nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2022‒07‒18
eleven papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Migrant inventors as agents of technological change By Ernest Miguelez; Andrea Morrison
  2. Spillover Effects of R&D in Japan (Japanese) By EDAMURA Kazuma; NAGAOKA Sadao; ONISHI Koichiro
  3. Firm Incubation through Business Group Affiliation: Acquisition and technology transaction (Japanese) By NAGAOKA Sadao; TSUKADA Naotoshi; ENDO Shiguma
  4. The Evolution of Competitiveness across Economic, Innovation and Knowledge production activities By Aurelio Patelli; Lorenzo Napolitano; Giulio Cimini; Emanuele Pugliese; Andrea Gabrielli
  5. The business response to Covid-19 one year on: findings from the second wave of the CEP-CBI survey on technology adoption By Juliana Oliveira-Cunha; Capucine Riom; Anna Valero
  6. Innovation for a strong and sustainable recovery By Ralf Martin; Sam Unsworth; Anna Valero; Dennis Verhoeven
  7. Structural Change Within versus Across Firms: Evidence from the United States By Xiang Ding; Teresa C. Fort; Stephen J. Redding; Peter K. Schott
  8. Quality Innovation, Cost Innovation, Export, and Firm Productivity Evolution: Evidence from the Chinese Electronics Industry By Liu, Mengxiao; Wang, Luhang; Yi, Yimin
  9. Farm innovation and technical efficiency of Dutch arable farms: An innovation index and DEA approach By Tensi, Annika Francesca; Ang, Frederic; Fels-Klerx, Ine van der
  10. The development of entrepreneurial orientation among female migrants and its influence on venture internationalization: a qualitative studybased on the French Context. By Eunice Cascant
  11. R&D Spillovers through RJV Cooperation By Albert Banal-Estañol; Tomaso Duso; Jo Seldeslachts; Florian Szücs

  1. By: Ernest Miguelez (BSE - Bordeaux Sciences Economiques - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Andrea Morrison
    Abstract: How do regions enter new and distant technological fields? Who is triggering this process? This work addresses these compelling research questions by investigating the role of migrant inventors in the process of technological diversification. Immigrant inventors can indeed act as carriers of knowledge across borders and influence the direction of technological change. We test these latter propositions by using an original dataset of immigrant inventors in the context of European regions during the period 2003–201. Our findings show that: immigrant inventors generate positive local knowledge spillovers; they help their host regions to develop new technological specialisations; they trigger a process of unrelated diversification. Their contribution comes via two main mechanisms: immigrant inventors use their own personal knowledge (knowledge creation); they import knowledge from their home country to the host region (knowledge transfer). Their impact is maximised when their knowledge is not recombined with the local one (in mixed teams of inventors), but it is reused (in teams made by only migrant inventors). Our work contributes to the existing literature of regional diversification by providing fresh evidence of unrelated diversification for European regions and by identifying important agents of structural change. It also contributes to the literature of migration and innovation by adding fresh evidence on European regions and by unveiling some of the mechanisms of immigrants' knowledge transmission.
    Keywords: Patents,Migration,Technological diversification,Relatedness,Europe
    Date: 2022–05
  2. By: EDAMURA Kazuma; NAGAOKA Sadao; ONISHI Koichiro
    Abstract: This paper, using large panel data of Japanese companies (1983 – 2019) on the research activities of companies, public research institutes, and universities, calculates the technological distances between companies and public research institutes and those between companies and universities, in addition to those among firms. The paper then calculates the spillover pool as a proxy variable for the spillovers that companies obtain from public research institutes, universities and from themselves. In calculating the distances, the paper uses the number of researchers by each research field, and the research expenditure in each specific field. The paper aggregates research expenditures using the distances as weights and calculate spillover pools to measure spillover effects. It also uses information on basic research, applied research, and development research spending by industry, academia, and government organizations to calculate spillover pools by the types of research activities and organizations. Using the calculated spillover pool, we attempted to quantitatively capture the impact on R&D expenditure. We found that the knowledge spillover effect from the social pool, which aggregates knowledge spillovers from companies, public research institutes, and universities, has a negative correlation with the R&D expenditure of companies. However, estimates differentiating spillover pools by types of R&D and organizations shows both positive and negative correlations, indicating the possibility that knowledge spillover affects corporate R&D in various ways.
