nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2022‒05‒02
nine papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Barriers to university–industry collaboration in an emerging market: firm-level evidence from Turkey By Kleiner-Schaefer, Timo; Schaefer, Kerstin J.
  2. Trade and innovation By Melitz, Marc J.; Redding, Stephen J.
  3. Robot Adoption and Innovation Activities By Davide Antonioli; Alberto Marzucchi; Francesco Rentocchini; Simone Vannuccini
  4. Efficient industrial policy for innovation: standing on the shoulders of hidden giants By Guillard, Charlotte; Martin, Ralf; Thomas, Catherine; Verhoeven, Dennis
  5. Export of Medium and High-Tech Products in Europe By LEOGRANDE, ANGELO
  6. Cities fit for the digital age By SULIS Patrizia; VANDECASTEELE Ine; HALMOS Andrea; NI EARCAIN Noirin; MAISTRALI Antigoni; AURAMBOUT Jean-Philippe; LAVALLE Carlo
  7. Artificial intelligence and productivity: global evidence from AI patent and bibliometric data. By Aleksandra Parteka; Aleksandra Kordalska
  9. How to Improve the Performance of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises? By Ririn Wulandari

  1. By: Kleiner-Schaefer, Timo; Schaefer, Kerstin J.
    Abstract: University-industry collaborations (UICs) are one of the main sources of external knowledge and technologies for industrial firms, particularly in the context of emerging markets (EMs) and firm development. It is thus highly relevant to identify potential barriers internal to the firm as well as in the regional innovation system that might prevent firms from using UICs for innovation, in particular in an EM context. In order to address this issue, we conduct a firm-level study of the R&D-related segment of the manufacturing industry in Istanbul. Logistic regression analysis is used to test the effect of potential barriers on using UICs for innovative activities. With this approach, we are able to identify barriers that prevent innovation-related UICs and thus form a bottleneck to collaborations in the first place. Our findings show that lack of information about UIC opportunities as well as lack of financial support for UICs are the most relevant barriers that inhibit firms’ usage of UICs for innovation. This firm-level evidence points out the importance of university technology transfer offices in regional innovation systems and for fruitful UICs. We further find that administrative barriers have no significant effect, while barriers related to trust and skill matching with scientific partners even have a reverse effect to what we would have expected from the literature. This finding might point towards an effect of perceived versus deterring barriers that has been observed in innovation studies before and might be relevant for studying UICs as well.
    Keywords: barrier; emerging market; innovation; research and development; Turkey; university–industry collaboration
    JEL: O30 O32 O38
    Date: 2022–02–04
  2. By: Melitz, Marc J.; Redding, Stephen J.
    Abstract: Two central insights from the Schumpeterian approach to innovation and growth are that the pace of innovation is endogenously determined by the expectation of future profits and that growth is inherently a process of creative destruction. As international trade is a key determinant of firm profitability and survival, it is natural to expect it to play a key role in shaping both incentives to innovate and the rate of creative destruction. In this paper, we review the theoretical and empirical literature on trade and innovation. We highlight four key mechanisms through which international trade affects endogenous innovation and growth:(i) market size; (ii) competition; (iii) comparative advantage; (iv) knowledge spillovers. Each of these mechanisms offers a potential source of dynamic welfare gains in addition to the static welfare gains from trade from conventional trade theory. Recent research has suggested that these dynamic welfare gains from trade can be substantial relative to their static counterparts. Discriminating between alternative mechanisms for these dynamic welfare gains and strengthening the evidence on their quantitative magnitude remain exciting areas of ongoing research.
    Keywords: innovation; growth; international trade
    JEL: F10 F43 O30 O40
    Date: 2021–06–17
  3. By: Davide Antonioli (University of Ferrara); Alberto Marzucchi (Gran Sasso Science Institute); Francesco Rentocchini (European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Seville, Spain; Department of Economics Management and Quantitative Methods (DEMM), University of Milan); Simone Vannuccini (Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex)
    Abstract: We exploit firm-level data on robot adoption and use an event-study approach to study the unexplored relationship between robotisation and innovation. Instead of an enabling effect, we find a negative association between robot adoption and the probability to introduce product innovations, as well as their number; the results emerge using different proxy of product innovation. However, large-scale investments in mechanisation cancel-out the negative effect and show a positive association with R&D expenditure. We rationalise and interpret the findings suggesting that a piecewise substitutive relationship exists between process and product innovation. Large investments relax the product-process trade-off, as substantial R&D investments to accrue absorptive capacity are mobilised; as a result, they make less binding the allocation dilemma between implementing robot technology and designing and trialling new products. Finally, we discuss whether industrial robots studied here and in the literature feature enabling capabilities at all. The study has important implications for our understanding of the role of robots for firms operations and strategies, as well as for policy design.
    Keywords: robots, automation, product innovation, absorptive capacity, Spain
    JEL: O31 O33
    Date: 2022–04
  4. By: Guillard, Charlotte; Martin, Ralf; Thomas, Catherine; Verhoeven, Dennis
    Abstract: Research and development is underprovided whenever it creates knowledge spillovers that drive a wedge between its total and private economic returns. Heterogeneity in the intensity of this market failure across technological areas provides an argument to vertically target public support for R&D. This paper examines potential welfare gains of such vertical industrial policy for innovation. It develops measures of private and spillover value of patented innovations using global data on patents and their citations. Our new method identifies a large number 'Hidden Giants' - i.e. innovations scoring higher on our new spillover measure than on the traditional forward citation count measure - which are shown to be particularly prevalent among patents applied for by universities. The estimated distributions of private values by technology area are then used to parameterize a structural model of innovation. The model permits estimation of the marginal returns to technology-area-specific subsidies that reduce innovators' R&D costs. Marginal returns are high when knowledge spillovers in the technology area are valuable, when private innovation costs are low, and when private values in a technology sector are densely distributed around the private cost. The results show large variation in the marginal returns to subsidy and suggest that targeted industrial policy would have helped mitigate underprovision of R&D over the time period studied. Variation in the extent to which knowledge spillovers are internalized within countries also makes a compelling case for supranational policy coordination, especially among smaller countries.
