nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2022‒08‒08
nine papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Exports of Knowledge Intensive Services. A Complex Metric Approach By Leogrande, Angelo; Costantiello, Alberto; Laureti, Lucio
  2. The economic returns of circular economy practices By Davide Antonioli; Claudia Ghisetti; Massimiliano Mazzanti; Francesco Nicolli
  3. Dynamics of couplings and their implications in inter-organizational multi-actor research and innovation projects By Svetlana Klessova; Sebastian Engell; Catherine Thomas
  4. Unternehmertum, Netzwerke und Innovationen in ländlichen Räumen: Ergebnisse der Begleitforschung zum Modellvorhaben Land(auf)Schwung im Handlungsfeld „Regionale Wertschöpfung“ : Band 2 der Begleitforschung Land(auf)Schwung By Tuitjer, Gesine; Bergholz, Christian; Küpper, Patrick
  5. Flow of Ideas: Economic Societies and the Rise of Useful Knowledge By Francesco Cinnirella; Erik Hornung; Julius Koschnick
  6. Unpacking the process of overseas knowledge recontextualisation in returnee entrepreneurship - a learning perspective : a study of returnee entrepreneurs in Vietnam By Mai, Nhat Chi
  7. Strengthening the generative power of a scientific and industrial ecosystem: the case of the SystemX Institute for Technological Research (IRT), a "double impact Research and Technology Organization (RTO)"? By Agathe Gilain; Pascal Le Masson; Benoit Weil; Nafissa Jibet; Alexandre Bekhradi; Paul Labrogere; Patrice Aknin
  8. Spillover Effects of Foreign and Domestic Exporting Firms on Export Decisions of Local Manufacturing Firms: Evidence from Viet Nam By Quang Hoan Truong; Van Chung Dong
  9. Family Firms and Input Procurement: Firm-Level Evidence from Italy By Pietro De Ponti; Valeria Gattai

  1. By: Leogrande, Angelo; Costantiello, Alberto; Laureti, Lucio
    Abstract: In the following article, the value of the "Knowledge Intensive Services Exports in Europe" in 36 European countries is estimated. The data were analyzed through a set of econometric models or: Poled OLS, Dynamic Panel, Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, WLS. The results show that “Knowledge Intensive Services Exports” is negatively associated, among others, with "Buyer Sophistication", "Government Procurement of Advanced Technology Products", and positively associated with the following variables i.e. "Innovation Index", "Sales Impacts" and "Total Entrepreneurial Activity". Then a clusterization with k-Means algorithm was made with the Elbow method. The results show the presence of 3 clusters. A network analysis was later built and 4 complex network structures and three structures with simplified networks were detected. To predict the future trend of the variable, a comparison was made with eight different machine learning algorithms. The results show that prediction with Augmented Data-AD is more efficient than prediction with Original Data-AD with a reduction of the mean of statistical errors equal to 55,94%.
    Keywords: Innovation, and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Diffusion Processes; Open Innovation.
    JEL: O3 O30 O31 O32 O33 O34
    Date: 2022–06–11
  2. By: Davide Antonioli (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara and SEEDS – Centre for Sustainability, Environmental Economics and Dynamics Studies); Claudia Ghisetti (Università degli studi di Milano Bicocca); Massimiliano Mazzanti (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara and SEEDS – Centre for Sustainability, Environmental Economics and Dynamics Studies); Francesco Nicolli (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara and SEEDS – Centre for Sustainability, Environmental Economics and Dynamics Studies)
    Abstract: Assessing the economic consequences of sustainable production choices aimed at reducing environmental negative externalities is crucial for policy making, in light of the increasing interest and awareness experienced in the recent EU policy packages (Circular Economy package; European Green Deal and Recovery Fund to support sustainable transition). This assessment is one of the goal of the current work, which tries to provide new empirical evidence on the economic returns of such choices, drawing on previous literature on the underlying determinants of greener production choices, which are stated to differ from standard technological innovations as they are subject to a knowledge and an environmental externality. Using an original dataset on about 3000 Italian manufacturing firms we provide evidence on the relations among innovations related to the Circular Economy concept and economic outcome in the short run. The evidence shows that in the short run it is difficult to obtain economic gains, especially for the SMEs.
