nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2021‒10‒04
eight papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Impact of Venture Capital Expenditures on Innovation in Europe By Leogrande, Angelo; Costantiello, Alberto; Laureti, Lucio
  2. Combining knowledge bases for system innovation in regions: Insights from an East German case study By Friedrich, Christoph; Feser, Daniel
  3. Information leakage, imitation, and the patent system By Czarnitzki, Dirk; van Criekingen, Kristof
  4. Measuring the Impact of Urban Innovation Districts By Fatime Barbara Hegyi; Manran Zhu; Milan Janosov
  5. Some Efficiency Aspects of Monopolistic Competition: Innovation, Variety and Transaction costs By Todorova, Tamara
  6. The struggle of small firms to retain high-skill workers: Job duration and importance of knowledge intensity By Hugo Castro-Silva; Francisco Lima
  7. The consequences of intrapreneurship in exporting firms: a structural-model approach By Gonçalo Nuno Rodrigues Brás; Miguel Torres Preto
  8. Open Innovation’s “Multiunit Back-End Problem”: How Corporations Can Overcome Business Unit Rivalry By Sea Matilda Bez; Sea Bez; Frédéric Le Roy; Johanna Gast; Thuy Seran; Sea Matilda Bez

  1. By: Leogrande, Angelo; Costantiello, Alberto; Laureti, Lucio
    Abstract: We investigate the relationship between “Venture Capital Expenditures” and innovation in Europe. Data are collected from the European Innovation Scoreboard for 36 countries in the period 2010-2019. We perform Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, Pooled OLS, WLS, Dynamic Panel. Results show that the level of Venture Capitalist Expenditure is positively associated to “Foreign Doctorate Students” and “Innovation Index” and negatively related to “Government Procurement of Advanced Technology Products”, “Innovators”, “Medium and High-Tech Products Exports”, “Public-Private Co-Publications”. In adjunct, cluster analysis is realized with the algorithm k-Means and the Silhouette coefficient, and we found the presence of four different clusters for the level of “Venture Capital Expenditures”. Finally, we propose a confrontation among 8 different algorithms of machine learning to predict the level of “Venture Capital Expenditures” and we find that the linear regression generates the best results in terms of minimization of MAE, MSE, RMSE.
    Keywords: Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives, Management of Technological Innovation and R&D, Technological Change: Choices and Consequences, Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital, Open Innovation, Government Policy.
    JEL: O30 O31 O32 O33 O34 O38 O39
    Date: 2021–09–25
  2. By: Friedrich, Christoph; Feser, Daniel
    Abstract: A growing number of economic geography scholars have discussed the spatial dimensions of sustainability innovation in socio-technical systems to overcome societal, economic, and ecological problems. This research usually focuses on businesses in the knowledge economy and success factors. However, sustainability innovation involves the collaboration of upstreaming process stages and open innovation processes with a broad range of different actors. Innovation intermediaries, such as universities and research institutes, are needed to support and accelerate the transfer of knowledge. Nevertheless, little is known about the influence of the cognitive and institutional diversity of actors on the configuration of knowledge bases required for sustainability innovation. This article presents insights from 16 semi-structured expert interviews conducted in a regional innovation system (RIS) in East Germany. We investigate four innovation intermediaries in the region of Eberswalde in cooperation with the Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development. The analytical framework links the concept of differentiated knowledge bases to sustainability transitions and sustainability-oriented knowledge transfer. Our results show that, first, in the Eberswalde region, the relevant actors involved in regional knowledge transfer predominantly focus on synthetic knowledge bases, such as experience-based knowledge of local area settings. Second, symbolic knowledge bases are crucial and often prerequisites for intermediary organizations to recombine knowledge bases and support the capability to innovate in regional knowledge transfer. Symbolic knowledge contains, in particular, the ability to translate scientific findings to a language that can be understood by the various actors in knowledge transfer. Third, organizational innovation complements social innovation to support innovation on a systemic level and foster change processes.
    Keywords: Knowledge bases,system innovation,knowledge transfer,innovation intermediation,sustainability transition
    JEL: D02 D80 O12 P48 Q56 R11
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Czarnitzki, Dirk; van Criekingen, Kristof
    Abstract: From a firm's perspective two competing forces are driving the decision to invest in innovation. On the one hand, innovative performance is an important driver of profitability and growth. On the other hand, investments in innovation suffer from negative externalities, i.e. spillovers to other firms, and hence imitation could be induced. To preempt imitation firms may protect their inventions by means of intellectual property rights, such as patents. By taking out a patent, however, a firm also conveys information about the functioning of the invention to competitors. In this empirical paper, we highlight the trade-off of patenting by setting up a recursive system of equations on knowledge leakage and imitation that, among other factors, may be partly determined by firms' patenting activity. Thereby we contribute to the debate on the functioning of the contemporary patent system. We find that patenting firms are being less confronted with imitation. The effect of patents on the dissemination of R&D findings is, however, insignificant. Therefore, we conclude that patent disclosures do not significantly harm the appropriability conditions for inventions, but help to protect, at least partly, against imitation, as it has been originally envisaged by policy.
