nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2021‒11‒22
seventeen papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Intellectual Assets in Europe By Costantiello, Alberto; Laureti, Lucio; Leogrande, Angelo
  2. Algumas respostas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais à Covid -19 By Raissa Guerra; Bernardo Annoni; Thaís de Figueiredo Teixeira Simões; Juliana Crepalde; Nathália Domingues; Glaura Goulart Silva; Márcia Siqueira Rapini
  3. A project-level approach to green open innovation By Lorena D'Agostino
  4. Identification of “Valuable” Technologies via Patent Statistics in India: An Analysis Based on Renewal Information By Mohd Shadab Danish; Pritam Ranjan; Ruchi Sharma
  5. The Determinants of Competitiveness of the Portuguese Defense Industry By Roxanne Merenda
  6. As long as you talk about me: The importance of family firm brands and the contingent role of family-firm identity By P. Rovelli; C. Benedetti; A. Fronzetti Colladon; A. De Massis
  7. Examining the Transfer of Knowledge and Training to Smallholders in India: Direct and Spillover Effects of Agricultural Advisory Services in an Emerging Economy By Varshney, Deepak; Joshi, P. K.; Kumar, Anjani; Dubey, Shantanu Kumar
  8. Challenges for University - Industry Collaboration - a Stakeholder View By Ulrike Michel-Schneider
  9. Analysis of Competition Policies between U.S. and EU in the Era of Inter-Industry Convergence By Kang, Gusang; Jang, Yungshin; Oh, Taehyun; Rim, Jeewoon
  10. Mobilizing innovation for sustainability transitions: a comment on transformative innovation policy By Jan Fagerberg
  11. Potential efficiency gains and expenditure savings in the Italian Regional Healthcare Systems By Dino Rizzi; Michele Zanette
  12. Invoice Currency Choice under Financial Constraints and Bargaining: Evidence from Japanese SMEs By GOTO Mizuki; HAYAKAWA Kazunobu; KOIBUCHI Satoshi; YOSHIMI Taiyo
  13. New Challenges in Education: teaching future engineers for the Industrial Internet of the Things and Industry 4.0 By José Pereira; Artur Graxinha
  14. Local Support for Agri-Environmental Measures and the Role of Knowledge and Environmental Attitudes By Fockaert, Lysander; Mathijs, Erik; Vranken, Liesbet
  15. Services trade in the United Kingdom and the global economy By Annabelle Mourougane; Sebastian Benz; Frédéric Gonzales
  16. Do workers, managers, and stations matter for effective policing? A decomposition of productivity into three dimensions of unobserved heterogeneity By Chaudhary, Amit
  17. Competitiveness of Currently Practiced and Alternative Cotton Production Methods in Meatu District, Tanzania By Baha, Michael; Henningsen, Arne; Elleby, Christian; Mlay, Gilead

  1. By: Costantiello, Alberto; Laureti, Lucio; Leogrande, Angelo
    Abstract: In this article we investigate the determinants of the Intellectual Assets in Europe. We use data from the European Innovation Scoreboard of the European Commission in the period 2000-2019 for 36 countries. Data are analyzed using Panel with Fixed Effects, Random Effects, WLS, Pooled OLS, Dynamic Panel at 1 Stage. Results show that the presence of Intellectual Assets in Europe is positively associated with “Enterprise Births”, “Top R&D Spending Enterprises per 10 mln Population”, “Employment Share Manufacturing”, “Share High and Medium high-tech Manufacturing”, “Attractive Research Systems”, “Finance and Support”, “Innovators”, “Sales Impact” and is negatively associated to “Government Procurement of Advanced Technology Products” and “Share Knowledge-Intensive Services”
    Keywords: Innovation, Innovation, and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Diffusion Processes; Open Innovation.
    JEL: O30 O31 O32 O33 O34
    Date: 2021–11–04
  2. By: Raissa Guerra (CTNano/UFMG); Bernardo Annoni (FUNDEP/PPGIT/UFMG); Thaís de Figueiredo Teixeira Simões (FUNDEP/PPGIT/UFMG); Juliana Crepalde (CTIT/UFMG); Nathália Domingues (CTIT/UFMG); Glaura Goulart Silva (CTNano/UFMG); Márcia Siqueira Rapini (CEDEPLAR/UFMG)
    Abstract: This article systematizes some of the contributions of the Federal University of Minas Gerais in facing Covid-19, aiming to highlight the important role of universities for our country. The non-exhaustive survey aimed to make explicit that some answers were only possible by building previous capacities and knowledge within the various activities that are carried out at the university. The importance of public funding in enabling laboratory infrastructure, as well as the targeted funding that allowed the development of solutions to the pandemic and the intellectual capital accumulated by the university over the years was also evidenced. Furthermore, the cases presented illustrate that the solution channels for social problems are broad and diverse, and do not happen only through NITs or institutional innovation policies. The channels involve the provision of services and the internal interlocution of knowledge and capabilities of the university, which involve the articulation and combination of different areas of knowledge and management practices.