    Date: 2021–06
  3. By: NAGAOKA Sadao; TSUKADA Naotoshi; ENDO Shiguma
    Abstract: This paper examines the R&D performance of Japanese firms from the perspective of knowledge combination. First, we empirically confirm that the ability to use external knowledge widely and early in R&D significantly enhances R&D performance. This relationship also holds for the firm-level analysis in which firm fixed effects are introduced. Next, we compared the evaluation of Japanese and U.S. twin patents from the same group of inventions and found that the U.S. market places a much higher value on the use of science in inventions, while the Japanese technology market places a higher value on early recognition and use of prior art (small lag from prior art in the technical literature, and use of inventions by foreign inventors). Third, the inventions covered by the Japanese Bayh-Dole patents have achieved a high standard in terms of knowledge combination, including the utilization of science, but have not yet achieved a high reputation in the US market. We also found no significant evidence that firms in Japan that increased the hiring of researchers with PhDs, spending for industry-academia collaborations, or government contract research increased their ability to leverage science. Implications for policy and research are discussed in the last section.
    Date: 2021–06
  4. By: Aurelio Patelli; Lorenzo Napolitano; Giulio Cimini; Emanuele Pugliese; Andrea Gabrielli
    Abstract: The evolution of economic and innovation systems at the national scale is shaped by a complex dynamics, the footprint of which is the nested structure of the activities in which different countries are competitive. Nestedness is a persistent feature across multiple kinds (layers) of activities related to the production of knowledge and goods: scientific research, technological innovation, industrial production and trade. We observe that in the layers of innovation and trade the competitiveness of countries correlates unambiguously with their diversification, while the science layer displays some peculiar feature. The evolution of scientific domains leads to an increasingly modular structure, in which the most developed nations become less competitive in the less advanced scientific domains, where they are replaced by the emerging countries. This observation is in line with a capability-based view of the evolution of economic systems, but with a slight twist. Indeed, while the accumulation of specific know-how and skills is a fundamental step towards development, resource constraints force countries to acquire competitiveness in the more complex research fields at the price of losing ground in more basic, albeit less visible (or more crowded), fields. This tendency towards a relatively specialized basket of capabilities leads to a trade-off between the need to diversify in order to evolve and the need to allocate resources efficiently. Collaborative patterns among developed nations reduce the necessity to be competitive in the less sophisticated fields, freeing resources for the more complex domains.
    Date: 2022–06
  5. By: Juliana Oliveira-Cunha; Capucine Riom; Anna Valero
    Abstract: We present new data from a survey of 425 UK businesses conducted in July 2021 in partnership with the Confederation of British Industry (CBI), which seeks to understand the ways in which firms have innovated one year on in response to the pandemic. We find that process innovation has been widespread since March 2020: 75% of firms have adopted digital technologies, 55% new digital capabilities and nearly 70% new management practices, and a large share of firms continued to innovate beyond the initial lockdowns. We find similar patterns in terms of the introduction of new products or services. We describe how the self-reported impacts of these technologies on firm performance and on workers differ across types of businesses, technologies adopted and business functions that these technologies relate to. We find that previous technology adoption is a strong predictor of a continued innovation response to the crisis, and that gaps in performance between more and less digitised firms might be expected to widen in the future.
    Keywords: Covid-19, Technological change, Productivity
    Date: 2021–11–10
  6. By: Ralf Martin; Sam Unsworth; Anna Valero; Dennis Verhoeven
    Abstract: In the recovery from Covid-19, innovation and diffusion will be key to addressing several structural challenges facing the UK economy. These include improving the UK's longstanding poor productivity performance, addressing large-scale disparities across and within regions, and re-orientating the economy to reach net zero emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050. We analyse patent data to identify areas where the UK has comparative advantage in innovation, and where the economic returns in the UK might be large, highlighting technologies that are relevant for two key societal challenges: net zero and dealing with the pandemic. We conclude with policy implications. While the government's 'Ten Point Plan for a Green Industrial Revolution' provides a clear signal for future investment and growth, this needs to be accelerated and complemented with consistent and long-term innovation and industrial policy to facilitate transition to sustainable business models, investments and related innovation.
    Keywords: covid-19, productivity, technological change, UK economy, climate change, net zero, innovation, R&D
    Date: 2020–12–18
  7. By: Xiang Ding; Teresa C. Fort; Stephen J. Redding; Peter K. Schott
    Abstract: We document the role of intangible capital in manufacturing firms' substantial contribution to non-manufacturing employment growth from 1977-2019. Exploiting data on firms' "auxiliary" establishments, we develop a novel measure of proprietary in-house knowledge and show that it is associated with increased growth and industry switching. We rationalize this reallocation in a model where firms combine physical and knowledge inputs as complements, and where producing the latter in-house confers a sector-neutral productivity advantage facilitating within-firm structural transformation. Consistent with the model, manufacturing firms with auxiliary employment pivot towards services in response to a plausibly exogenous decline in their physical input prices.
