nep-cul New Economics Papers
on Cultural Economics
Issue of 2009‒11‒21
seven papers chosen by
Roberto Zanola
University of the Piemonte Orientale

  1. The city mouse and the country mouse: the geography of creativity and cultural production in Italy By Bertacchini Enrico; Borrione Paola
  2. Enhancing the valorisation of UNESCO World Heritage Sites: a Pigouvian Approach By Bertacchini Enrico; Saccone Donatella; Santagata Walter
  3. Visitors to North Dakota Heritage and Cultural Tourism Sites: Visitor Profile, Motivation, Perceptions, and Family Decision Making By Wolfe, Kara L.; Hodur, Nancy M.; Leistritz, F. Larry
  4. Loving Cultural Heritage. Private individual giving and prosocial behavior By Bertacchini Enrico; Santagata Walter; Signorello Giovanni
  5. Community-Based Mapping of the Rice Terraces Inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List By Margaret M. Calderon; Nathaniel C. Bantayan; Josefina T. Dizon; Asa Jose U. Sajise; Myranel G. Salvador
  6. Art and Money By William N. Goetzmann; Luc Renneboog; Christophe Spaenjers
  7. Innovators: Songwriters By David Galenson

  1. By: Bertacchini Enrico; Borrione Paola
    Abstract: Through census employment data we analyze the evolving structure of the Italian cultural economy and highlights diverging spatial and organizational patterns of cultural production systems in urban and regional areas. Whilst large metropolitan areas remain the more important loci of cultural content production and consumption, craft-based sectors and creative systems of design have a tendency to locate in non-metropolitan centers. Based on the historical formation of manufacturing districts and on the emergence of Rome and Milan as “world cities”, the Italian cultural economy provides an interesting case study to analyze the geographical patterns of different cultural product industries. We extend previous literature on the geography of the cultural economy by offering new insights as to conditions in which metropolitan and rural areas emerge as leading centers of cultural production and creativity.
    Date: 2009–10
  2. By: Bertacchini Enrico; Saccone Donatella (University of Turin); Santagata Walter (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to cope with the disequilibrium affecting World Heritage Sites as to the conditions of their conservation and the resources available for their valorisation. We propose a tax-based mechanism divided into three phases. The first one aims at providing an objective approach to measure the needs and diversity of World Heritage Sites. The second phase presents valorisation strategies to generate new economic resources from cultural tourism. The third one illustrates the tax mechanism based on collecting resources trough an earmarked tax on tourist activities and redistributing these resources at a regional scale. Our proposal is a contribution to the growing literature on Unesco World Heritage sites and it may be useful to ground the decision making of the recently formed Unesco Centres aimed at raising funds for the World Heritage conservation.
    Date: 2009–10
  3. By: Wolfe, Kara L.; Hodur, Nancy M.; Leistritz, F. Larry
    Abstract: Interest in cultural/heritage tourism has been increasing in recent years. The number of person-trips has increased from 192 million in 1996 to almost 217 million in 2005 (a person trip is one person traveling 50 miles or more away from home, one way). Thus, the number of travelers visiting heritage/cultural events and attractions combined with their propensity to spend more money, make them a very attractive market segment for the state of North Dakota which is home to a wide variety of heritage and cultural attractions. The aim of this project was to assess the characteristics of visitors to North Dakota heritage and cultural tourism sites. Intercept surveys were conducted at three heritage/cultural tourism attractions. Visitors to North Dakota Cultural/Heritage tourism sites were most likely to be married, around 50 years old, with moderate incomes and well educated. They were most likely to find out about the attraction through friends or relatives, followed by the North Dakota State Tourism guide. Medora and the International Peace Garden were assumed to be primary destinations, whereas the Lewis & Clark Interpretive Center visitors were likely on a trip elsewhere when they stopped by the site. A majority of Medora respondents had previously visited the site, as had the respondents from the International Peace Garden. Site characteristics and the fact that the Lewis & Clark Interpretive Center is a newer site, make it less likely to have as many repeat visitors as the other two study locations. Almost all respondents were likely or very likely to recommend all the sites to others and overall respondents were very satisfied with their visit to the study locations. Most visitors learned about and received information about the attraction from friends or relatives. Lewis & Clark Interpretive Center and Medora visitors were more likely to participate in other activities while on their trip. Respondents to Lewis and Clark Interpretive Center and Medora most frequently planned to participate in art/cultural attractions and pioneer/frontier history. Visitors to the International Peace Garden were not as likely to participate in other activities as visitors to the other study locations. Respondents had a positive perception of North Dakota. The most positive perception was of the stateâs beautiful scenery, which correlates with what respondents indicated was their motivation for traveling. Respondents most frequently indicated they participated in leisure travel to enjoy scenery and for sightseeing. Most traveling decisions were made jointly by couples.
