nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2020‒07‒20
eleven papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Promoting Faculty and Student-Centered Research and Innovation based Excellence Model to Reimage Universities By Aithal, Sreeramana; Aithal, Shubhrajyotsna
  2. Place-Based Innovation Ecosystems. A Case-Study Comparative Analysis By Gabriel Rissola; Jurgen Haberleithner
  3. Challenges in Governance of Smart Specialisation in South East Europe By Nikola Radovanovic; Elisa Gerussi
  4. The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Team Innovation on Team Performance: Empirical Evidence from Malaysia By Nurulhasanah Abdul Rahman
  5. In the Eye of the Storm: Firms, Putty-Clay and Capital Destruction By Martino Pelli; Jeanne Tschopp; Natalia Bezmaternykh; Kodjovi M Eklou
  6. Supporting innovative entrepreneurship: an evaluation of the Italian "Start-up Act" By Francesco Manaresi; Carlo Menon; Pietro Santoleri
  7. Regional patterns of unrelated technological diversification: the role of academic inventors By Francesco Quatraro; Alessandra Scandura
  8. From Imitation to Innovation: Where Is all that Chinese R&D Going? By Michael König; Zheng Michael Song; Kjetil Storesletten; Fabrizio Zilibotti
  9. Recent Trends in Bank Privatization By Bertay,Ata Can; Calice,Pietro; Diaz Kalan,Federico Alfonso; Masetti,Oliver
  10. Female Business Leaders, Business and Cultural Environment, and Productivity around the World By Fang,Sheng; Goh,Chorching; Roberts,Mark; Xu,L. Colin; Zeufack,Albert G.
  11. Hidden champions: A review of the literature & future research avenues By Schenkenhofer, Julian

  1. By: Aithal, Sreeramana; Aithal, Shubhrajyotsna
    Abstract: Universities worldwide facing a dilemma in identifying effective models of improving the quality education to their students at UG and PG levels in order to inculcate employable skills and innovative abilities as per industry requirement. Industries and industry sectors also struggling to identify young graduates who can be innovators to add new ideas and models to add values to their existing products and services to survive, sustain and differentiate in present business competition. This, in turn, developing pressure on Universities to re-define their education models including, suitable subject identification, developing and offering industry related curriculum, effective teaching – learning methodologies including suitable customized pedagogy and use of educational technology to boost the confidence and innovative thinking abilities of graduates. In this paper, we have made an attempt to analyse the present trend in global Higher Education, their effect on Indian University education, technology and its impact on university education model, how research can differentiate campus based university education, Innovations in University research including author centric scholarly publication for copyright based IPR and Student Centric Curriculum for Patent Based IPR. The paper also proposed a model of promoting research at UG and PG levels boosts the Innovative ability of students and faculty members towards excellency. Finally, the authors made some recommendations to reimage the universities towards world-class universities.
    Keywords: Reimaging the Universities, Promoting research, Promoting innovation, Promoting excellence in Higher education
    JEL: A20 A29
    Date: 2020–03–19
  2. By: Gabriel Rissola (European Commission - JRC); Jurgen Haberleithner
    Abstract: This case-study comparative analysis focuses on five different Place-based Innovation Ecosystems in four countries of the European Union (namely Espoo in Finland, Barcelona in Spain, Gothenburg in Sweden and Ljubljana in Slovenia) and one in the United States of America (Boston) and seeks to generate scientific evidence for the future development of the European Union policies related to innovation in the context of regional and urban innovation ecosystems. All five selected and presented Place-based Innovation Ecosystems have been individually synthesised, analysed and compared based on common dimensions of analysis. These results allowed - as a first theoretical approximation to a specific typology - to define five different models of Place-based Innovation Ecosystems, with the potential to serve as an indicative reference for the development of other EU (and non-EU) cases. In conclusion, this study evidences a high complexity of innovation ecosystems with different levels of implementation of the Quadruple Helix Model and different kind of interrelations with Smart Specialisation Strategies and their inherent Entrepreneurial Discovery Processes. Orchestrators and main key-players play an essential role in the governance of the innovation ecosystems, performing a leadership role concerning local, regional, national and international innovation-related policy agendas. This leadership, talent attraction and retaining, the presence of research and innovation infrastructure, complementary system stakeholders and internationalisation were detected as core elements for successful local and regional innovation ecosystems.
