nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2020‒07‒27
nine papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Public-private R&D partnerships: A solution to increase knowledge sharing in R&D cooperation By Hervouet, A.; Trommetter, M.
  2. Gender of the manager and SMEs innovativeness By Alfonso Expósito; Amparo Sanchis-Llopis; Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis
  3. Competition and Innovation: Evidence from Worldwide Corporate R&D Spenders By Michele Cincera; Ela Ince; Anabela Marques Santos
  4. Types of Innovation and Firm performance By Michele Cincera; Ela Ince
  5. Entry determinants of the Software and Video games firms in Barcelona By Méndez Ortega, Carles
  6. Unlocking Access to Finance for SMEs: A Cross-Country Analysis By Armand Fouejieu; Anta Ndoye; Tetyana Sydorenko
  7. Building Knowledge-Based Economies in Africa: A Systematic Review of Policies and Strategies By Asongu, Simplice; Odhiambo, Nicholas
  8. Measuring Corporate Governance Quality in Concentrated-Ownership Firms By Oded Cohen
  9. Immigration and Innovation. By Arthur Grimes; Shaan Badenhorst; David C. Maré; Jacques Poot

  1. By: Hervouet, A.; Trommetter, M.
    Abstract: Knowledge sharing is crucial for the success of most R&D cooperations. This paper investigates the best conditions for fostering knowledge sharing in R&D cooperation and looks at how the establishment of Public-Private R&D Partnerships (PPP in R&D) could be a useful tool for this purpose. In this end, it proposes a theoretical model, related to the R&D cooperation literature, that takes into consideration the impacts of firms outside R&D cooperation and the presence of two kinds of spillover: a technology spillover and a product rivalry effect. The model shows that both spillovers can affect knowledge sharing negatively, and that PPP in R&D can be useful to promote knowledge sharing. First, public authorities can choose partners that will facilitate efficient knowledge sharing. Second, to avoid the negative impacts of spillovers on behavior in terms of knowledge sharing, public laboratories should be used as intermediaries for the prior and strategic knowledge of firms. Public labs can use the prior knowledge of firms to innovate, and then spread this innovation among the partners of the PPP, without spreading the prior knowledge of the firms.
    JEL: L13 L24 O30 O38
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Alfonso Expósito (University of Seville, Spain); Amparo Sanchis-Llopis (University of Valencia and ERICES, Spain); Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis (University of Valencia and ERICES, Spain)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the role of the manager’s gender on the propensity to introduce innovations using a sample of Spanish small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). We examine whether there are significant differences between female- and male-led businesses in terms of their propensity to innovate, and whether these differences may be explained by factors related to the attributes of the manager concerning risk tolerance, self-confidence, education level and cooperative behaviour. In particular, this study tests if the linkages between these managerial attributes and the propensity to innovate are moderated by the gender of the manager. Using a multivariate probit model (triprobit), we further investigate the role of gender on the managerial decision to simultaneously introduce product, process and organisational innovations. Our main results indicate that there are not significant gender differences in the propensity to introduce innovations between male- and female-run businesses when considering innovation at an aggregated level, that is, innovating in any of the three types of innovations considered. However, we obtain a higher propensity of male managers to introduce process innovations, as compared to their female counterparts. No significant differences by gender are found for product and organisational innovations. Additionally, results of the multivariate probit model indicate that the three innovation decisions are interdependent and should be jointly analysed. This study contributes to the scant literature regarding gender impact on firm’s innovativeness with novel empirical evidence for SMEs.
    Keywords: manager’s gender; SMEs; product innovation; process innovation; organizational innovations; triprobit model
    JEL: C35 J16 O30 M21
    Date: 2020–06
  3. By: Michele Cincera; Ela Ince; Anabela Marques Santos
    Abstract: The paper aims at assessing the effect of competition of firm-level innovation. The sample is composed of the world top corporate R&D spender listed in the EU-2017 industrial R&D Scoreboard, and the analysis covers the years spanning 2007 to 2016. We use an industry-year-indicator, the inverse of the Lerner index, to measure the competition level R&D expenditures are used as a proxy for innovation. Model is estimated using two-stage least squares, to control for potential endogeneity of the competition indicator. Results confirm the existence of an inverted-U relationship between competition and innovation. Further analysis is undertaken splitting the overall firm sample into services and manufacturing sectors according to technology and knowledge intensities. We validate the inverted-U shaped relationship between competition and innovation for the firms in medium-high-tech and high-tech manufacturing sectors whereas we do not observe the impact for the firms in medium-low and low-tech manufacturing sectors nor service sectors.
    Keywords: Competition, Innovation, Manufacturing, Services.
