nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2011‒10‒09
six papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
University Amedeo Avogadro

  1. Innovation Dynamics and Evolutionary Economic Paths in the Music Industry By Massimiliano Mazzanti; Caterina Cardinali
  2. Media Exposure and Internal Migration -Evidence from Indonesia By Lídia Farré; Francesco Fasani
  3. Fundraising Opportunities for Science and Technology Museums By Elena Borin
  4. Welfare effects of public service broadcasting in a free-to-air TV market By Rothbauer, Julia; Sieg, Gernot
  5. Sustainable Tourism Indicators: Selection Criteria for Policy Implementation and Scientific Recognition By Marie-Christine Therrien; Juste Rajaonson; Georges A. Tanguay
  6. The diffusion of health technologies: Cultural and biological divergence By Hansen, Casper Worm

  1. By: Massimiliano Mazzanti; Caterina Cardinali
    Abstract: This work aims at analysing the evolution of music industry, since the beginning of music marketed as a product for the masses until the new frontiers of digital music. Our goal is to identify which factors played a key role in the evolution of the demand in the last years and in the largely discussed crisis of the international music market. In order to reach our goal, it is necessary to contextualise the analysis, starting from the definition of the so-called pop music, or popular music, that must not be confused with the expression “musica popolare†that in Italian defines folk traditional music. We analysed diverse sets of data, ranging from economic ones to sociology-related studies, which helped us to understand, through the contribution of several schools of thought, which factors influence music consumption and to what extent demand and supply influence each other. Our work focuses on the conception of the music market as an eclectic sector of cultural industry, halfway between entertainment, leisure and culture. Music can be used in several ways, and during the years the use has been modified by the implementation of new technological means (particularly referring to the phonograph) by the attempt to satisfy needs that change constantly, such as self-accomplishment, social aggregation or escape from the routine. On the basis of these needs the industry periodically tried to control demand through push strategies, trying to impose new musical trends and pull strategies, adapting to the consumption trends registered. It is important to determine to what extent acting on the market influenced the current situation and whether in this context music is the only element to take into account or not. Our idea is that music does not always play a key role in demand dynamics, that is to say music influences consumption to the extent it is able to meet specific requests by the public, that sometimes are not strictly related to the product itself. Because of the uncertainty of the record industry, technology, market situation and demand become extremely interdependent factors.
    Keywords: Schumpeterian dynamics; Music industry; Appropriability; Radical innovations
    JEL: O3 Z1
    Date: 2011–09–29
  2. By: Lídia Farré; Francesco Fasani
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of television on internal migration in Indonesia. We exploit the differential introduction of private television throughout the country and the variation in signal reception due to topography to estimate the causal effect of media exposure. Our estimates reveal important long and short run effects. An increase of one standard deviation in the number of private TV channels received in the area of residence reduces future inter-provincial migration by 1.7-2.7 percentage points, and all migration (inter and intra-provincial) by 4-7.4 percentage points. Short run effects are slightly smaller, but still sizeable and statistically significant. We also show that respondents less exposed to private TV are more likely to consider themselves among the poorest groups of the society. As we discuss in a stylized model of migration choice under imperfect information, these findings are consistent with Indonesia citizens over-estimating the net gains from internal migration.
    Keywords: Information; Migration decisions; Television
    JEL: J61 L82 O15
    Date: 2011–09–26
  3. By: Elena Borin
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the possibilities of private funding for a special kind of museums: science museums and technology centers. In the last years the economic crisis has impacted on the cultural sector, decreasing the public resources traditionally allocated to museums and arts and heritage in general. That has forced art professionals to develop alternative strategies to get the necessary financial support for museum’s activities. Although the crisis has affected also private companies and individuals, nowadays fundraising from the private sector seems to be the major alternative to the lack of public funds. I will start this paper analyzing the ethical problems in applying fundraising and marketing in general to museums and then proceed focusing on the main private sponsors of museums in general (foundations, private corporations and individuals). I will then concentrate on science museums addressing their peculiarities and characteristics; I will later deal with issues related to concrete private sponsorship for this type of museums. In the conclusion, I will delineate what some of the major future challenges for this sector are.
