nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2021‒09‒20
nine papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Geography of Breakthrough Innovation in the United States over the 20th Century By Christopher Esposito; ;
  2. The Prerequisites for Increasing the R&D Activity of Companies in Finland By Ali-Yrkkö, Jyrki; Halme, Kimmo; Deschryvere, Matthias; Lehenkari, Janne; Piirainen, Kalle; Suominen, Arho
  3. The impact of the six European Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) on regional knowledge creation By Colin Wessendorf; Alexander Kopka; Dirk Fornahl
  4. The Role Of CEO Characteristics In Firm Innovative Performance: A Comparative Analysis Of EU Countries And Russia By Fernanda Ricotta; Victoria Golikova; Boris Kuznetsov
  5. Cooperation and business innovation in the marketers companies of the agro-industrial sector in Bucaramanga and its metropolitan area By Karen Dayanna Ramírez Quiroga; Gisela Leidy Galván
  6. Intellectual Capital, and Knowledge Processes for Organizational Innovativeness across Industries: The Case of Poland – the full version of a study published in JIC By Wioleta Kucharska
  7. Who develops AI-related innovations, goods and services?: A firm-level analysis By Hélène Dernis; Laurent Moussiegt; Daisuke Nawa; Mariagrazia Squicciarini
  8. Public Service Innovation Network for Social Innovation: A European overview By Céline Merlin-Brogniart; Lars Fuglsang; Ada Scupola; Anne Hansen; Rolf Rønning; Siv Magnussen; Alberto Peralta; Miklós Rosta; Márton Katona; Éva Révész
  9. Linking real estate data with entrepreneurial ecosystems: Coworking spaces, funding and founding activity of start-ups By Gauger, Felix; Strych, Jan-Oliver; Pfnür, Andreas

  1. By: Christopher Esposito; ;
    Abstract: Over the 20th century, the geography of breakthrough innovation in the United States – defined as the spatial distribution of the production of patents that are both novel and impactful – underwent three broad changes. At the start of the 20th century, breakthrough innovation was concentrated in populous and knowledge-diverse metropolitan areas. By the 1930s, breakthroughs were created less frequently across the entire country and so their invention had a less distinct geography. The substantial creation of breakthroughs resumed in the 1960s and was once their invention was concentrated in large and knowledge metropolitan areas. However, during the latter part of the century the invention of breakthroughs also frequently involved long-distance collaborations between inventors. In this paper, I document these historical changes to the geography of breakthrough innovation and propose a model to explain why they occurred. The model suggests that the geography of breakthroughs is established by four factors: (1) the prevailing knowledge intensity of breakthrough inventions, (2) the distance- based frictions incurred by technologies used for collaboration, (3) the distance-based frictions incurred by the technologies used for knowledge-sourcing, and (4) the disruptiveness of the regime of technological change. I generate support for the model, and conclude the paper by discussing lessons that the 20th century’s geography of breakthrough innovation provide for anticipating possible futures for the geography of innovation in the 21st century, including in the years beyond COVID-19.
    Date: 2021–09
  2. By: Ali-Yrkkö, Jyrki; Halme, Kimmo; Deschryvere, Matthias; Lehenkari, Janne; Piirainen, Kalle; Suominen, Arho
    Abstract: Abstract This study focuses on factors affecting companies’ research and development (R&D), Finland as a location for R&D activities, and R&D intensity (R&D/GDP). According to our results, R&D investments are increasing in Finland but the R&D intensity will not reach 4 % target by 2030. Our results showed that Sweden, Estonia (and to some extent other Baltic countries), and Germany are Finland’s main competitors regarding the location of R&D investments. The key factors affecting R&D location are the availability of R&D personnel, and the geographical proximity to the companies’ other units and customers. We recommend comprehensive and long-term innovation policy which considers policy actions – not only affecting the increase of R&D and its impacts – but also the increase of capabilities. It should be noted, however, that rather than the ultimate target, R&D is a means to reach other goals.
    Keywords: R&D, Research, Development, Target, Location, Factors, Private, Company, Firm, Competition
    JEL: D22 D25 E22 F23 H25 O3 O32 O38
    Date: 2021–09–09
  3. By: Colin Wessendorf; Alexander Kopka; Dirk Fornahl
    Abstract: The European Commission summarized six young General Purpose Technologies (GPTs) under the label of European Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) in 2009. GPTs are broad, pervasive and widely diffused technologies that enable knowledge creation and economic growth. This study analyzes to what extent the KETs’ structural relevance within their regional knowledge bases leads to regional knowledge creation. Additionally, we analyze whether the structural relevance and the regional knowledge presence in KETs interact with regards to regional knowledge creation. The ‘structure’ of a regional knowledge base describes the relation of all knowledge being present within a given region, while ‘structural relevance’ describes a technology’s impact on the structure. Our analysis focuses on the time period from 1986-2015 and includes Germany’s 141 Labor Market Regions (LMRs) as regional spatial units. Our database consists of patent data from which we map the structure of the regional knowledge bases, by constructing technological spaces based on technology co-occurrences on patents. The structural relevance is operationalized with the help of Social Network Analysis (SNA), by measuring the changes that the removal of KETs causes in the structure of technological spaces. Our findings indicate that KETs enable knowledge creation in different ways. They show that the effects of KETs on regional knowledge creation activities are KET-specific. Furthermore, it proves essential to distinguish between ‘knowledge presence’ and ‘structural knowledge relevance’ when addressing the innovation-spawning function of KETs. Thus, for both further research and for policy-making, it is a fundamental requirement to address KET-driven knowledge creation in particular KET-specific ways.