    JEL: D24 F14 L16 O47
    Date: 2022–06
  8. By: Liu, Mengxiao; Wang, Luhang; Yi, Yimin
    Abstract: This paper classifies innovation as quality-improving or cost-reducing and estimates a dynamic model incorporating firm export, quality innovation, and cost innovation decisions. Estimation results show that export, quality innovation, and cost innovation increase next-period firm productivity by 1.39%, 1.23%, and 1.27%, respectively. Additionally, quality innovation raises next-period export demand by 47%. Counterfactual analyses suggest that (1) foreign market growth has a larger impact on firm export and innovation decisions than domestic market growth, but neither market significantly affects firm productivity; (2) subsidizing continuing quality innovators generates the highest financial return, and subsidizing continuing cost innovators brings the most productivity gain.
    Keywords: export; quality innovation; cost innovation; firm productivity; dynamic estimation; neural network; machine learning; trade liberalization; innovation policy
    JEL: C45 F14 L1 L10 L25
    Date: 2022–07
  9. By: Tensi, Annika Francesca; Ang, Frederic; Fels-Klerx, Ine van der
    Abstract: In this article, we analysed the relationship between farm innovation and farm efficiency. We computed an innovation index based on Dutch Innovation Monitor data and ratings from an expert elicitation. The innovation index is an adaptation and extension of an existing innovation index for Irish dairy farms. We computed technical efficiency scores with a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The DEA scores are computed with Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) data. We investigated the relationship with pre-registered ordinary least square (OLS) regression analyses in quadratic form and additional Chi-square tests. Unanimously, we reject the first hypothesis that farm innovation and farm efficiency can be described by an inverse parabolic relationship. Early adopters and innovators are not necessarily less efficient than the early and late majority of innovation adopters. We also reject the second hypothesis that innovation front-runners become more efficient. These are preliminary findings.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–04
  10. By: Eunice Cascant (Laboratoire de Recherche Magellan - UJML - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon 3 - Université de Lyon - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Lyon)
    Abstract: Despite being on top of geopolitical and economic agendas, migration has continued drastically increase especially in the 21 ST century. This phenomenon has led to the rise on an intertwined migrant activity referred to as Migrant entrepreneurship, with no exception of female migrant entrepreneurship as a result of the loopholes that exist in the economic and main stream labor integration policies .Migrant entrepreneurship not only contributes to the gross domestic product of the host countries but also that of the country of origin through remittances, hence making it a win-win situation. However, most studies reveal the existence of a gender gap between the male and female migrant entrepreneurs as both groups are far from homogeneity as they come from different countries of origins, age groups, past experience and motivating factors. Nevertheless, recent studies have depicted migrants as more entrepreneurial then the host country natives. Whereas other literature credits migrant entrepreneurship as a way of integration with in the host society. Based on the mixed embeddedness and effectual approaches, the research will investigate how female migrants develop entrepreneurial orientations and its influence on venture creation. In supportive of the effectual approach, an analysis of the impact of the host country's extant resources, opportunity recognition and decision making based on volatile and uncertain environments. We will as well highlight the role of the individual habitus, social capital and networks. This research is qualitative in nature based on female migrant case studies in the context of France. Our key findings, are four-fold; First, the results reveal when it comes to migrant entrepreneurship ,there is a significant gap between male and female migrant entrepreneurs.Secondly ,we un cover that female migrants develop entrepreneurial orientations through five main dimensions namely: (i) Innovativeness (ii) Proactiveness (iii) Risk taking (iv) Competitive aggressiveness and (v) Autonomy .Thirdly our research highlights the key role female migrant entrepreneurs play by including sustainability in their business models .Lastly, results show that female migrant entrepreneurial orientation development can be encouraged by policies designed to promote resources fit for migrants that in the end helps them leverage their capabilities and networks to open up ventures with in the host countries and further to international markets.
    Keywords: female migrant entrepreneurship,Migrant entrepreneurship,migrant entrepreneurial orientation,migrant ventures,migrant internationalisation,female entrepreneurship
    Date: 2021–12–10
  11. By: Albert Banal-Estañol; Tomaso Duso; Jo Seldeslachts; Florian Szücs
    Abstract: We investigate how R&D spillovers propagate across firms linked through Research Joint Ventures (RJVs). Building on the framework developed by ? which considers the opposing effects of knowledge spillovers and product market rivalry, we extend the model to account for RJV cooperation. Since the firm’s decision to join a RJV is endogenous, we build a model of RJV participation. The outcome equations and RJV participation are then jointly estimated in an endogenous treatment regression model. Our main findings are that the adverse effects of product market rivalry are mitigated if firms cooperate in RJVs; and that RJV participation allows firms to better absorb technological spillovers and, thus, create value.
    Keywords: Spillovers, Research Joint Ventures, R&D, Market Value
    Date: 2022–02–11

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