    Keywords: Fundraising; Audience Analysis; Marketing; Science and Technology Museums
    JEL: Z11 M39 M2
    Date: 2011–09–10
  4. By: Rothbauer, Julia; Sieg, Gernot
    Abstract: Viewer's private information consumption generates external benefits for society, because information improves the ability of voters to control politicians. Our study compares two settings in a free-to-air TV market: a differentiated duopoly of private channels and an oligopoly with both private channels and a public service broadcaster broadcasting information as well as entertainment programs. We find that welfare effects of public service broadcasting depend on its program design and cost efficiency, the external benefits of voter's information, and the magnitude of lost rents from the advertising market.
    Keywords: Media; two-sided TV market; information externalities
    JEL: L82 L32 D72
    Date: 2011–09–27
  5. By: Marie-Christine Therrien; Juste Rajaonson; Georges A. Tanguay
    Abstract: Using sustainable tourism indicators (STI) creates many difficulties resulting mainly from the multiple interpretations of the concept of sustainable development, and by extension of the concept of sustainable tourism. To these difficulties are added an absence of a strong academic background, which is the result of incompatibilities between the needs and objectives of the academic versus the political world, which often challenges the need for indicators. We propose a parsimonious list of sustainable tourism indicators based on the application of a series of selection criteria. From the expert recognized indicators, all of these criteria help us choose the indicators, which cover the dimensions and issues of sustainable development for tourism. They are legitimized by existing experiences and sufficiently flexible to be useful for different destinations. In the end, the intersection of these conditions contributes to the scientific and political recognition of the indicators. We start by applying four general selection criteria to a 507 STI database. This allows us to reduce the list to 20 recognized STI. We end the selection process by applying three specific criteria in order to adjust the 20 STI to render them operational. We illustrate the selection procedure with an example of criteria application to the Gaspésie-Iles-de-la Madeleine region in Quebec. <P>L’utilisation d’indicateurs de tourisme durable (STI) pose de nombreux problèmes qui résultent principalement des multiples interprétations du développement durable et, de ce fait, du tourisme durable. S’y ajoute l’absence d’un cadre de référence établi résultant de l’incompatibilité entre les attentes et objectifs du milieu académique et du milieu politique et remettant souvent en cause la crédibilité et le bien-fondé des indicateurs. Pour y remédier, nous proposons une liste parcimonieuse d’indicateurs de tourisme durable (STI) basée sur l’application d’une série de critères de sélection. L’ensemble de ces critères permet de choisir, parmi les indicateurs reconnus par les experts, ceux qui couvrent largement les dimensions et les enjeux de développement durable dans le domaine du tourisme, qui sont légitimés par les expériences existantes et qui sont en même temps suffisamment flexibles pour être effectifs et utiles à différentes destinations. Nous croyons que le concours de ces conditions contribuera à la reconnaissance et à la légitimité scientifique et politique des indicateurs. Quatre critères de sélection généraux sont appliqués à une base de données de 507 STI pour en réduire le nombre à un effectif optimal de 20 STI. Ensuite, trois critères spécifiques permettent d’ajuster les 20 STI pour les rendre opérationnels. Nous illustrons cette démarche en appliquant ces critères à la région de la Gaspésie-Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Québec.
    Keywords: Indicators, Sustainable Tourism, Sustainable Development, Indicateurs, tourisme durable, développement durable
    Date: 2011–09–01
  6. By: Hansen, Casper Worm (Department of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: This paper proposes the hypothesis that genetic distance to the health frontier influences population health outcomes. Evidence from a world sample suggests that genetic distance - interpreted as long-term cultural and biological divergence - is an important factor in understanding health inequalities across countries. In particular, the paper documents a remarkably robust link between genetic distance and health as measured by life expectancy at birth and the adult survival rate. Also, the evidence reveals that the link has strengthened considerably over the 20th century which highlights the increasing effects of globalization on health conditions across countries through the transmission of health technologies.
    Keywords: Population health; international diffusion of health technologies; globalization; cultural and biological divergence
    JEL: I12 J10 N30 O11 O33
    Date: 2011–09–01

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