    Keywords: General purpose technologies, GPT, key enabling technologies, KET, regional innovation, regional knowledge base, knowledge space, technological space, technological integration, German regions
    JEL: O31 O33 R11 R58
    Date: 2021–09
  4. By: Fernanda Ricotta (University of Calabria); Victoria Golikova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Boris Kuznetsov (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate whether CEO characteristics (owner-manager status, age and gender) influence firm innovative performance and test empirically if the effect differs for market and transition economies. We use cross-sectional data of manufacturing firms in six EU countries and in Russia. To address heterogeneity, we explore innovation performance by size among SMEs and large businesses and by Pavitt sector. In both institutional settings, the presence of a family CEO either has no effect or improves innovative performance. On the contrary, the role of CEO gender is different in Russia and in the EU. In the EU, female CEOs are associated with less innovation, especially in SMEs and in the traditional sector. In Russia, CEO gender is not associated with differences in innovative performance and when it is (for the traditional sector), it favors female-run firms. For CEO age, considering product innovations, the oldest group of CEOs are less active in European firms while mature CEOs are more innovative in Russia.
    Keywords: CEO age, gender, manager-owner status, innovation, manufacturing firms
    JEL: D21 L60 P50
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Karen Dayanna Ramírez Quiroga (UDI - Universidad de Investigación y Desarrollo); Gisela Leidy Galván (UDI - Universidad de Investigación y Desarrollo)
    Abstract: This document delves into the high levels of cooperation that increase the levels of innovation for the agro-industrial sector of Bucaramanga and its metropolitan area. A methodology was used with a quantitative approach, non-experimental type, cross-sectional with correlational scope, in which two variables were related: business cooperation and innovation, through the assessment and study of associativity indicators, the dynamics were also established and impact on the functioning of these variables in the marketers, by collecting information with the help of surveys taken from a sample of 40 organizations, which allowed the correlation between the variables with the help of the SPPS software. The results made it possible to establish improvement actions in the trading companies, obtaining a positive impact on the sector, proposing strategic programs, influencing continuous improvement and increasing competitiveness.
    Abstract: El presente documento ahonda en los altos niveles de cooperación que aumentan los niveles de innovación para el sector agroindustrial de Bucaramanga y su área metropolitana. Se utilizó una metodología con enfoque cuantitativo, de tipo no experimental, de corte transversal con alcance correlacional, en el cual se relacionaron dos variables: cooperación empresarial e innovación, a través de la valoración y estudio de indicadores de asociatividad, también se estableció la dinámica e impacto en el funcionamiento de dichas variables en las comercializadoras, mediante la recolección de información con la ayuda de encuestas tomadas a una muestra de 40 organizaciones, lo que permitió la correlación entre las variables con la ayuda del software SPPS. Los resultados permitieron establecer acciones de mejoras en las comercializadoras obteniendo un impacto positivo en el sector, proponiendo programas estratégicos, influyendo en la mejora continua y el aumento de la competitividad.
    Keywords: Cooperation,innovation,correlation,Cooperación,innovación,correlación Cooperation
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Wioleta Kucharska (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland)
    Abstract: Purpose: This study aims to present the overview of intellectual capital creation micro-mechanisms concerning formal and informal knowledge processes. The organizational culture, transformational leadership, and innovativeness are also included in the investigation as ascendants and consequences of the focal relation of intellectual capital and knowledge processes. Method: The empirical model was developed using the structural equation modeling (SEM) method based on a sample of 1,418 Polish knowledge workers employed in the construction, healthcare, higher education (HE), and information technology (IT) industries. Findings: The study exposes that the essence of transformational leadership innovativeness oriented is developing all intellectual capital components. To do so, leaders must support both formal and informal knowledge processes through the organizational culture of knowledge and learning. Furthermore, for best results of the knowledge transformation into intellectual capital, the learning culture must be shaped by both components: learning climate and acceptance of mistakes. Originality: This study presents the "big picture" of all intellectual capital creation micro- mechanisms linking transformational leadership with organizational innovativeness and explains the "knowledge paradox" identified by Mabey and Zhao (2017). This explanation assumes that intellectual capital components are created informally (i.e., human, and relational ones) and formally (i.e., structural ones). Therefore, for best effects, both formal and informal knowledge processes must be supported. Furthermore, this study exposes that the intensity of all explored micro-mechanisms is industry-specific. Implications: Presented findings can be directly applied to organizations to enhance innovativeness. Namely, leaders who observe that the more knowledge is formally managed in their organizations, the less effective the knowledge exchange is - should put more effort into supporting informal knowledge processes to develop human and relational intellectual capital components smoothly. Shortly, leaders need to implement an authentic learning culture, including the mistakes acceptance component, to use the full organizational potential to achieve intellectual capital growth. Intellectual capital growth is essential for innovativeness.
