nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2020‒03‒16
ten papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Innovation union: costs and benefits of innovation policy coordination By Borota, Teodora; Defever, Fabrice; Impullitti, Giammario
  2. Success factors of innovations By Lucas, Sterenn; Soler, Louis-Georges; Rouvin, Etienne
  3. Financial Constraints and Small and Medium Enterprises: A Review By Bakhtiari, Sasan; Breunig, Robert; Magnani, Lisa; Zhang, Jacquelyn
  4. Claves de internacionalización de las universidades españolas. Las universidades públicas madrileñas en el Horizonte 2020 By Elena Cerdá Mansilla
  6. Corporate social responsibility and bank efficiency By Sanaa Belasri; Mathieu Gomes; Guillaume Pijourlet
  7. Measuring the "doing-using-interacting mode" of innovation in SMEs - A qualitative approach By Alhusen, Harm; Bennat, Tatjana; Bizer, Kilian; Cantner, Uwe; Horstmann, Elaine; Kalthaus, Martin; Proeger, Till; Sternberg, Rolf G.; Töpfer, Stefan
  8. Family Firms and Contractual Institutions By Iacovone,Leonardo; Maloney,William F.; Tsivanidis,Nick
  9. Migrant Inventors and the Technological Advantage of Nations By Bahar, Dany; Choudhury, Prithwiraj; Rapoport, Hillel
  10. Positive Spillovers from Negative Campaigning By Vincenzo Galasso; Tommaso Nannicini; Salvatore Nunnari

  1. By: Borota, Teodora; Defever, Fabrice; Impullitti, Giammario
    Abstract: In this paper, we document large heterogeneity in innovation policy and performance between old and new EU member states, and present firm-level evidence on the close link between foreign direct investment (FDI) spillovers and eastern European _firms' innovation. Guided by these facts and motivated by the pressing debate on further EU integration, we build a two-region endogenous growth model to analyse the gains from innovation policy cooperation in an economic union. The two regions, the West (the old members) and the East (the new post-2004 members), feature firms competing in innovation for market leadership, are integrated via free trade and costly technology transfer via FDI and have different innovation performance and policy. Calibrating the model to reproduce key features of the EU economy, we compare the outcomes of an East-West R&D subsidy war with a cooperation scenario with unified subsidy across regions, and obtain three main results. First, we find that the dynamic gains spurring from the impact of cooperation on the economy's growth rate are sizable and substantially larger than the static gains obtained internalising the strategic motive for subsidies. Second, our model suggests that the presence of FDI and multinational production alleviates the strategic motive and increases the gains from cooperation. Third, separating FDI and innovation policy generates larger gains from cooperation, a policy complementarity driven by the knowledge spillovers carried by FDI.
    Keywords: optimal innovation policy; growth theroy; international policy coordination; EU integration; FDI spillovers
    JEL: O41 O31 O38 F12 F42 F43
    Date: 2019–08
  2. By: Lucas, Sterenn; Soler, Louis-Georges; Rouvin, Etienne
    Abstract: The French seafood sector is currently confronted with increasing competition from imported products, price fluctuations and new challenges such as environmental issues. In the face of these issues, producers may not be able to meet consumer expectations, and new products intended to boost growth in the seafood sector may not succeed. To clarify the drivers of competitiveness in the seafood sector, a greater understanding of the success factors behind seafood innovation is needed. We use an original database obtained from the merger of two databases. We combine Mintel’s Global New Products Database, which identifies new products launched in France in 2010, 2011 and 2012, with consumption data spanning 2010 to 2014 from a household panel (Kantar). The data allow us to track the quantities of 246 new products purchased in the year after their launch. We run an ordered logit model to measure the impact of product, marketing and market variables on the probability of a product becoming successful. We identify three possibilities: success, i.e., the product is still on the market one year after its launch with an increased quantity; stagnation, i.e., the product is still on the market one year after its launch with a decreased quantity; and failure, i.e., the product is no longer on the market at all a year after its launch. We also run a Cox proportional hazards model with the products’ time on the market as the dependent variable. The model estimates the time that elapses before the product disappears. The results show that three kinds of factors influence competitiveness: firm characteristics (size, specialization), market economic situation and, to a lesser extent, the marketing process.