    Keywords: research and development; patented innovations; decoupling; targeted industrial policy
    JEL: R14 J01 J1
    Date: 2021–11–04
    Abstract: The European Innovation Scoreboard-EIS analyzes the value of exports of medium and high-tech products as a percentage of the total value of product exports. In the context of the European Innovation Scoreboard-EIS, the value of the export of medium and high technology products is considered as a function of the employment of human capital. That is, the companies that export more in terms of medium and high technology products are also companies that have a more qualified human capital and whose employability is more resistant to economic crises and recessions.
    Keywords: Keywords: Innovation, and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Diffusion Processes; Open Innovation.
    JEL: O30 O31 O32 O33 O34
    Date: 2022–04–03
  6. By: SULIS Patrizia (European Commission - JRC); VANDECASTEELE Ine (European Commission - JRC); HALMOS Andrea; NI EARCAIN Noirin; MAISTRALI Antigoni (European Commission - JRC); AURAMBOUT Jean-Philippe (European Commission - JRC); LAVALLE Carlo (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: Digital technologies and innovative solutions can act as critical enablers in enhancing services and contribute to improving the urban environment and the overall quality of life of its citizens. Cities and communities should implement interoperable solutions, based on existing open standards and technical specifications, to avoid vendor-lock in, benefit from cross-domain, integrated services and infrastructures, reduce costs, and scale up successful projects. Efforts should be made to increase resources and improve capacity and skills around data management as well as in the use of innovation procurement. The introduction of new services and technology applications can create or increase disparities in terms of the digital and social divide in relation to age, gender, economic status, etc. Public bodies at local, national and EU level need to introduce appropriate measures to prepare for the possible consequences of digital innovation in cities.
    Keywords: smart cities, digital age, human-centric AI, data strategy
    Date: 2022–03
  7. By: Aleksandra Parteka (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland); Aleksandra Kordalska (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland)
    Abstract: In this paper we analyse the effects of technological innovation in the artificial intelligence (AI) domain on productivity. We embed the recently released data on patents and publications related to AI into an augmented panel model of productivity growth, estimated for OECD countries, and compared to a non-OECD sample. Our instrumental variables' estimates, accounting for AI endogeneity, provide evidence in favour of the modern (AI) productivity paradox. We show that the development of AI technologies remains a niche innovation phenomenon with a negligible role in the officially recorded productivity growth process. This general result, i.e. the lack of a strong relationship between AI and productivity growth, is robust to changes in the country sample, in the way we quantify labour productivity or the creation of AI technology, in the specification of the empirical model (control variables) or in estimation methods.
    Keywords: technological innovation, productivity paradox, productivity growth, artificial intelligence, patents
    JEL: O33 O47
    Date: 2022–01
  8. By: Nurhasanah, Dian Tiara; Mohammad, Wily; Maulidiyah, Nabilla Ryca (PT Chishiki NoHikari Indonesia)
    Abstract: The purpose of this research is to look at strategic management at the startup, to look at the problems that students face as administrators as they set up the company, and to offer solutions based on those problems. This research relies on primary data gathered through observation, interviews, and documentation. Field research with a qualitative descriptive approach is the type of research. Data reduction, data display, and determining conclusions are the techniques used to analyze the data. Data analysis methods based on strategic management techniques, including Strategic Posture, Business Model Canvas, Financial Report Analysis, PESTEL (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental factors), PORTER 5 Forces, VRIO (Valuable, Rare, Inimitable, Organized), SWOT and TOWS (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat), IFAS (Internal Factor Analysis Strategy), EFAS (External Factor Analysis Strategy), and SFAS (Strategic Factor Analysis Summary). The findings of the research reveal that there are two types of problems with high SFAS scores: “work ethic” issues and “product” issues. Lack of motivation in entrepreneurship, a lack of desire and interest in entrepreneurship, a lack of loyalty from team members, and a lack of harmony between team members are all factors that contribute to “work ethic” issues. Meanwhile, overlong platform development, unprofessional outsourcing staff, a lack of core team members who understand IT technicalities, and a long wait for the platform to be perfected for users are all contributing to “product” issues. This research contribution is useful for students who want to start new businesses in the IT field, as it adds to the study of literature for future research.
    Date: 2022–03–31
  9. By: Ririn Wulandari (Universitas MercuBuana, 11650, West Jakarta, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Wei-Loon Koe Author-2-Workplace-Name: Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Melaka, 75300, Melaka, Malaysia Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: "Objective - The COVID-19 pandemic has worsened economic conditions and jeopardized the performance of many micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in Indonesia. So the question arises of how to improve its performance so that MSMEs can maintain their survival in conditions like this. This study aims to answer these problems, namely to analyze the influence of management characteristics on MSME business performance with innovation as a mediator. The population in this study is MSMEs from various types of businesses in Indonesia. Methodology/Technique - A total of 123 samples were selected by stratified judgment sampling. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. Finding - Data analysis using structural equation model (SEM) partial least squares (PLS) program. Novelty - Based on the analysis conducted, it can be concluded that to improve the performance of MSMEs, management characteristics need to be strengthened by efforts to create innovation, because without strengthening innovation, only having adequate management characteristics will not increase MSME performance. Type of Paper - Empirical"
    Keywords: Characteristics; Innovation; Micro small and medium enterprises (MSMEs); Performance
    JEL: M13 M19
    Date: 2021–12–31

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