nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2021‒08‒30
ten papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Innovation Strategy and Economic Development By Matias Braun; Luis Felipe Cespedes; Sebastian Bustos
  2. Model-Selection Inference for Causal Impact of Clusters and Collaboration on MSMEs in India By Samarth Gupta
  3. Moderating effect of culture on the relationship between knowledge management and organizational performance in the university context. By Ouail Kharraz; Yassine Boussenna
  4. Scaling up in Entrepreneurial Ecosystems: A comparative study of Entrepreneurial Ecosystems in Life Science By Alvedalen, Janna; Carlsson, Bo
  5. Resource-Based Approaches: A Framework for Analyzing Competitiveness in the Context of Reverse Logistics By Asmaa Bentamar; Kacem Taj; Omar Ourahou
  6. Open Innovation Business Models : the example of living labs in France By Ingrid Fasshauer
  7. Is Being Competitive Always an Advantage? Degrees of Competitiveness, Gender, and Premature Work Contract Termination By Samuel Lüthi; Stefan C. Wolter
  8. Linking the ‘Recovery and Resilience Plan’ and Smart Specialisation. The Portuguese Case By Anabela Santos
  9. Start-ups, Gender Disparities, and the Fintech Revolution in Latin America By Batiz-Lazo, Bernardo; González-Correa, Ignacio
  10. The development of human capital through organisational change and motivation By Zouhair El Arhlabi

  1. By: Matias Braun; Luis Felipe Cespedes; Sebastian Bustos
    Abstract: Productivity differentials have been documented as the main determinant of the variation of income per capita across countries. In this paper, we investigate whether the implementation of innovation-intensive or adoption-intensive business strategies by firms can explain differences in productivity levels and productivity growth across industries and countries. We compute a novel innovation-intensity strategy index for firms, based on textual analysis of financial reports issued in the US by firms from developed and developing countries and from a wide range of industries. We show that the index captures dimensions of the innovation process implemented by firms that go beyond R&D efforts. Our empirical results indicate that firms that pursue an innovation-based strategy exhibit higher productivity levels compared to firms that follow an adoption-based strategy. Nonetheless, the optimal business strategy depends on the distance to the world technology frontier. Firms far from the frontier grow faster when implementing an adoption-based strategy, but an innovation-based strategy better suits firms closer to the technological frontier. We provide evidence indicating that a country’s financial market sophistication, competition policy and innovation capabilities –such as educational level, availability of scientists and engineers, and intellectual property protection– are key determinants of the strategy implemented by firms. The empirical evidence suggests that middle-income traps may occur if competition policy, innovation capabilities and financial market sophistication are not enhanced as a country moves closer to the technology frontier.
    Date: 2021–08
  2. By: Samarth Gupta (National Council of Applied Economic Research)
    Abstract: Do agglomeration-based spillovers impact firms more than the technical know-how obtained through inter-firm collaboration? Quantifying the effect of these treatments on firm performance can be valuable for policy-makers as well as managers/entrepreneurs. I observe the universe of Indian MSMEs inside an industrial cluster but with no collaboration (Treatment Group 1), those in collaboration with other firms for technical know-how but outside a cluster (Treatment Group 2) and those outside cluster with no collaboration (Control Group). Selection of firms into these treatments and sub-sequent performance of the firm may be simultaneously driven by observable factors. To address selection bias and overcome model mis-specifcation, I use two data-driven, model-selection methods, developed in Belloni et al. (2013) and Chernozhukov et al.(2015), to estimate causal impact of the treatments on GVA of ?rms. The results suggest that ATE of cluster and collaboration is nearly equal at 30%. I conclude by offering policy implications of the results.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Firm Performance, SME
    JEL: L25 L26
    Date: 2020–08
  3. By: Ouail Kharraz (UAE, ENCG Tanger -Groupe de recherche "Management & Systèmes d'information"-); Yassine Boussenna (GRMSI - UAE, ENCG Tanger -Groupe de recherche "Management & Systèmes d'information"- - UAE, ENCG Tanger -Groupe de recherche "Management & Systèmes d'information"-)
    Abstract: The huge amount of information in our daily life and the continuous work to organize and use it in the best possible way has led to the emergence of knowledge management. This work has two main objectives, first we test the existence of a correlation relationship between the application of knowledge management and organizational performance of Abdelmalek Essaadi University, and secondly, we verify the moderating role of organizational culture on the intensity of this relationship, by collecting the views of the Abdelmalek Essaadi University teacher-researchers, through a hypothetico-deductive reasoning approach and a quantitative working method. Our questionnaire was administered to a representative sample of 88 teacher-researchers from the different institutions of the university under study. The results obtained show a strong correlation between knowledge management and organizational performance. Also, the results confirm the moderating and positive role of organizational culture, on the intensity of the relationship between the application of the K.M and (Training, research, publication, and governance) as indicators of organizational performance retained in this work for the university in question.