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries, Marketing
    Date: 2020
  3. By: Bakhtiari, Sasan (Department of Industry, Innovation and Science Australia); Breunig, Robert (Australian National University); Magnani, Lisa (Macquarie University, Sydney); Zhang, Jacquelyn (Australian National University)
    Abstract: We review the literature on financial constraints and the performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). We consider the important role that SMEs play in the economies of Australia and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. We examine the role of financial constraints in SME growth, with emphasis on business cycles and credit access. We discuss issues that SMEs face in accessing financial resources for expansion. We look at the literature that evaluates the impact of financial constraints on key outcomes: employment, productivity and wages. We review key policy debates and consider where government involvement might be appropriate.
    Keywords: small and medium enterprises (SME), firm financial constraints, government business assistance, employment, wages, productivity, innovation
    JEL: D22 L25
    Date: 2020–01
  4. By: Elena Cerdá Mansilla (Instituto Complutense de Estudios Internacionales (ICEI), Universidad Complutense de Madrid.)
    Abstract: El presente trabajo de investigación contiene un estudio de la internacionalización de las universidades españolas, en el que se trata de realizar una aportación novedosa al respecto, centrada en la colaboración internacional en investigación. Se realiza un análisis clúster que permite clasificar a las universidades españolas en función de su grado de internacionalización. Posteriormente, se desarrolla como estudio de caso el correspondiente a las universidades públicas madrileñas en materia de internacionalización, mediante el análisis de la colaboración internacional en el programa de investigación e innovación europeo Horizonte 2020. Finalmente, se explora la relación entre el grado de internacionalización y el grado de dispersión geográfica, lo que permite observar la existencia de un patrón de diversidad de las universidades públicas madrileñas en el H2020, siendo dominante la relación negativa entre el grado de colaboración internacional y la capacidad de captación de recursos por parte de las universidades en el programa. Los resultados alcanzados permiten servir de soporte para el desarrollo de una nueva estrategia de internacionalización que contenga instrumentos para potenciar la colaboración internacional como una ventaja competitiva.
    Abstract: This paper intends to make a contribution to the internationalization of Spanish universities. First of all, a cluster analysis is carried out that allows Spanish universities to be classified according to their degree of internationalization. Subsequently, the case studies of Madrid’s public universities in internationalization are developed through the analysis of international collaboration in the European research and innovation program Horizon 2020. Finally, the relationship between the degree of internationalization and the degree of geographical dispersion shows a paradoxically negative relationship between the degree of international collaboration and the contribution captured by the universities in the program, which would allow us to capture the diversity pattern dominant among Madrid public universities in the H2020. Our findings may serve as support for the development of a new internationalization strategy that presents instruments to enhance international collaboration as a competitive advantage.
    Keywords: Internacionalización; Universidades; Investigación; Innovación; Horizonte 2020; Internationalization; Universities; Research; Innovation; Horizon 2020.
    Date: 2020
  5. By: Francesco Crespi; Serenella Caravella
    Abstract: The study focuses on the impact exerted on private R&D expenditures by regular and innovative public procurement when taken in combination or insolation with supply-push measures. The econometric analysis relies on a pulled sample of 4,206 Italian manufacturing firms observed between 2010-2014. The empirical exercise confirms previous evidences on the relevance of technology-push instruments in sustaining firms’ innovativeness. On the contrary, the ability of public procurement activities in shaping innovative investments is found to depend on a number of instances related to: i) the adoption of contemporaneous supply side measures; ii) the inclusion of innovative demand in procurement contracts. The analysis provides important suggestions with respect to the potential effectiveness of demand-side tools when implemented in weak administrative and innovation systems, as in the Italian case. Moreover, it is shown that the design of the policy mix matters, and its effectiveness improves when demand-side and supply-side instruments are jointly implemented.
