusso Bruno
    Abstract: In France, the Paris region is the traditional centre for decision-making and creative functions. Unsurprisingly, it concentrates most cultural industries – cinema, multimedia, TV, etc. The aim of this paper is to study how other French cities, and more specifically regional medium-sized cities, can develop this type of activities. We will take the example of the multimedia industry in the Lille metropolitan area. Ann-Lee Saxenian (1994) has shown the importance of regional culture and heritage in the constitution of an economic trajectory. The pre-existence of links between film production, media or microelectronic industries, and of an intense cultural life can support the emergence of essential know-how for the development of an image sector (Sträter, 2000). Lille isn’t a traditional filming area and the weak presence of the television media didn’t facilitate the emergence of large regional production groups. But, the decline of textile factories has allowed the development of new activities, as mail-order selling, which have used multimedia and image technologies since the 1980s. Moreover, Lille metropolitan area has a broad training offering in the technical and creative fields which can have significant repercussions for the constitution of a creative class (Florida, 2002). But the emergence of start-up has been very limited since the 1990s and 2000s. In 2009, the Lille metropolitan area counts only 350 firms in the image sector and has not a critical mass. Cognitive diversity generated by a social group stimulates creative individual potential (Miliken, Bartel and Kurtzberg, 2003). This explains the choice made by public authorities to locate audiovisual and multimedia firms in three media districts, which accommodates schools, research centres, publics authorities and firms (thanks to free tax zones, cheap facilities and incubators) according to the Triple Helix principles (Etzkowitz and Leydersdorff, 1997). That projects aim to retain young graduates by offering an environment enable to developing their careers. But the national project for extending the Plaine Saint-Denis audiovisual cluster, located north of Paris, is likely to deter the settlement of firms in Lille, because of the weakness of both the sector and the networks.
    Date: 2011–09
  5. By: Chengche Chen; Hsienhsin Cheng
    Abstract: The impacts of globalization force Asian countries face the problems of transformation, this paper aim to discuss how to keep the local identification and cultural characteristic under the wave of globalization. Taiwan has established the concept of “regional culture heritage†tries to immerge knowledge of planning and conservation. The Council of Cultural Affaires, as the highest supervised administrative unit in Taiwan, try to improve the historical district by community empowerment. However, the development process face the issues of regional recognition, construction of the relationship between people and environment, and planning strategies. This qualitative research took four years to do textural study. By establishing the basic knowledge from experts, open interviews and study the relationship between human and environment of local residents. Then turn these data into a mental map (Identifying landmarks and anonymous urban fabric). This research tries to compare and review the issue of cultural led regeneration. Our study finds out, first, the concept of regional cultural heritages has more identifications than single historical architecture. Second, local grand old mans, the head of the neighborhood, the priests have different perceptions toward cultural heritage, and these perceptions has influenced planning development. Third, we raise several key issues of regeneration in historical district. Keywords: Regional Cultural Heritage, Environmental Perception, Zong-Ye Historic District, Regional Regeneration
    Date: 2011–09
  6. By: Cheng Hsienhsin; Chen Chengche
    Abstract: This article attempts to apply digitizing methods to historic assets in old downtown by map overlaying analysis after map rectifying, and then taking textual method through surveying images. After proving and conform through research, townscape could be connected with real historic traces by reality digitizing approach, and it will make a reality aura of formerly district for visitors. In this way the abundant, definite and impressive content of district can be the valuable materials in region development, and the time and space of this district could continue the history and culture of the city. Consequently, this article aims to set up a feasibility proposal applied to it concretely. This article puts forward 1.the district analysis through historic map rectifying 2.the reality digital reconstruction of streets digital archives elements 3.the application on AR(Augmented Reality) in historic district, and brings forward an technological approach which could respond to the challenge of losing regional characteristics in redevelopment process with an example of Zong-Ye historic district in traditional Tainan City. Therefore, this proposal which places great emphasis on local history and culture is equipped with applying value for European cities based on plentiful culture in cultural industries and regional development issues.