    Keywords: organizational culture,knowledge management,organizational performance
    Date: 2021–07–29
  4. By: Alvedalen, Janna (CIRCLE, Lund University); Carlsson, Bo (Case Western Reserve University)
    Abstract: Scaling-up is still underexplored in the Entrepreneurial Ecosystem literature. This paper presents a comparative analysis of five Entrepreneurial Ecosystems in Life Sciences in Sweden and the US, based on own data collection. It examines the factors that support or impede the scale-up process of firms in different geographical contexts. The paper outlines firm-specific and firm-external factors important to high-growth firms in Life Science and shows these factors differentiate across distinct geographical contexts. The study sheds light on key enablers and barriers to scaling-up in Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and the roles of different actors including growth ambition, technological expertise, management competence, business model alteration, funding, global firms, human capital, support organizations, local growth culture, hospitals and universities.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial Ecosystem; scale-up; high-growth firms; Life Sciences; Sweden; U.S.
    JEL: L26 M21 O33
    Date: 2021–08–20
  5. By: Asmaa Bentamar (UH2MC - Université Hassan II [Casablanca]); Kacem Taj (UH2MC - Université Hassan II [Casablanca]); Omar Ourahou (UH2MC - Université Hassan II [Casablanca])
    Abstract: In a constantly changing society, organizations must adapt and be open to change. Reactivity, variety, costs, deadlines, innovation, increase their competitiveness, increase their flexibility and improve their performance. The approach by resources and capacities is a framework for analyzing competitive advantage. However, the contributions of this approach to the problem of reverse logistics are multiple. The main ambition of this article is therefore to provide a summary of the conceptual contributions. This literature review will allow analysis of the main relationships between resources, capacities and knowledge management and how these approaches can influence the competitiveness of the company, a discussion on the research perspective are presented and conceptual models are proposed.
    Keywords: Resources,Capacities,Competitiveness,Reverse logistics
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Ingrid Fasshauer (Université Gustave Eiffel, DICEN-IDF - Dispositifs d'Information et de Communication à l'Ère du Numérique - Paris Île-de-France - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] - Université Gustave Eiffel)
    Abstract: Livings labs, emerging forms of collaborative innovation including users in their real-life context, are more and more numerous in France. Even if part of them is organized in a network, they are very diverse in terms of portage, legal structure and above all business model. The latter is all the more crucial since Schuurman (2015) notes a mortality rate of 40% on living labs labeled by the largest network of living labs, European Network of Living Labs (ENoLL). A large number of living labs thus have an unwanted temporary nature (Leminen et al., 2012). Based on a survey, it highlights that three forms of value are generated by the living labs studied: knowledge creation, social impact and economic value. Revenues can be exclusively public, exclusively private or mixed. As for the sharing of value, it is a concern for several living labs which respond by ensuring the dissemination of their innovations to a wide audience. Only research-oriented laboratories have intellectual property protection practices. By taking these three dimensions into account, we propose a typology distinguishing between four categories of living labs.
    Keywords: Living Lab,Open Innovation,Business Model,Value sharing
    Date: 2020–09–02
  7. By: Samuel Lüthi; Stefan C. Wolter
    Abstract: In this study, we examine the influence of competitiveness on the stability of labour relations using the example of premature employment and training contract termination in the apprenticeship education sector. The paper extends the small but growing evidence on the external relevance of competitiveness by analysing gender differences in the correlation between competitiveness and labour market success and whether these effects depend on how the students’ propensity to compete is measured. By matching a large experimental dataset with administrative data identifying contract terminations, we find that both gender and test specification matter. While competitive men assigned to a difficult competitiveness task are less likely to drop out of the contract than non competitive men, there is no such effect observable for those assigned to the easier task. On the other hand, competitive women are more likely to drop out than non competitive women, irrespective of how competitiveness is measured.