    Keywords: Place-based, Territorial, Innovation Ecosystems, Smart Specialisation, Quadruple Helix, Espoo, Barcelona, Gothenburg, Ljubljana, Boston
    Date: 2020–05
  3. By: Nikola Radovanovic (European Commission - JRC); Elisa Gerussi (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: S3-based innovation policies highlight the relevant role of both governance - including its structures and mechanisms – and stakeholders’ engagement among the enabling factors of well-functioning R&I ecosystems. In particular, the principle of carrying out a thorough stakeholders’ dialogue on “new domains of technological and market opportunities†for decision-making processes demonstrates the importance of the bottom-up method as at the basis of S3. When it comes to the analysis of S3 in SEE, the effects of the recent years of economic transformation and lock-in situations encourage analysis of the way non-flexible institutional infrastructures can significantly harm local innovation capacity development. This creates a context where networking becomes largely uneven and the communication between different players hampers further progress. Whereas Bulgaria and Croatia are already implementing their S3 strategies, Serbia is about to start the implementation phase in 2020. Given their centralized management of the S3 strategies, the cases are particularly suitable for a comparative analysis on governance. We observe that some of the main challenges for S3 governance in SEE in the upcoming period are: enhancing the political commitment of national authorities as well as the collective awareness of S3; implementing an efficient policy mix that integrates S3 with other national policies on innovation; attracting relevant stakeholders to participate in the decision-making process; and boosting the role of cooperation and competitiveness at the macro-regional level.
    Keywords: Smart Specialisation, South East Europe, Governance, Stakeholders' engagement
    Date: 2020–05
  4. By: Nurulhasanah Abdul Rahman (School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia Author-2-Name: Daisy Mui Hung Kee Author-2-Workplace-Name: School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia Author-3-Name: Ai Wah Tan Author-3-Workplace-Name: School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - Leadership and innovation are two related concepts which have gained a lot of interest among researchers focusing on management and entrepreneurship. Research on these topics are important for the development of the dynamic workforce and are useful to various organisations. However, in the real world, the effectiveness of employee performance is considered as unsatisfactory meaning there is room for improvement. Methodology/Technique - Previous literature had found that Transformational Leadership and Team Innovation are among the key factors which can be used to improve employee performance. This study will examine and test the relationship between Transformational Leadership and Team Performance to understand how Team Innovation mediates this relationship. A total of 197 samples are collected from employees in Multinational Companies (MNC). The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.Findings - The findings indicate that Transformational Leadership has a significant positive impact on Team Performance. Further, Team Innovation mediates the relationship between Transformational Leadership and Team Performance. Novelty - The major implications of these findings are further explored. In particular, this paper contributes to leadership literature by recommending that team leaders aim to inspire and empower employees to achieve organizational goals. Type of Paper - Empirical
    Keywords: Transformational leadership; Innovation; Multinational Companies.
    JEL: M11 M15 M19
    Date: 2020–06–30
  5. By: Martino Pelli; Jeanne Tschopp; Natalia Bezmaternykh; Kodjovi M Eklou
    Abstract: In this paper we provide a new identification strategy to test for the presence of putty-clay capital, i.e. capital that once installed cannot be re-invested. Using a panel of Indian manufacturing firms between 1995 and 2006, we quantify the response of firm sales within and across industries to an exogenous negative shock to the firm capital stock and find effects akin to Schumpeterian creative destruction, where surviving firms build back better. We show that within an industry, the sales of less productive firms decrease disproportionately more, while across industries capital destruction leads to a shift in sales towards more performing industries; which is consistent with a putty-clay technology. As a source of shock, we use a novel measure of firm exposure to storms based on the maximum wind speed exerted by each storm on each of the postal codes where the headquarters and the establishments of a firm are located. We establish that, depending on their strength, storms destroy up to 75.3% of the fixed assets of the median firm (in terms of its productivity and industry performance) and cause a decrease in its sales that can reach 99%.
    Keywords: firms, putty-clay capital, creative destruction, storms
    JEL: D22 D24 Q54
    Date: 2020–06
  6. By: Francesco Manaresi (Directorate General for Economics, Statistics and Research, Bank of Italy); Carlo Menon (Laterite); Pietro Santoleri (Institute of Economics and EMbeDS, Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies)
    Abstract: The role of innovative start-ups in contributing to aggregate economic dynamism has attracted increased attention in recent years. While this has translated into several public policies explicitly targeting them, there is little evidence on their e ectiveness. This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of the "Start-up Act", a policy intervention aimed at supporting innovative start-ups in Italy. We construct a unique database encompassing detailed information on firm balance-sheets, employment, firm demographics, patents and bank-firm relationships for all Italian start-ups. We use conditional difference-in-differences and instrumental variable strategies to evaluate the impact of the "Start-up Act" on firm performance. Results show that the policy induces a significant increase in several firm outcomes whereas no effect is detected in patenting propensity and survival chances. We also document that the policy alleviates nancial frictions characterizing innovative start-ups through the provision of tax credits for equity and a public guarantee scheme which, respectively, trigger an increase in the probability of receiving VC and accessing bank credit.