    Date: 2011–09
  7. By: Sebastien Chantelot; Peres Stephanie; Virol Stephane
    Abstract: The creative class approach (Florida, 2002b) has led to many developments. Therefore, measurement of creativity (Chantelot, 2010), economic influence of creative people in urban (Marlet & Van Woerkens, 2007) and rural (McGranahan & Wojan, 2007) environments, or creative people geography (Chantelot & al., 2010) and factors that shape it (Boshma & Fritsch, 2009) have been investigated. Increasingly, these works tend to substitute static considerations (who and where are creative people?) to dynamic approaches (what do the creative people?). Creativity mainly comes from talent (Florida, 2002a) but creative production is generated through collective process where social interactions, learning and diffusion of ideas predominate (Cohendet & Simon, 2008). The transition from individual to collective process particularly appears to be driven by cities, defined as privileged theaters of creativity (Hall, 1998). Hence, cities managing to convert micro or individuals ideas to macro or collective outputs can be defined as “creative citiesâ€. It sheds light on the determinant role of cities in attracting, organizing and producing creative people in order to experience virtuous path of economic competitiveness (Lucas, 1988). This communication aims to give a conceptual framework to characterize creative cities. At the urban level, it formalizes the micro / macro transition: micro level consists in talent, which includes both individuals with a creative profession directly involved in the production of innovations, new knowledge and ideas - both related to the industrial or scientific sphere (the 'creative core') and arts (the Bohemians) - or in its implementation and management on the market (the 'creative professionals' - ibid.). Therefore, the aim is to connect creative or innovative clusters of firms (where creative pro and core mainly work) with creative urban districts characterized by intense cultural and artistic, driven by Bohemians, and places of socialization and urban regeneration. This connection can be ensured by a meso level characterized by the presence of communities that facilitate the micro/macro-ideas transition to the market. The definition of these three different levels, the construction of their measure, and the way to identify their respective roles and interactions that shape the creative city structure the dynamic conceptual model we propose here.
    Date: 2011–09
  8. By: Christina Vlachopoulou; Alex Deffner
    Abstract: ‘Sustainable’ city, ‘entrepreneurial’ city, ‘smart’ city, ‘normal’ city are some of the most popular characterisations given to cities by urban planners in their attempt to configure the necessary development features of contemporary urban space. The aim of these characteristics is the combination of the factors that a ‘successful’ city should have: good conditions for residents providing them with job opportunities and leisure activities, promotion of culture, and response to current challenges of the global competitive market in the context of sustainability and environmental protection. Creative city seems to accomplish these prerequisites. Creative city refers to a new theory (method?) of strategic planning for urban space and examines the way people act, plan and think creatively. It also highlights the importance of human potential, since at the heart of the creative city are ‘creative people’ encouraged to connect their vision with local urban policies. The aim of the paper is to investigate the way and the extent that the creative city could be considered as a contemporary instrument of strategic urban planning. The analysis will include the examination of the criteria that determine creativity, as well as the way that these criteria are engaged in the development process. Key-words: creative city, creativity, strategic urban planning, leisure
    Date: 2011–09
  9. By: Dirk Bergemann (Cowles Foundation, Yale University); Thomas Eisenbach (Research Group, Federal Reserve Bank of New York); Joan Feigenbaum (Dept. of Computer Science, Yale University); Scott Shenker (ICSI and Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Berkeley)
    Abstract: We consider the optimal design of flexible use in a digital-rights-management policy for a digital good subject to piracy. Consumers can acquire the digital good either as a licensed product or as an unlicensed copy. The ease of access to unlicensed copies is increasing in the flexibility accorded to licensed copies. The content provider has to trade off consumers' valuation of a licensed copy against the sales lost to piracy. We enrich the basic model by introducing a "secure platform" that is required to use the digital good. We show that the platform allows for the socially optimal provision of flexibility for the digital good but only if both are sold by an integrated firm.
    Keywords: Digital goods, Digital rights management, Platform, Flexibility, Piracy
    JEL: C79 D42 L15
    Date: 2011–11
  10. By: Anneke Kosse (De Nederlandsche Bank, Cash and Payment Systems Division, P.O. Box 98, 1000 AB Amsterdam, Netherlands.)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of newspaper publications about debit card skimming fraud on debit card usage in the Netherlands using daily information from January 1st 2005 to December 31st 2008. Time-series analyses are employed to assess the daily fluctuations in aggregate debit card usage. The results show that newspaper articles that somehow make mention of the phenomenon of skimming fraud significantly affect the number of debit card payments. The direction of the effect depends on the type of skimming fraud addressed. Newspaper articles on fraud at points-of-sale (POS) and ticket machines depress the number of debit card payments. News on ATM fraud, by contrast, has a positive effect on debit card payments. This indicates that the temporarily created fear for using the debit card at the ATM is not automatically translated into fear for using the debit card at the POS. Instead, ATMs and POS terminals are perceived as substitutes. Although significant, all media effects found are relatively small in comparison with other factors such as calendar and holiday effects and daily rainfall. Moreover, the effects only last for one day, with consumers immediately reverting back to their regular payment behaviour. This corresponds to earlier results found in other research fields and suggests that consumers’ confidence in the debit card is relatively sturdy and not easily affected. Moreover, it might be an indication of consumers having a short memory when it comes to newspaper articles. JEL Classification: C22, C23, D12, E21.
    Keywords: Debit card, fraud, payment behaviour, media communication.
    Date: 2011–10

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