    Keywords: competitiveness, non-cognitive skills, gender, apprenticeship
    JEL: C90 J16 J24
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Anabela Santos (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: Based on the case study of Portugal, the present study aims to analyse the alignment of investments in the Portuguese ‘Recovery and Resilience Plan’ with the Smart Specialisation Strategies priorities (2021-2027) of this territory, and then identify opportunities for potential synergies and complementary between funding instruments. With the information available in the Plan and its annex, a detailed analysis is performed to identify investments able to enhance Research & Development, and Innovation and/or to improve the regional innovation eco-systems. The analysis shows that up to €6 Billion of the Plan (37%) may potentially support directly and indirectly the Smart Specialisation in Portugal. However, the effect of such contribution will strongly depend on the final beneficiaries, projects selected, absorption capacity, and governance model. The paper also explains the relevance of Smart Specialisation in the Covid-19 recovery and draft some policy recommendations.
    Keywords: Covid-19 crisis; Innovation; Government Policy; Portugal.
    JEL: E32 O31 G38
    Date: 2021–08
  9. By: Batiz-Lazo, Bernardo; González-Correa, Ignacio
    Abstract: This chapter considers the process of entrepreneurial activity to deploy financial technologies (fintech) through mandate-specific new companies in Latin America. We deal with important historical issues such as defining the term, establishing temporal and industrial activity boundaries, positioning this particular process within other organizational forms typical of the region, the role of women and other relevant issues such as the modernization of retail payments and personal lending. A central question is whether fintech start-ups have had a 'scissor' effect in the entrepreneurial process of Latin America: at the base of the pyramid (that is, reducing frictions to support overall entrepreneurial activity, increasing financial inclusion, etc.) and near the top (by creating new business leaders). As a result, this chapter provides an initial assessment of gender disparities and barriers enabling women entrepreneurs in the fintech ecosystem.
    Keywords: fintech, gender, women, entrepreneurship, startups, Latin America
    JEL: G2 J16 M13 N26
    Date: 2021–08
  10. By: Zouhair El Arhlabi (Université Mohammed V de Rabat [Agdal])
    Abstract: The term human capital is seen as a key element in enhancing an organization's assets. It refers to the set of employees with sustainable competitive advantages that increase the efficiency and performance of their company. Some organizational specialists, such as Henry MINTZBERG or Michel CROZIER, apply the rules of human capital theory to prove their ability to create competition between companies by developing individual human resources. Several studies have studied the role of human capital in the organization and its impact on the company and on the motivation of its staff, in particular those of (PAUL & SUSAN 1996) and (MORIN & AUBE 2007). The present work is therefore a collection of knowledge and previous work aimed at shedding light on this topic. This work indicates that the common index, proving to be crucial at all levels of change management in the organization, is human competence. Those who work in the core center of the organization need to develop higher competencies. It is important that these people have sufficient knowledge, information, innovation, adaptation and creativity to increase customer satisfaction and create a competitive advantage for the organization.
    Abstract: Le terme capital humain est considéré comme un élément clé pour améliorer les atouts d'une organisation. Il s'agit de l'ensemble des employés disposant d'avantages concurrentiels durables qui font augmenter l'efficacité et le rendement de leur entreprise. Certains spécialistes de l'organisation, tels que Henry MINTZBERG ou Michel CROZIER, appliquent les règles de la théorie du capital humain pour prouver leur capacité à créer des compétitions entre les entreprises en développant des ressources humaines individuelles. Plusieurs recherches ont étudié le rôle du capital humain dans l'organisation et son impactent sur l'entreprise et sur la motivation de son personnel, notamment celles de (PAUL ET SUSAN 1996) et (MORIN ET AUBE 2007). Le présent travail constitue donc un recueil de connaissances et de travaux précédents visant à éclairer cette thématique. Ces travaux indiquent que l'indice commun, se révélant cruciaux à tous les niveaux de gestion de changement de l'organisation, qui est la compétence humaine. Ceux qui travaillent dans le centre noyau de l'organisation doivent développer des compétences plus élevées. Il importe que ces personnes possèdent suffisamment de connaissances, d'informations, d'innovation, d'adaptation et de créativité pour augmenter la satisfaction du client et créer un avantage concurrentiel pour l'organisation.
    Keywords: Human Capital,Organizational Change,Motivation,Competence,Compétence,Changement Organisationnel,Capital Humain
    Date: 2021

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