    Keywords: Innovation,R&D,Imitation,Dissemination,Patents
    JEL: O31 O33 O34 O38
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Fatime Barbara Hegyi (European Commission - JRC); Manran Zhu (Central European University); Milan Janosov (Datapolis)
    Abstract: Despite their significant impact on social and economic development, innovation districts are facing challenges due to inadequacy of policies in terms of horizontal and vertical coordination or due to the lack of integrative policy approach. Strategic and targeted policy support leads to the acceleration of the growth of innovation districts, impacting the development of cities in general. To reach the potential of innovation districts in benefiting their local communities and in enabling greater collaboration, in creating jobs, and in promoting regional competitiveness, it is important to facilitate the positive externalities created by innovation districts through targeted policies. Hence the publication proposes a generic and algorithmic methodology to identify and measure the success of innovation districts. To achieve this, different sets of large-scale geospatial data have been combined with well-established machine learning methods and in-depth statistical analysis. As a result, a quantitative methodology is presented that can support the policy-making process in the identification of urban areas with a high concentration of innovation activities and with high potential for growth. First, this methodology allows the identification of such areas. Second, an evaluation framework is proposed that captures the success of these areas based on their economic performance. Third, these results are combined with descriptive statistical features to understand the main differentiators between successful and unsuccessful areas. This exploratory research aims at providing a set of methods and findings that heavily build on recent advances on using large-scale datasets and data science to understand social problems, and in particular, the key driving indicators of deprivation and success of various entities, such as urban areas with high concentration of innovation activities.
    Keywords: innovation districts, cities, urban development, data science
    Date: 2021–09
  5. By: Todorova, Tamara
    Abstract: We stress some efficiency aspects of monopolistic competition justifying it on account of its tendency to innovate and the questionable excess capacity paradigm. Some further efficiency aspects revealed are product variety and transaction cost savings. We view the monopolistically competitive firm as an essential source of technological innovation, product variety and cost economies. While perfect competition is universally considered a benchmark and a social optimum, we consider it a strongly unrealistic theoretical setup where the monopolistically, rather than the perfectly, competitive firm turns out to be the true type of competition and social optimum in the real world of positive transaction costs. The monopolistically competitive firm not only offers product variety and innovation but is the optimal institutional arrangement under positive transaction costs.
    Keywords: efficiency; innovation; variety; monopolistic competition; perfect competition; transaction costs
    JEL: D23 D24 D43 L13 O3
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Hugo Castro-Silva (Universidade de Lisboa); Francisco Lima (Universidade de Lisboa)
    Abstract: In the knowledge economy, skilled workers play an important role in innovation and economic growth. However, small firms may not be able to keep these workers. We study how the knowledge-skill complementarity relates to job duration in small and large firms, using a Portuguese linked employer-employee data set. We select workers displaced by firm closure and estimate a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity on the subsequent job relationship. To account for the initial sorting of displaced workers to firms, we introduce weights in the model according to the individual propensity of employment in a small firm. Our results show a lower premium on skills in terms of job duration for small firms. Furthermore, we find evidence of a strong knowledge-skill complementarity in large firms, where the accumulation of firm-specific human capital also plays a more important role in determining the hazard of job separation. For small firms, the complementarity does not translate into longer job duration, even for those with pay policies above the market. Overall, small knowledge-intensive firms struggle to retain high skill workers and find it harder to leverage the knowledge-skill complementarity.
    Keywords: knowledge intensity, technology, firm size, small firms, job duration, skills
    JEL: A1
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Gonçalo Nuno Rodrigues Brás (Universidade de Lisboa , IN+, LARSyS, Instituto Superior Técnico; Univ Coimbra, Center for Business and Economics Research, CeBER, Faculty of Economics); Miguel Torres Preto (Universidade de Lisboa , IN+, LARSyS, Instituto Superior Técnico)
    Abstract: A number of recent scientific articles have studied the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and firm’s performance, though not all came in the scope of international entrepreneurship (IE). Researchers often test mediating or moderating variables that help explain this relationship. The extensive academic findings lead us to a wide range of mediating/moderating variables and to a lack of consensus in this domain. This study is in scope of IE literature, and it aims to provide new and robust insights supported by consistent empirical findings and to adopt this structural-model approach as a reference in the absence of academic consensus. Specifically, the paper examines the contribution of intrapreneurship to both the firm’s international orientation (IO) and performance in light of the IE guidelines. To this end, we examine how the EO of Portuguese exporters influences corporate performance taking into account the meditating effect of their IO on the EO – performance association through structural equation modelling. Results confirm that IO positively and significantly mediates the relationship between EO and corporate performance. EO and IO were also found to have a direct and positive effect on corporate performance. These findings confirm the relevance of intrapreneurship and international commitment to a better organisational performance and gives us empirical support to conclude that effort taken in these domains could enhance the exporters’ performance. Moreover, this study makes an empirical and theoretical contribution to the IE topic and therefore aims to be a reference to the literature in this domain.
    Keywords: Intrapreneurship, Entrepreneurial orientation, International orientation, Performance, Exporting firms.
    JEL: L26 L25
    Date: 2021–06
  8. By: Sea Matilda Bez (MRM - Montpellier Research in Management - UM - Université de Montpellier - Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier (GSCM) - Montpellier Business School - UM1 - Université Montpellier 1 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - UM2 - Université Montpellier 2 - Sciences et Techniques - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3, Labex Entreprendre - UM - Université de Montpellier); Sea Bez; Frédéric Le Roy; Johanna Gast; Thuy Seran; Sea Matilda Bez
    Abstract: This article examines the "multiunit back-end problem" of open innovation based on a case study of the Banque Populaire Caisse d'Epargne (BPCE) Group, a large French bank with two business units. The multiunit back-end problem occurs when internal business units who consider themselves rivals are asked to collaborate for the success of an open innovation initiative. BPCE failed several times to use external startups to accelerate its digital transformation due to rivalry between its internal business units. This article presents guidelines that firms with rival business units can use to align their front-end and back-end when working with startups to accelerate their digital transformation program.
    Keywords: multiunit back-end problem,rivalry between units,competitive advantage,backend and front-end of open innovation,digital innovation,open innovation,start-up program,multiunit organization,internal coopetition
    Date: 2021–02

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