    Keywords: UFMG, Covid-19, Coolabs, CTIT, CT-Nano, innovation.
    JEL: O30 O31
    Date: 2021–11
  3. By: Lorena D'Agostino (University of Milano-Bicocca)
    Abstract: Innovation is a crucial dimension for the transition to a greener Europe, a process that has accelerated notably in the latest years. An open mode has been applied to those innovation that mitigate the impact of economic activities on the natural environment, which is green open innovation (GOI). This is approach is mainly driven by the importance of stakeholders and the specificity of environmental fields, which call for a greater role of the external collaboration in green innovation. Although the interest of management scholars and practitioners in GOI has increased enormously, the empirical GOI literature has overlooked a project-level approach. Firms may have heterogenous openness across different projects depending on the characteristics of the projects or the strategic objective of the firm. This paper contributes to GOI literature by investigating whether green projects are more open than non-green projects in terms of breadth and depth of knowledge sources. Based on a dataset of projects funded by Seventh European research framework, the results confirm the greater openness of environmental-related research projects. These results corroborate the necessity for managers to apply an open mode to green innovation, especially in highly competitive calls such as the European Union framework program.
    Keywords: green open innovation; eco-innovation; sustainability; EU framework programs; FP7; projects; breadth; depth; openness.
    JEL: M20 O32 Q56
    Date: 2021–10
  4. By: Mohd Shadab Danish (BASE University, Bengaluru); Pritam Ranjan (IIM Indore); Ruchi Sharma (IIM Indore)
    Abstract: This study assesses the degree to which the patent attributes can capture the value of patents across discrete and complex innovations. We use the patents applied between 1995 to 2002 and granted on or before December 2018 from the Indian Patent Office. Here the patent renewal information is utilized as a proxy for the patent value. We have used generalized logistic regression model for the impact assessment analysis. The results reveal that the technology classification (i.e., discrete versus complex innovations) play an important role in patent value assessment, and some technologies are significantly different than the others even within the two broader classifications. Moreover, the non-resident patents in India are more likely to have a higher value than the resident patents. The significance pattern among the technological fields suggests that the patenting laws need to be revisited to enhance the efficiency.
    Keywords: Patent value, Discrete innovation, Complex innovation, Patent reform, Renewal information Classification-O31,O32,O34
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Roxanne Merenda
    Abstract: This paper exploits a panel data ranging from 2010 to 2019 to investigate firm-level determinants of export intensity in the Portuguese defense industry, using a fixed effects model. As in any study exploiting corporate finance panel data, it is likely that some variables are endogenous due to reverse causality. Although we address this issue, the interpretation of our results cannot be fully causal. We find evidence that learning economies, proxied by export persistence, are the largest determinants associated with export intensity at firm level. Worker productivity and firm size also play a positive and significant role. Financial indicators such as financial pressure and leverage ratio negatively correlate with export intensity, albeit not always significantly. Finally, and contrary to the literature, we cannot find evidence that the Portuguese defense industry’s competitiveness rely on investment and R&D, nor is it impacted by geographical agglomeration.
    Keywords: Exports, Competitiveness, Firm-level data, Defense industry
    JEL: D22
    Date: 2021–11
  6. By: P. Rovelli; C. Benedetti; A. Fronzetti Colladon; A. De Massis
    Abstract: This study explores the role of external audiences in determining the importance of family firm brands and the relationship with firm performance. Drawing on text mining and social network analysis techniques, and considering the brand prevalence, diversity, and connectivity dimensions, we use the semantic brand score to measure the importance the media give to family firm brands. The analysis of a sample of 52,555 news articles published in 2017 about 63 Italian entrepreneurial families reveals that brand importance is positively associated with family firm revenues, and this relationship is stronger when there is identity match between the family and the firm. This study advances current literature by offering a rich and multifaceted perspective on how external audiences perceptions of the brand shape family firm performance.