    Keywords: Start-ups; Entrepreneurship policy; Policy Evaluation; Firm performance
    JEL: M13 L25 L53 D04
    Date: 2020–07
  7. By: Francesco Quatraro; Alessandra Scandura
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between the involvement of academic inventors in local innovation dynamics and the patterns of regional technological diversification. Based on the combination of the evolutionary economic approach and the theories on regional innovation capabilities, and on the distinctive features of academic inventors, we hypothesise that knowledge spillovers accruing from the participation of university scientists to local patenting activity influence the extent of regional technological diversification. In addition, we posit that the involvement of academic inventors mitigates the path dependency engendered by the constraining role of the existing capabilities. The empirical results highlight the key role of academic institutions for the development of regional technological trajectories while contributing to the academic and policy debate on regional diversification strategies.
    Keywords: regional diversification, relatedness, academic inventors
    JEL: O33 R11
    Date: 2020
  8. By: Michael König; Zheng Michael Song; Kjetil Storesletten; Fabrizio Zilibotti
    Abstract: We construct a model of firm dynamics with heterogeneous productivity and distortions. The productivity distribution evolves endogenously as the result of the decisions of firms seeking to upgrade their productivity over time. Firms can adopt two strategies toward that end: imitation and innovation. The theory bears predictions about the evolution of the productivity distribution. We structurally estimate the stationary state of the dynamic model targeting moments of the empirical distribution of R&D and TFP growth in China during the period 2007--2012. The estimated model fits the Chinese data well. We compare the estimates with those obtained using data for Taiwan and find the results to be robust. We perform counterfactuals to study the effect of alternative policies. We find large effects of R&D misallocation on long-run growth.
    JEL: L16 O31 O47 O53
    Date: 2020–06
  9. By: Bertay,Ata Can; Calice,Pietro; Diaz Kalan,Federico Alfonso; Masetti,Oliver
    Abstract: This paper revisits trends in bank privatization and analyzes their economic impact over the past 25 years. Building on a novel data set of privatization events for 70 developed and developing countries, it shows that bank privatization became more frequent since the Global Financial Crisis, especially in emerging markets such as China and India, but also smaller in that the fraction of a bank's ownership relinquished during privatization events declined. The majority of privatizations happened via public sales in domestic capital markets. The banks that were chosen to be privatized tended to underperform their peers and had weaker asset quality pre-privatization, but the empirical evidence on banks'post-privatization performance is mixed. The paper finds that privatized banks turn toward more traditional banking models and increase credit extension with no apparent negative distributional implications. However, the analysis does not reveal significant differences in bank profitability post-privatization, although differences exist between developed and developing countries. Notably, banks that have been recapitalized prior to privatization perform significantly better afterward privatization.
    Date: 2020–07–13
  10. By: Fang,Sheng; Goh,Chorching; Roberts,Mark; Xu,L. Colin; Zeufack,Albert G.
    Abstract: Studies of female business leaders and economic performance are rarely conducted with worldwide observational data, and with considerations on the underlying cultural, institutional, and business environment. This paper uses worldwide, firm-level data from more than 100 countries to study how female-headed firms differ from male-headed firms in productivity level and growth, and whether the female leader performance disparity hinges on the underlying environment. Female-headed firms account for about 11 percent of firms and are more prevalent in countries with better rule of law, gender equality, and stronger individualistic culture. On average, female-headed firms have 9 to 16 percent lower productivity and 1.6 percentage points lower labor productivity growth, compared with male-headed firms. The disadvantage is mainly in manufacturing firms, largely nonexistent in service firms, and present in relatively small firms. Although the female leader performance disadvantage is surprisingly not related to gender equality, it is smaller where there is less emphasis on personal networks (better rule of law, lower trade credit linkages, lower usage of bank credit, and more equalizing internet), less competition, and the culture is more collective. The study does not find that the female leader disadvantage is amplified in corrupt environments. Africa differs significantly in that it features lower female disadvantage, stronger female advantage in services relative to manufacturing, and stronger sensitivity of female business leaders to electricity provision and bank credit access.
    Date: 2020–06–11
  11. By: Schenkenhofer, Julian
    Abstract: Substantial efforts have contributed to overcome the scarcity of hidden champions research. Nevertheless, literature has missed to compile a comprehensive review. Drawing on the insights of 94 publications, four strands of literature could be distinguished to unravel the essence of hidden champions. Research on hidden champions studies their 1) internationalization strategies, 2) R&D and innovation strategies, the 3) worldwide and regional geographic distribution of hidden champions and finally 4) other research that could not be assigned to one of the first three strands. A hand-collected sample of 1372 German hidden champions exemplifies the key insights from the reviewed research articles. Discussing the findings of the different literature strands aims at drawing a conclusion on their main results and analytical pitfalls to eventually unfold and motivate future research avenues.
    Keywords: Literature Review,Hidden Champions,Niche Strategy
    JEL: D4 L1 L22 O32
    Date: 2020

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