    Keywords: learning culture, knowledge culture, transformational leadership, innovations, intellectual capital, tacit knowledge, knowledge processes, healthcare industry, higher education, IT industry, construction industry, gender studies
    Date: 2021–09
  7. By: Hélène Dernis (OECD); Laurent Moussiegt (OECD); Daisuke Nawa (OECD); Mariagrazia Squicciarini (OECD)
    Abstract: This study proposes an exploratory analysis of the characteristics of Artificial Intelligence (AI) “actors”. It focuses on entities that deploy AI-related technologies or introduce AI-related goods and services on large international markets. It builds on the OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Micro-data Lab infrastructure, and, in particular, on Intellectual Property (IP) rights data (patents and trademarks) combined with company-level data. Statistics on AI-related patents and trademarks show that AI-related activities are strongly concentrated in some countries, sectors, and actors. Development of AI technologies and/or goods and services is mainly due to start-ups or large incumbents, located in the United States, Japan, Korea, or the People’s Republic of China, and, to a lesser extent, in Europe. A majority of these actors operate in ICT-related sectors. The composition of the IP portfolio of the AI actors indicates that AI is frequently combined with a variety of sector-specific technologies, goods, or services.
    Date: 2021–09–22
  8. By: Céline Merlin-Brogniart (CLERSÉ - Centre Lillois d’Études et de Recherches Sociologiques et Économiques - UMR 8019 - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Lars Fuglsang (Roskilde University); Ada Scupola (Roskilde University); Anne Hansen (Roskilde University); Rolf Rønning (The Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences); Siv Magnussen (The Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences); Alberto Peralta (UAH - Universidad de Alcalá - University of Alcalá); Miklós Rosta (Corvinus University of Budapest); Márton Katona (Corvinus University of Budapest); Éva Révész (Corvinus University of Budapest)
    Abstract: In the context of the modernization of public management in Europe, the attention paid to social entrepreneurs for innovation is increasingly important. This paper reveals that these actors significantly contribute to the development of collaborative governance aimed at improving social innovation related to public service through their role as initiator, boundary spanner or network leader. However, the public sector actors involved in the governance also have a significant role to play in enabling these innovations to emerge. This paper analyzes the forms and processes of innovation taken by this multi-actors collaborative governance. It is based on the study of 25 case studies associated with five countries of the European Union.
    Date: 2021–01–21
  9. By: Gauger, Felix; Strych, Jan-Oliver; Pfnür, Andreas
    Abstract: This data article describes a panel dataset that combines flexible office space market data with entrepreneurial data, such as founding and funding of ventures in 47 European cities. One adaption of new ways of working are coworking spaces. They are shared working environments that offer office space and intangible resources, such as knowledge sharing, collaboration and networking. Access to flexible office space for self-employed, start-ups, and corporates is a key resource for businesses. Covid-19 has shown that space provision is becoming more flexible and ventures increasingly use scalable space instead of long-term lease agreements for office space or than owning it. Deskmag counts 18,700 coworking spaces worldwide in the year of 2018 with 1.65 million coworkers and high future growth expectations after COVID-19 [1]. Data were collected through two sources. Data about coworking spaces were collected through a web scraper crawling for coworking spaces within a city as of December 31, 2018. Those data were manually enriched by real estate and economic variables, such as the office high prime rent and office market size. Data about the funding and founding of ventures were obtained through using the database Crunchbase, including all start-ups in a city with their type of funding (including: seed, venture capital, private equity, debt convertibles and others) and their financing rounds. The Crunchbase database lists mostly young firms, commonly called start-ups and small medium enterprises (SME), and their financing with external funding. It includes firms that have needed or might need funding in the near future, or have already got funding. Hence, it is possible to relate spatial clusters with entrepreneurial activity and analyze for example the influence of (flexible) office markets on founding activity. This dataset enables researchers and practitioners to further explore important questions regarding the nexus between the real estate industry, entrepreneurship behavior, start-ups and regional clusters. Due to the scarcity of publicly available quality flexible office space market data, the dataset detailed in this article may play a relevant role to be ready to be used by researchers and practitioners. Funding data can be used for regional analysis, growth development, or any other economic issues.
    Date: 2021

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