nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2010‒01‒30
seven papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
University of the Piemonte Orientale

  1. Decreasing Copyright Enforcement Costs: The Scope of a Gradual Response By Olivier Bomsel; Heritiana Ranaivoson
  2. Willingness to Pay for Biodiversity Conservation By Amit K. Bhandari; Almas Heshmati
  3. Entrepreneurship and Cultural Creativity By Michael Fritsch; Alina Rusakova
  4. Cultural Integration in Europe By Amelie F. Constant; Olga Nottmeyer; Klaus F. Zimmermann
  5. Sports Heroes and Mass Sports Participation – The (Double) Paradox of the "German Tennis Boom" By Arne Feddersen; Sven Jacobsen; Wolfgang Maennig
  6. Mapping the Discipline of the Olympic Games An Author- Cocitation Analysis By Peter Warning; Ching Ju Mae Rosie; Kristine Toohey
  7. The demand for football tickets depending on the number of clubs in a city - Empirical evidence from Germany - By Markus Breuer

  1. By: Olivier Bomsel (CERNA - Centre d'économie industrielle - Mines ParisTech); Heritiana Ranaivoson (CERNA - Centre d'économie industrielle - Mines ParisTech)
    Abstract: The digitization of copyrighted goods and the dematerialization of their distribution over the Internet have weakened copyright, a key institution of the creative industries. One factor affecting the value of copyright stems from the broadband roll-out, wherein copyright enforcement costs have become higher than the estimated benefits of copyright. This paper analyzes the causes of this situation and suggests how a graduated response to infringers may durably decrease copyright enforcement costs. Beginning with a review of the economic literature on copyright focusing on its industrial aspects, the study then analyzes how the consumers' impunity provides incentives to “free ride” on copyright all along the vertical distribution chain. This rapidly increases copyright enforcement costs. Next, the paper describes both the graduated response mechanism and the voluntary agreement which initiated this system in France. In conclusion, this study argues that increasing the cost of free-riding for the final consumer should lead to a decrease of copyright enforcement costs and, therefore, higher returns in the creative industries.
    Keywords: Copyright, Creative industries, Regulation enforcement costs, Digitization, Graduated response.
    Date: 2009–12
  2. By: Amit K. Bhandari; Almas Heshmati (IISWBM, Management House, College Square West, Kolkata-700 073, India)
    Abstract: Nature based tourism is the fastest growing tourism in many parts of the world. The attitude towards conservation of nature is measured by individuals¡¯willingness to pay. This study has made an attempt to investigate the determinants of tourists¡¯willingness to pay (WTP) for biodiversity conservation. The determinants include a combination of socio-economic and site-specific characteristics of tourists. The study was conducted in Sikkim, which is India¡¯s prime nature based tourism destination. Results show that willingness to pay is determined by the level of education and income of tourists. Among site-specific characteristics length of stay and number of spots are the significant determinants of willingness to pay. This empirical research is a valuable input to identify market segment among tourists, which might help to generate more revenue for biodiversity conservation in Sikkim.
    Keywords: Willingness to pay, conservation, tourism, logit model, tobit model
    JEL: Q26 Q57 L83 C25
    Date: 2009–12
  3. By: Michael Fritsch (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, School of Economics and Business Administration, Chair of Business Dynamics, Innovation, and Economic Change); Alina Rusakova (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, School of Economics and Business Administration, Chair of Business Dynamics, Innovation, and Economic Change)
    Abstract: We investigate the relationship between cultural creativity and entrepreneurship in two respects: first, cultural and personal creativity as a characteristic of self-employed individuals; second, self-employment in professions that can be classified as belonging to the 'Creative Class' as compared to the non-creative class. The analysis is based on micro-data for individuals of the German Socio Economic Panel (SOEP). We find, indeed, some significant links between entrepreneurship and cultural creativity that deserve further investigation.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, new business formation, cultural creativity, creative class
    JEL: L26 Z1
    Date: 2010–01–12
  4. By: Amelie F. Constant; Olga Nottmeyer; Klaus F. Zimmermann
    Abstract: This chapter investigates the integration processes of immigrants in Germany by comparing certain immigrant groups to natives differentiating by gender and immigrant generation. Indicators which are supposed to capture cultural integration of immigrants are differences in marital behavior as well as language abilities, ethnic identification and religious distribution. A special feature of the available data is information about overall life satisfaction, risk aversion and political interest. These indicators are also presented. All of these indicators are depicted in comparison between natives and immigrants differentiated by ethnic origin, gender and generation. This allows visualization of differences by ethnic groups and development over time. Statements about the cultural integration processes of immigrants are thus possible. Furthermore, economic integration in terms of female labor force participation is presented as an additional feature. Empirical findings suggest that differences among immigrants and between immigrants and Germans do exist and differ significantly by ethnic origin, gender and generation. But differences seem to diminish when we consider the second generations. This indicates greater adaption to German norms and habits, and thus better cultural, socio-economic and political integration of second generation immigrants in Germany.
    Date: 2009
  5. By: Arne Feddersen (Chair for Economic Policy, University of Hamburg); Sven Jacobsen; Wolfgang Maennig (Chair for Economic Policy, University of Hamburg)
    Abstract: The major sporting success of one’s countrymen and women is often supposed to promote the growth of general participation in that sport. This study is the first to analyse the impact of sports heroes on the membership figures of the corresponding sports association by means of an econometric analysis. We do so by evaluating the so-called "Boris Becker effect" by simultaneously testing for the effects of the rise and retirement of the three stars Boris Becker, Stefanie Graf, and Michael Stich. As a first paradox, our results indicate a negative tennis growth effect associated with the time period of the ascendency of the sport stars. With the first paradox, their retirement should then have a positive effect. In this sense, our second result of a statistically negative tennis growth since the declining success of the German tennis stars must be regarded as a second paradox.
    Keywords: Keywords: Tennis, Sport Association Memberships, Boris Becker Effect, Mass Sport Participation
    JEL: L83 C23
    Date: 2009
  6. By: Peter Warning; Ching Ju Mae Rosie; Kristine Toohey (Singapore Management University)
    Abstract: When most people think about the Olympic Games it is usually in terms of athletic performance. Clearly they are more than that (see Toohey & Veal, 1990). Even the mass media does not confine itself to covering only the sporting angle. For example, symbolism, economic factors, nationalism and politics routinely appear in mass media articles relating to the Olympic Games. There are scholarly journals that are devoted exclusively to the Olympic Games, such as Olympika and the Journal of Olympic History. So what do we mean when we talk about Olympic scholarship? Cursory scanning of other sport journals also reveals a plethora of subjects ranging from legal aspects to history to philatelic aspects among a host of Olympic topics. This paper questions how can we identify, classify and measure them.
    Keywords: Olympic Games, Olympic scholarship, sport journal
    JEL: L83 Z00
    Date: 2010–01
  7. By: Markus Breuer (University of Jena)
    Abstract: The demand for football tickets in European top-leagues has been subject of several studies within the last years e. g. in France, England and Germany. These papers focussed mainly on single matches and the significance of factors like uncertainty, performance of the clubs or date and time of a competition. In contrast this paper tries to build up a simple model to estimate the average number of visitors in the course of a whole season. Moreover the market entrance of a second club is considered. While in stage one an old-established club represents a regional monopolist, in stage two another club qualifies itself for playing in the first division what breaks up the old monopolistic position. Finally the model assumptions are compared to empirical findings from Germany and its major league.
    Keywords: sport economy, professional sport leagues, market entry
    JEL: L R
    Date: 2009

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