    Date: 2021–10
  7. By: Varshney, Deepak; Joshi, P. K.; Kumar, Anjani; Dubey, Shantanu Kumar
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Farm Management
    Date: 2021–08
  8. By: Ulrike Michel-Schneider (Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering)
    Abstract: Purpose - The innovation strategies of the European Union and its member states have been well established over time and their implementation is being supported through government funding and legislative policies. This includes the promotion of strategic University-Industry Collaboration (UIC) involving its heterogeneous stakeholder groups. The purpose of this paper is to provide a shareholder analysis in form of defining the UIC activities, UIC shareholders and their interests and power in such collaboration while addressing the major challenges.Methodology ? A comprehensive thematic literature review of scientific research, as well as institutionally conducted research (primarily by European Union organisations) has been performed.Findings ? The review lays out the interest and power of the individual stakeholders while members of Academia, Industry and Government being the most influential ones. The primary challenges for Academia and Industry remain access to funding, however, also the tackling of contrary mindsets and mission as well as overcoming organisational and cultural differences create serious barriers to a successful cooperation.Practical Implication: Preparing a shareholder analysis in the area of UIC and deriving with a thorough understanding of the shareholders motivation and power of UIC involvement will help prioritizing and managing the stakeholders, as well as help leading a successful cooperation. Originality/value: This study is meaningful in that it serves as a practical overview in considering the interests and challenges in form of a stakeholder analysis of a UIC setting. It may serve as a guide for stakeholders interested in formalizing UICs to understand the weight, importance and motivation of their immediate collaborators, when preparing a formal UIC partnership.
    Keywords: Stakeholder Analysis, University-Industry Cooperation, Innovation Strategy
    JEL: O00 O30 O33
    Date: 2021–10
    Abstract: In the era of inter-industry convergence, abuses of substantial market power by large digital platforms such as Google, Apple, Facebook, and Amazon, and their increasing number of acquisitions towards small- and medium-sized tech-firms suspicious of eliminating potential competitors are recent representative issues in the ICT sector. Alternative competition policies have been discussed to effectively deal with those firms' anti-competitive behaviors in a changing environment of competition such as a digital platform economy instead of traditional policies. In this regard, we examine the U.S. and EU competition policy responses to ICT firms' anti-competitive behaviors in order to provide policy implications to our competition authority. According to our case studies, the U.S. and EU competition and legal authorities consider characteristics of the digital platform economy when they conclude whether firm behaviors are anti-competitive. Furthermore, we find that Facebook's acquisition of WhatsApp leads to a tipping effect and harms market competition. Given these results, we suggest that our competition authority has to consider the balance between innovation and competition when they implement competition policies in the era of inter-industry convergence.
    Keywords: U.S.; EU; convergence; competition; ICT
    Date: 2021–04–15
  10. By: Jan Fagerberg (Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo)
    Abstract: The topics addressed in this paper concern the (much-needed) transition to sustainability and what role (innovation) policy can play in speeding up such changes. In their Discussion Paper Schot and Steinmueller (this issue) argue that the existing theorizing and knowledge bases within the field of innovation studies are “unfit” for this task and that a totally new approach is required. This paper takes issue with this claim. Policy advice, it is argued, needs to be anchored in the accumulated research on the issue at hand, in this case, innovation. The paper therefore starts by distilling some important insights on innovation from the accumulated research on this topic and, with this in mind, considers various policy approaches that have been suggested for influencing innovation and sustainability transitions. Finally, the lessons for the development and implementation of transformative innovation policy are considered. It is concluded that the existing theorizing and knowledge base in innovation studies may be of great relevance when designing policies for dealing with climate change and sustainability transitions.
    Date: 2021–11
  11. By: Dino Rizzi (Department of Economics, University Of Venice CÃ Foscari); Michele Zanette (Department of Economics, University Of Venice CÃ Foscari)
    Abstract: The paper aims to analyse the extent to which the adoption of best practice policies could improve the efficiency of Italian Regional Healthcare Systems (RHSs) and reduce public healthcare expenditures. By means of a stochastic frontier model we estimate the RHSs’ technical inefficiency and its determinants using a panel data of 16 regions over the period 2010-2016. We use the Essential Levels of Care (LEA) scores computed by the Ministry of Health as a proxy for the RHSs’ output and public healthcare expenditure as the main input. The level of inefficiency is a function of a set of variables summarising the organisational arrangements implemented by RHS policymakers. The results allow us to identify the best-practice policy, defined as the set of observable organisational arrangements that maximises aggregate efficiency. Adoption of the best-practice policy by all RHSs leads to potential efficiency gains of 1.5 per cent on average (from 93.4 per cent to 94.9 per cent) and to potential healthcare expenditure savings of 1.8 billion euro in 2016 (1.77 per cent of current expenditures).
