nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2020‒05‒04
eight papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Small business owners as gatekeepers of knowledge? Personality traits & modes of innovation By Runst, Petrik; Thomä, Jörg
  2. Factors influencing the potential of European Higher Education Institutions to contribute to innovation and regional development By John Edwards; Eskarne Arregui-Pabollet; Federico Biagi; Koen Jonkers
  3. Explaining Differences in the Returns to R&D in Argentina : The Role of Contextual Factors and Complementarities By Arza,Valeria Luciana; Cirera,Xavier; Colonna,Agustina; Lopez,Emanuel
  4. Documentation of RISIS datasets: RISIS CIB2 DATABASE By Patricia Laurens
  5. Investigating variations in the deep-sea sourcing strategies of car manufacturers: Two case studies of parts consolidation centers in Japan By Hidekazu Itoh; David Guerrero
  6. Trade Induced Technological Change: Did Chinese Competition Increase Innovation in Europe? By Douglas L. Campbell; Karsten Mau
  7. Aggregate Productivity Growth and Firm Dynamics in Korean Manufacturing 2007-2017 By Kyoo il Kim; Jin Ho Park
  8. The roles of the state in the governance of socio-technical systems' transformation By Borrás, Susana; Edler, Jakob

  1. By: Runst, Petrik; Thomä, Jörg
    Abstract: Previous research has established that certain personality traits represent predictors of start-up activity. We argue that similar cognitive processes that affect entrepreneurship also play a role in firm-level innovativeness. For example, open-ness to novelty can be regarded as a key component of entrepreneurial alertness in terms of both business creation and the generation of innovations within existing businesses. Based on a large survey of less R&D-intensive SMEs from Germany, we show that certain Big Five personality traits as well as certain personality prototypes of business owners are positively related to innovation activity. More importantly, this relationship depends on the mode of innovation, where companies operating under the DUI mode (Doing-Using-Interacting) seem to benefit in particular from certain owners' personality characteristics. In addition, we present evidence that complementarities between entrepreneurs' personality traits exist in terms of self-selection into the DUI mode. To explain our findings, we argue that the personali-ty characteristics of small business owners affect whether or not absorptive capacity can mediate between external knowledge and firm-level innovativeness.
    Keywords: Innovation,Modes of innovation,Absorptive capacity,Personality Traits,Big Five,SMEs
    JEL: L26 O31 O33
    Date: 2020
  2. By: John Edwards (European Commission – JRC); Eskarne Arregui-Pabollet (European Commission – JRC); Federico Biagi (European Commission - JRC); Koen Jonkers (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This Science for Policy Report analyses the main factors influencing the potential of Higher Education Institutions to contribute to innovation and regional development. The analysis is structured around two groups of factors: The supply of knowledge and skills through education, research and external engagement, and the demand side concerning the ability of regional actors to absorb it. The report draws on both qualitative and quantitative data, including two sets of case studies from JRC projects related to the regional impact of universities and the role of HEIs in Smart Specialisation Strategies (S3), as well as a recent econometric study that compares flows of human capital and knowledge from HEIs with firm location. The report is part of the Commission's Knowledge Hub for Higher Education at the JRC which brings together a number of tools including University Multi Rank, from which data is analysed in this report.
    Keywords: higher education, innovation, regional development
    Date: 2020–04
  3. By: Arza,Valeria Luciana; Cirera,Xavier; Colonna,Agustina; Lopez,Emanuel
    Abstract: Argentina's private investment in research and development is well below that of its peers. One important reason may be low and very heterogeneous returns to research and development activities on productivity. This paper uses novel microdata to estimate the returns to research and development and understand the contextual factors that shape their heterogeneity. The paper groups these context-based factors into knowledge complementary factors (that is, factors that affect the returns via learning capabilities from external sources of knowledge) and market complementary factors (factors that act via business capabilities to appropriate the returns to research and development investments). The paper hypothesizes that the effects of contextual factors depend on firms'management capabilities and attitudes (innovative capacity), which determine firms'ability to benefit from the context. The findings suggest that the returns are indeed heterogeneous across regions and sectors, and these results depend on some context-based factors, which can boost or depress the returns to R&D. The results have important policy implications, considering the effectiveness of innovation policies, need for adapting to specific regions and sectors, and maximization of the impact of these factors on the returns to research and development.
    Date: 2020–04–30
  4. By: Patricia Laurens (LISIS - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Sciences, Innovations, Sociétés - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ESIEE Paris - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: The Corporate Invention Board (CIB2) database is designed for the analysis of technological knowledge creation of the worldwide top corporate R&D performers, using patents as a proxy. It includes 3992 companies. It focuses on the ‘priority patents' applied by the parent companies and the subsidiaries they control. For patents, it relies on the patent data included in the RISIS Patent Database (RPD) . The list of companies was elaborated using several editions of the EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard and the lists of WIPO top applicants. CIB2 also gives basic data on the companies (locations, sectors, size, financial data).