    Keywords: Circular Economy, Sustainable Production, Environmental Innovation, Economic Effect
    JEL: O30 O44 O55
    Date: 2022–02
  3. By: Svetlana Klessova (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (1965 - 2019) - COMUE UCA - COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015-2019) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur); Sebastian Engell (TU - Technische Universität Dortmund [Dortmund]); Catherine Thomas (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (1965 - 2019) - COMUE UCA - COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015-2019) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur)
    Abstract: Publicly funded multi-actor research, development and innovation projects are a setting where a network of multiple organizational actors form a temporary consortium to jointly create new knowledge and marketupstream innovations. The couplings between the organizational actors and subgroups of these actors represent joint work that leads to flows of knowledge and flows of activities. The dynamics of the couplings in this empirical context and their implications are not well understood yet. Using an inductive comparative multiple case study of projects funded in European Research and Innovation Programmes, we investigated 4 projects with 54 organizational actors, which produced 50 innovations. The evolutions of all couplings went through the same phases, although the temporality of the phases differed. We identified eight types of evolutions of couplings and their underlying generative mechanisms. These evolutions led to different, mostly negative implications on the planned collaborative innovations. Particularly, we observed a systematic degradation of the couplings that were planned to connect subgroups of organizational actors. Over time, the projects became less collaborative than planned, and they have a tendency to fragment into isolated activities by subgroups of actors. Based on these findings, we propose an emerging process model which helps to better understand how and why the couplings evolve in multi-actor RDI projects.
    Keywords: Multi-actor projects,Research,Development,Collaborative innovation,Process,Evolution,Tie,Module,Interface,Output,Qualitative research,Coupling,Interdependency,Collaboration
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Tuitjer, Gesine; Bergholz, Christian; Küpper, Patrick
    Abstract: The pilot scheme ‚Land(auf)Schwung‘, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Food and Agricul- ture, was designed to test new approaches in the development of rural areas. 13 peripheral rural counties received between 2.25 and 2.9 million euros each in total funding between the years 2015 ii Kurzfassung und Abstract and 2019, to develop new approaches in the provision of basic services and to foster regional growth and net value creation. Deprived rural areas often face a rather low innovation potential due to a lack of knowledge infra- structure, a composition of the local economy characterized by low-tech branches, few start-ups and an overall dominance of small businesses. The regional economy in rural areas does not offer many jobs for a high-skilled workforce and low levels of productivity prevent competitive salaries for skilled labour. Against this background, the thirteen regions of this pilot scheme experimented with new ap- proaches to strengthen the regional economy. For example, small businesses from the food sector received investment funding to develop new and innovative products, to develop regional market- ing initiatives and networks and to increase the sale of regional products. Likewise, in some regions centres for technology and entrepreneurship were installed. Based on the vast landscape of funded projects in the 13 regions, this research project draws conclusions and recommendations for the development of rural areas. For example, case-studies were conducted analysing the biographical development of innovative products in small food businesses. The development of two technology centres was likewise analysed. In total, 83 interviews were conducted with various stakeholders and agents in rural development, and a survey conducted with 166 members in regional marketing initiatives (micro businesses). The research depicts the vivid innovation activities of the micro and small businesses under focus. By funding specialized machinery, which is adapted to match the needs of small and micro businesses with a niche strategy, the growth of these businesses can be supported. Regional marketing initiatives initiate local cooperation and knowledge sharing be- tween their members and can this way boost innovation in small businesses, which eventually leads to business growth. However, because local marketing initiatives come with comparable overhead for a shared logistic, the regional conditions for an efficient running of a shared logistics unit should be evaluated first. While technology centres can lower the entrance barriers to self-employment, they should always be integrated into a comprehensive regional strategy of economic develop- ment, to unlock their full potential.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Financial Economics, Labor and Human Capital, Marketing, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–07–12
  5. By: Francesco Cinnirella (University of Bergamo); Erik Hornung (University of Cologne); Julius Koschnick (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: Economic societies emerged during the late eighteenth-century. We argue that these institutions reduced the costs of accessing useful knowledge by adopting, producing, and diffusing new ideas. Combining location information for the universe of 3,300 members across active economic soci-eties in Germany with those of patent holders and World’s Fair exhibitors, we show that regions with more members were more innovative in the late nineteenth-century. This long-lasting effect of societies arguably arose through agglomeration economies and localized knowledge spillovers. To support this claim, we provide evidence suggesting an immediate increase in manufacturing, an earlier establishment of vocational schools, and a higher density of highly skilled mechanical workers by mid-nineteenth century in regions with more members. We also show that regions with members from the same society had higher similarity in patenting, suggesting that social networks facilitated spatial knowledge diffusion and, to some extent, shaped the geography of innovation.