    Keywords: Healthcare expenditure, regional healthcare systems, efficiency, LEA scores
    JEL: H51 H75 I18 R50
    Date: 2021
  12. By: GOTO Mizuki; HAYAKAWA Kazunobu; KOIBUCHI Satoshi; YOSHIMI Taiyo
    Abstract: Recent empirical studies explore factors behind the currency invoicing pattern in exports of listed firms by using questionnaire surveys; however, there is insufficient evidence regarding small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). We conducted a questionnaire survey for 2,100 unlisted manufacturers engaged in exports during the 2010s and received responses from 300 firms. By constructing a database with invoice currency choice and trade partner by export destination, we empirically examine the determinants of invoice currency choice in export using the probit model estimation. We confirm that the major determinants of currency invoicing in existing research effectively work as determinants of currency invoicing by SMEs. After controlling for various determinants, we found that financial constraints play an important role in their invoice currency choice. The firms with deteriorated capital ratios and rapid sales growth depend more on the producer's currency invoicing. The results are confirmed through a robustness test using detailed financial data, showing that the firms with lower capital ratios, lower liquidity positions, and greater investment opportunities tend to use the producer's currency invoicing. These novel findings are consistent with the predictions from the theoretical research on the bargaining model of currency invoicing and corporate risk management for hedging.
    Date: 2021–10
  13. By: José Pereira (Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setúbal/IPS); Artur Graxinha (ESTS/IPS)
    Abstract: A major topic that can dictate the success of the Industrial Internet of the Things (IIoT) is obviously related with the new challenges that arise in engineering education. New skills and knowledge are required for future engineers that must incorporate a broader range of abilities and qualifications. Students? social attitudes and collaborative working in multidisciplinary teams must also be properly addressed and stimulated during graduation. In this context, scientific and technological competences must be complemented with computing, communication, and even social, sustainability, social impact and behavioral science knowledges. The typical engineering knowledge core of math, physics and chemistry, must be substantially expanded. Students? curricula must be arranged according to these new required competences and skills and must emphasize students? attitudes, as well as communication capabilities.This paper underlines some teaching strategies that can be considered to maximize the skills and the capabilities of future engineers for the Industrial Internet of the Things and Industry 4.0, including lifelong learning that must be a continuous activity of any engineering graduate.
    Keywords: education; engineering; IIoT; Industry 4.0
    JEL: I23 I29 A00
    Date: 2021–10
  14. By: Fockaert, Lysander; Mathijs, Erik; Vranken, Liesbet
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–08
  15. By: Annabelle Mourougane; Sebastian Benz; Frédéric Gonzales
    Abstract: Services play a more important role in trade and employment in the United Kingdom than in most other OECD countries. The UK services sector is supported by an open and transparent trade regime, policies that support competition and innovation, and regulatory transparency that facilitates the creation of new services businesses and start-ups. That said, certain barriers to services trade remain. This report sheds light on the role of services trade in the UK economy, describing recent trends and highlighting future challenges, and explores policy options to support a sustainable recovery from the COVID-19 crisis.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Services Trade Restrictiveness Index
    JEL: F13 F14 F15 F68 L80 O52
    Date: 2021–11–22
  16. By: Chaudhary, Amit (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: Misallocation of resources in an economy makes firms less productive. I document the roles of heterogeneity, sorting, and complementarity in a framework where workers, managers, and firms interact to shape productivity. The approach I follow uses the movement of workers and managers across firms to identify the distribution of productivity. I webscraped novel microdata of crime reports from the Indian police department and combined them with the worker-level measurement of productivity. Using this data I show that the third source of heterogeneity in the form of manager ability is an important driver of differences in firm productivity. I empirically identify complementarities between workers, managers, and firms using my estimation methodology. Counterfactual results show that reallocating workers by applying a positive assortative sorting rule can increase police department productivity by 10%.
    Date: 2021
  17. By: Baha, Michael; Henningsen, Arne; Elleby, Christian; Mlay, Gilead
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2021–08

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