    Date: 2019–07
  4. By: Michele Cincera; Ela Ince
    Abstract: The paper brings together firm-level R & D spending information with patent information and aims to investigate the impact of different types of patented inventions on firm output growth performance controlling for R & D spending and other firm financials. We consider forward-looking indicators of breakthrough and general innovation, and backward-looking indicators of originality and radicalness in innovation activities. Firm performance is estimated through a Cobb-Douglas production function. We allow for non-linearity in relationship between innovation strategy and firm performance and we investigate sectoral heterogeneity looking at the impact in health industries and ICT producers. Models are estimated using two-stage least squares and generalised method of moments to control for potential endogeneity of innovation indicators. Our findings confirm non-linearity and sectoral heterogeneity in relationship between the different types of innovation and firm performance. While ICT producers are growing with breakthrough innovations, general-purpose technologies and, to a certain extend, with original and radical innovations, the growth of firms operating in health industries is not explained by breakthrough innovations nor by specific trend of feature of ICT and the choice of incremental innovation strategy by pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms
    Keywords: Breakthrough innovation, Generality, Originality, Radicalness, Firm growth
    Date: 2019–07
  5. By: Méndez Ortega, Carles
    Abstract: This paper aims to determine which reasons lead Software and Video games firms (SVE hereafter) to locate in certain areas of Barcelona. This high-tech industry is a key industry in developed economies mainly located in urban areas. To carry out this analysis, we use SVE firm entries at neighbourhood level between 2011 and 2013 and a set of covariates that capture neighbourhood characteristics (localization and agglomeration economies, high-tech amenities, diversity, human capital and crime). Our results show that i) SVE firms tend to choose locations with a high diversity and good high-tech amenities (e.g. 22@ district), ii) the importance of the localization and agglomeration economies, since spatial spillovers are a key factor for this type of firms and iii) the role of the diversity in the location process of these firms, since SVE firms choose places with a high diversity of cultural and creative activity. JEL Codes: R10, R30, L86. Keywords: Software and Video games Industry, location determinants, Count Data models, Barcelona
    Keywords: Localització industrial, Indústria informàtica, Videojocs -- Indústria i comerç, 332 - Economia regional i territorial. Economia del sòl i de la vivenda,
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Armand Fouejieu; Anta Ndoye; Tetyana Sydorenko
    Abstract: Countries in the MENAP and CCA regions have the lowest levels of financial inclusion of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the world. The paper provides empirical evidence on the drivers of SME access to finance for a large sample of countries, and identifies key policy priorities for these two regions: economic and institutional stability, competition, public sector size and government effectiveness, credit information infrastructure (e.g., credit registries), the business environment (e.g., legal frameworks for contract enforcement), and financial supervisory and regulatory capacity. The analysis also shows that improving credit information, economic competition, the business environment along with economic development and better governance would help close the SME financial inclusion gap between MENAP and CCA regions and the best performers. The paper concludes on the need to adopt holistic policy strategies that take into account the full range of macro and institutional requirements and reforms, and prioritize these reforms in accordance with each country’s specific characteristics.
    Keywords: Financial crises;Financial services;Macroprudential policies and financial stability;Bank credit;Financial systems;Small and Medium Sized Enterprises,Financial Inclusion,WP,SME,SMEs,CCA,risky borrower,informality
    Date: 2020–03–13
  7. By: Asongu, Simplice; Odhiambo, Nicholas
    Abstract: Compared to other regions of the world, Africa is lagging in its drive toward knowledge-based economies. This study systematically reviews the literature in order to highlight the policies and strategies with which African countries can accelerate their current drive towards building knowledge-based economies. These are discussed in terms of three pillars of the World Bank’s knowledge economy framework. They are the indices for: (i) education and skilled population, (ii) information and communication technology and (iii) economic incentives and institutional regime.
    Keywords: Knowledge economy; Development; Africa
    JEL: O10 O30 O38 O55 O57
    Date: 2019–01
  8. By: Oded Cohen (bank of Israel)
    Abstract: In this paper, I present a corporate governance index adjusted to firms with concentrated ownership. The index consists of 31 components that measure three dimensions of corporate governance quality at the firm level: board independence, board qualifications, and controlcash flow wedge. The index has several advantages over indexes constructed in previous papers: it is based exclusively on mandatorily disclosed data, which are more reliable than the voluntarily disclosed data previously used in some studies; it does not contain components that measure the firm’s corporate social responsibility since this dimension is not relevant to investor protection; it does not contain components that measure outcomes related to a firm’s corporate governance quality, including the number and volume of related-party transactions and disciplinary acts taken against management; it extensively measures board qualifications; and its components are well defined so that the index may be calculated without applying discretion. Based on this index, I calculate corporate governance quality scores for 120 nonfinancial Israeli public firms in the period 2007–2014 and show governance quality to have improved owing to legal reforms that went into effect during those years, as well as to changes voluntarily undertaken by the firms.
    Date: 2020–05
  9. By: Arthur Grimes (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Shaan Badenhorst (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); David C. Maré (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Jacques Poot (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, and University of Waikato Author-Name Isabelle Sin; Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: One of the main challenges facing non-metropolitan regions is the attraction and retention of highly-educated young people. A loss of the brightest can lead to reduced business creation, innovation, growth and community wellbeing in such regions. We use rich longitudinal microdata from New Zealand’s integrated administrative data infrastructure to analyse the determinants and geography of the choice of destination of tertiary educated (university and polytechnic) graduates. We address the question of post-student location choice in the context of the approach of Chen and Rosenthal (2008) who introduced a methodology for calculating ‘quality of life’ and ‘quality of business’ indicators for urban areas reflecting consumption and productive amenities respectively. Specifically, we test whether students – of different characteristics (e.g. institutional type and field of study) – locate in places that are regarded as good to live or good to do business. Our estimates are conditional on students’ prior school (home) location and the location of their higher education institution. We find that graduates are attracted to locate in places that have high quality production amenities. High quality consumption amenities have heterogeneous effects on the location choice of students. Creative Arts and Commerce graduates are relatively more likely to locate in places that are attractive to business, consistent with a symbiosis between bohemians and business. Places can leverage their existing (productive or consumption amenity) strengths to act as drawcards to recent graduates. The results are important for local decision-makers who wish to know which factors can attract and retain young qualified people.
    Keywords: Innovation; Immigration; Local labour market
    JEL: I23 J24 J61 R23 R58 Z13
    Date: 2020–04

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