    Keywords: Economic Societies, Useful Knowledge, Knowledge Diffusion, Innovation, Social Networks
    JEL: N33 O33 O31 O43
    Date: 2022–07
  6. By: Mai, Nhat Chi
    Abstract: International entrepreneurship research has recently been directed towards returnee entrepreneurship, a phenomenon in which individuals who acquire knowledge in overseas developed markets return to start businesses in their home emerging markets. Returnee entrepreneurs serve as knowledge brokers in their home country. However, research has yet to explain how they transform their overseas knowledge, which is contextually bound, into entrepreneurial outcomes – a process termed overseas knowledge recontextualisation. The thesis positions itself at the intersection of returnee entrepreneurship, international knowledge transfer, and entrepreneurial learning, and explores the phenomenon from both a learning and a socio-cognitive perspective. It approaches the recontextualisation process at an individual entrepreneurial level to answer three research questions: (1) What constitutes the knowledge brought back by returnee entrepreneurs?; (2) What is the process by which returnee entrepreneurs recontextualise their overseas knowledge?; and (3) How do returnee entrepreneurs learn to facilitate the process of overseas knowledge recontexualisation? A qualitative exploratory approach was employed comprising 14 in-depth cases of returnee entrepreneurs in three cities in Vietnam - an emerging economy in South East Asia where returnee entrepreneurship has become increasingly prevalent. To ensure the rigour and validity of the research, multiple data sources were used for triangulation. Given the dynamics of the recontextualisation process and the aim to build a data driven theory, the analysis was underpinned by process thinking and grounded theory principles. The thesis contributes to three distinctive strands of literature. First, it extends the returnee entrepreneurship literature by unpacking the holistic process model of knowledge recontextualisation which involves sensemaking, experimenting, and integrating knowledge, each of which is facilitated by the respective learning mechanisms and intertwined with entrepreneurial outcomes. Second, it adds new understanding at an individual entrepreneurial level to international knowledge transfer literature by highlighting the idiosyncratic role of returnees as simultaneous transferors and receivers of knowledge. Specifically, it elucidates mixed-embedded knowledge structures of returnees and identifies key recontextualisation practices pertaining to returnee entrepreneurship. Third, it adds on entrepreneurial learning literature by unpacking the complex learning mechanisms that facilitate the process of recontextualisation. Finally, it proposes that, throughout the recontextualisation process, returnees not only enact the overseas knowledge per se, they also transform themselves and influence the home country through cognitive, social, psychological and behavioural processes which denote the micro-foundations of the entrepreneurial dynamic capability displayed by returnees.