    Keywords: Innovation,Patent,R&D,Firms
    Date: 2020–03
  5. By: Hidekazu Itoh (Kwansei Gakuin University - parent); David Guerrero (AME-SPLOTT - Systèmes Productifs, Logistique, Organisation des Transports et Travail - UNIV GUSTAVE EIFFEL - Université Gustave Eiffel)
    Abstract: This paper investigates how two Japanese car manufacturers organize their shipments of auto-parts from suppliers located in Japan to their overseas assembly plants. It reveals that, in addition to the well-known differences such as specific manufacturer-supplier relationships or production strategies, the organization of logistics itself constitutes a basis for persistent variations. Car manufacturers operating at a global scale are facing uncertainties in matching supply and demand, thus increasingly requiring flexibility. This flexibility is notably achieved through varying combinations of local and distant sourcing to respond to changes in market conditions, currency exchange rates, and so on. To limit the costs of distant sourcing, car manufacturers use parts consolidation centers, which are cross-docking facilities where parts are sorted and packed in sea containers depending on their final destination. Findings show that, beyond its generic purpose, the parts consolidation centers play different roles within the logistics organization of the two focal firms. In one case, they are highly integrated within the global production system; in the other, they are simply used as transfer points. These different models of utilization of parts consolidation centers imply significantly different relationships with parts' suppliers, and point to wider differences in the overall logistics systems.
    Date: 2020–01–01
  6. By: Douglas L. Campbell (New Economic School); Karsten Mau (Maastricht University)
    Abstract: Bloom, Draca, and Van Reenen (2016) find that Chinese competition induced a rise in patenting, IT adoption, and TFP by 30% of the total increase in Europe in the early 2000s. We find that the average patents per firm fell by 94% for the most Chinacompeting firms in their sample, but also by 94% for non-competing firms (starting from an initially higher level), and that various intuitive controls, such as controls for sectoral trends, renders the impact on patents-per-firm insignificant. We also find that while TFP appears to be positively correlated with the rise in Chinese competition, IV estimates are inconclusive, and other measures of productivity, such as value-added per worker and profits, are not correlated. Various instrumental and proxy variable approaches also do not support a positive impact of the rise of China on European patents.
    Keywords: Patents, China, Europe, Textiles, Trade Shocks, Manufacturing
    JEL: F14 F13 L25 L60
    Date: 2019–05
  7. By: Kyoo il Kim (Department of Economics, Michigan State University); Jin Ho Park (Economic Research Institute, Bank of Korea)
    Abstract: We study aggregate productivity growth of the Korean manufacturing industry for the 2007-2017 period. We find that the nature of such growth was quite different for two measures of productivity. For labor productivity, most of growth comes from productivity changes among surviving firms. On the other hand, for TFP, most of the productivity growth comes from that of new entrants in recent years. Our work illustrates the different nature of two productivity measures in terms of their growth paths. We also show interesting industry dynamics for both productivity measures, as exiting firms contributed positively to aggregate productivity growth with increasing trends, which suggests that the market had gradually eliminated firms of lower productivity. Using the dynamic Olley and Pakes (1996) decomposition, we also find that for both productivity measures, a substantial productivity growth after the 2008 global financial crisis was due to market share reallocations between firms, but this between-firm contribution has somewhat slowed or been decreasing since then. Our industry sector level study also shows that there has been fundamentally different heterogeneous productivity growth patterns and components across manufacturing sectors. Finally, we find that the wage level also plays a role in moderating or as an accelerating factor for different productivity growth paths among surviving, entering, and exiting firms. We find that higher wage groups had disproportionately higher entry and exit rates, and that the contributions of these industry dynamics to aggregate productivity growth were largest for the highest wage group while the productivity growth from the between firm component was substantially higher for lower wage groups. Therefore, we find that not only a timely change in input and output, but also in the wage, is a necessary ingredient for the pace and magnitude of reallocation to be effective in aggregate productivity growth.
    Keywords: Aggregate Productivity Growth, Labor Productivity, Total Factor Productivity, Resource Reallocation, Entry and Exit, Wage
    JEL: C14 C18 D24
    Date: 2020–04–17
  8. By: Borrás, Susana; Edler, Jakob
    Abstract: The transformative turn of innovation policy has resulted in calls for a more entrepreneurial and directional role of the state. However, the multiple roles that the state might play in such processes remain underexplored. This paper studies the embedded role of the state in four distinct modes of governance in socio-technical systems. Using a three-pillar analytical model, the paper examines four illustrative cases: cryptocurrencies, smart cities, automated vehicles, and nuclear power. The paper identifies 13 different roles of the state, indicating relevant variation across the four modes of governance. We discuss whether some roles of the state are more transformative than others, and provide clues for policy implications, and a future research agenda. The concept developed in the paper contributes to a more differentiated understanding of the transformative roles of the state.
    Date: 2020

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