    Keywords: heritage and cultural tourism, visitor profile, visitor motivation, visitor perceptions, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Public Economics,
    Date: 2009–07
  4. By: Bertacchini Enrico; Santagata Walter (University of Turin); Signorello Giovanni
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse patterns of private individual giving to Cultural Heritage institutions in Italy. Based on the emerging economic literature on pro-social behavior, we carried out a Contingent Valuation survey to assess individuals’ willingness to donate to museums and heritage organizations according to different conditions and set of incentives. Our findings reveal that intrinsic motivations and accountability of the recipient institutions may be more effective drivers for eliciting charitable giving than the usually proposed fiscal incentives. The results provide avenues for future empirical research and policy suggestions for fund raising cultural institutions.
    Date: 2009–11
  5. By: Margaret M. Calderon (; Nathaniel C. Bantayan; Josefina T. Dizon; Asa Jose U. Sajise; Myranel G. Salvador
    Abstract: The rice terraces in four municipalities of Ifugao were inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1995 as the Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras under the category of organically evolved landscapes. This category includes landscapes that developed as a result of an initial social, economic, administrative or religious imperative, and by association with and in response to the natural environment. However, the terraces have deteriorated over the years, and those inscribed in the World Heritage List have been reclassified to the World Heritage in Danger List in 2001. This study is part of a research project that aimed to develop a sustainable financing mechanism for the conservation of the Ifugao Rice Terraces. The report focuses on the estimation of the extent of the rice terraces in the heritage municipalities and the extent of damage that was undertaken with the participation of local communities. The other findings of the project concerning the financing mechanism are presented in a separate report. We used geo-referenced and other data from various sources to produce maps showing the extent of the rice terraces in the heritage sites, as well as the extent of damage. The initial activities focused on secondary data from which basemaps were generated for each of the four heritage Ifugao municipalities. Individual GIS thematic layers were produced showing rice terraces along with the general features of the landscape (e.g. river network, road network, elevation, including municipal boundaries). These were consequently presented in workshops to the communities (e.g. farmers and local officials). The information generated from the community maps specifically showing the damaged rice terraces were used to estimate the cost of rehabilitating the terraces and the potential revenues that can be collected from local and foreign tourists.
    Keywords: rice terraces, mapping
    Date: 2009–09
  6. By: William N. Goetzmann; Luc Renneboog; Christophe Spaenjers
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of equity markets and top incomes on art prices. Using a long-term art market index that incorporates information on repeated sales since the eighteenth century, we demonstrate that both same-year and lagged equity market returns have a significant impact on the price level in the art market. Over a shorter time frame, we also find empirical evidence that an increase in income inequality may lead to higher prices for art, in line with the results of a numerical simulation analysis. Finally, the results of Johansen cointegration tests strongly suggest the existence of a long-term relation between top incomes and art prices.
    JEL: D31 G1 Z11
    Date: 2009–11
  7. By: David Galenson
    Abstract: Irving Berlin and Cole Porter were two of the great experimental songwriters of the Golden Era. They aimed to create songs that were clear and universal. Their ability to do this improved throughout much of their careers, as their skill in using language to create simple and poignant images improved with experience, and their greatest achievements came in their 40s and 50s. During the 1960s, Bob Dylan and the team of John Lennon and Paul McCartney created a conceptual revolution in popular music. Their goal was to express their own ideas and emotions in novel ways. Their creativity declined with age, as increasing experience produced habits of thought that destroyed their ability to formulate radical new departures from existing practices, so their most innovative contributions appeared early in their careers.
    JEL: N00
    Date: 2009–11

This nep-cul issue is ©2009 by Roberto Zanola. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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