    Date: 2020–07–06
  7. By: Agathe Gilain (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pascal Le Masson (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Benoit Weil (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Nafissa Jibet; Alexandre Bekhradi (IRT SystemX - IRT SystemX); Paul Labrogere (IRT SystemX - IRT SystemX); Patrice Aknin (IRT SystemX - IRT SystemX)
    Abstract: Research and Technology Organizations (RTOs) are agents which conduct ‘extra-university research' at the boundary between industry and science, acting as an intermediary between the two. Their expected impact is primarily industrial: they are supposed to support and enhance the competitiveness and innovation capabilities of industry. RTOs position of intermediary between science and industry is delicate, since their role is neither to substitute for the industrial partners who conduct their NPD projects and develop innovations, nor to substitute for the conduct of basic research by universities. In particular, one major pitfall for RTO pointed out by the literature is the risk that the outputs of RTOs activities are too research-oriented and fail to meet industrial needs. In this context, the literature tends to recommend that to remain manageable, the intermediation role of RTO between science and industry should be limited to situations of low/moderate uncertainty. The resulting impacts will be modest, but under control for the RTO and highly-valued by industrial firms. This paper focuses on the French IRT (Institute for Technological Research) SystemX that seems to stand out within the portray of RTOs. Created in 2012, SystemX conducts collaborative research projects aimed at accompanying and accelerating the transformation of industrial sectors in the face the digital transition. Internally, SystemX has intuited that it is inventing a new form of science-industry coupling. Thus, this paper involves mobilizes the theoretical frameworks of design theory, with the aim of characterizing SystemX model of action within its industrial and scientific ecosystem, and testing the hypothesis according to which SystemX has developed capabilities to manage situations the level of uncertainty of which goes beyond moderate uncertainty. The study reveals that SystemX manages science-industry couplings which do not only involve moderate uncertainty, but also unknowns, associated with which there is a high potential of ‘double impact' (simultaneously a scientific and an industrial impact). SystemX is able to articulate the action model associated with these science-industry couplings in the unknown with three other action models (involving lower degrees of unknown). An in-depth case study focusing on one SystemX project shows that the implementation of the four action models and their articulation requires methodical and progressive processes of structuring and creating knowledge: these processes allow the construction (and not the simple identification) of common locks and new disciplines in the unknown. These could be seen as first insights regarding the conditions required for ‘double impact RTOs'.
    Date: 2022–06–15
  8. By: Quang Hoan Truong (Institute for Southeast Asian Studies, Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences (VASS)); Van Chung Dong (Institute for Southeast Asian Studies, Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences (VASS))
    Abstract: Our paper investigates the spillover effects generated by foreign and domestic exporting firms on export decisions of local manufacturing firms in Viet Nam – a developing economy – over 2010–18. In the export participation, we find positive spillover effects from foreign and domestic exporting firms on domestic firms’ export participation, while negative spillover effects are detected with the backward channel. Estimation shows the positive forward spillover effects from domestic exporting firms on domestic counterparts’ export participation; on the contrary, the forward spillover effects generated by foreign direct investment exporting firms are negative. In addition, we discover the opposite spillover effects from foreign direct investment and domestic exporting firms on the probability of export exit of domestic firms, with the negative impact under the horizontal channel and the positive one under the backward channel. There are also effects of firms’ characteristics such as labour productivity, wage, firm size, and capital intensity on the export participation and export exit of domestic firms. From empirical evidence, the paper provides policy implications to strengthen linkages between foreign and domestic exporting firms with local firms in Viet Nam.
    Keywords: Spillover Effects; export status; foreign and domestic exporting firms; Viet Nam
    JEL: F15 F23
    Date: 2021–12–15
  9. By: Pietro De Ponti; Valeria Gattai
    Abstract: This paper empirically analyses input procurement using Italian firm-level data. Combining the international economics literature on global sourcing with the family business and international business literature on family firms (FFs)’ internationalization, we build a comprehensive framework in which sourcing is shaped by location (domestic versus foreign sourcing) and ownership (integration versus outsourcing) decisions. Relying on a new firm-level, cross-sectional dataset on a large and stratified sample of Italian manufacturing firms, we address the relationship between global sourcing and firm-level features, such as family presence in ownership and control, productivity, and input specificity. Our probit and multinomial probit estimates suggest that the FF status is negatively related to foreign sourcing, and it plays little role in orienting firms’ ownership decision; moreover, firms’ productivity fosters foreign sourcing, and reliance on specific inputs favours integration. Our study contributes to the International Economics literature on global sourcing by studying factors other than productivity and input specificity that affect input procurement; moreover, it contributes to the Family Business and International Business literature on FFs’ internationalization by taking a supply-side perspective and investigating sourcing through the interplay between location and ownership choices.
    Keywords: productivity, input specificity, family firms, input procurement, sourcing
    JEL: F23 D23 C35 L24
    Date: 2022–06

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