    Keywords: Demand-pull policies, Public Procurement, Policy-mix, Non-parametric analysis.
    JEL: H57 O25 O38
    Date: 2020–02
  6. By: Sanaa Belasri (CleRMa - Clermont Recherche Management - Clermont Auvergne - École Supérieure de Commerce (ESC) - Clermont-Ferrand - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Mathieu Gomes (CleRMa - Clermont Recherche Management - Clermont Auvergne - École Supérieure de Commerce (ESC) - Clermont-Ferrand - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Guillaume Pijourlet (CleRMa - Clermont Recherche Management - Clermont Auvergne - École Supérieure de Commerce (ESC) - Clermont-Ferrand - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne)
    Abstract: Banks play a predominant role in the economy and are subject to growing expectations from stakeholders. It is therefore important to understand the financial impact of CSR on banks' activities. This article examines the impact of CSR on bank efficiency by using a DEA Dynamic Network Model. Based on an international sample of 184 banks in 41 countries over the 2009-2015 period, our empirical investigation reveals a positive impact of CSR on bank efficiency. We further show that this relationship is contingent upon the institutional context. Specifically, we find that CSR has a positive impact on bank efficiency only in developed countries, in countries where investor protection is high and in countries featuring a high degree of stakeholder orientation. We thus assert that some institutional characteristics must be present for the positive impact of CSR on bank efficiency to materialize.
    Keywords: Data envelopment analysis (DEA),Banking efficiency,Corporate social responsibility (CSR)
    Date: 2020
  7. By: Alhusen, Harm; Bennat, Tatjana; Bizer, Kilian; Cantner, Uwe; Horstmann, Elaine; Kalthaus, Martin; Proeger, Till; Sternberg, Rolf G.; Töpfer, Stefan
    Abstract: The 'doing-using-interacting mode' of innovation (DUI) is considered an important component of innovative activity. It describes informal innovative activities and thus complements the 'science-technology-innovation mode' (STI) based on research and development. While empirical measurement of the STI mode is well established, proxies for measuring DUI activities are still underdeveloped and no consensus has emerged concerning which intra- and extra-firm processes primarily constitute the DUI mode and how they should be measured. Based upon 81 in-depth interviews with German SMEs and regional innovation consultants, we propose a comprehensive set of 47 indicators comprising both established and new DUI processes for future empirical measurement. We argue that this measurement approach can lead to a more holistic understanding and ultimately quantifiable measurement of DUI innovativeness, which can guide further research and policymaking.
    Keywords: DUI,Innovation indicators,learning processes,modes of innovation,STI
    JEL: O3 O30 O31 R10
    Date: 2019
  8. By: Iacovone,Leonardo; Maloney,William F.; Tsivanidis,Nick
    Abstract: This paper offers new evidence on the relationship between contractual institutions, family management, and aggregate performance. The study creates a new firm-level database on management and ownership structures spanning 134 regions in 11 European countries. To guide the empirical analysis, it develops a model of industry equilibrium in which heterogeneous firms decide between family and professional management when the latter are subject to contracting frictions. The paper tests the model's predictions using regional variation in trust within countries. Consistent with the model, the finding show that there is sorting of firms across management modes, in which smaller firms and those in regions with worse contracting environments are more likely to be family managed. These firms are on average 25 percent less productive than professionally managed firms, and moving from the country with the least reliable contracting environment to the most increases total factor productivity by 21.6 percent. Family management rather than ownership drives these results.
    Date: 2019–04–03
  9. By: Bahar, Dany (Brookings Institution); Choudhury, Prithwiraj (Harvard Business School); Rapoport, Hillel (Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: We investigate the relationship between the presence of migrant inventors and the dynamics of innovation in the migrants' receiving countries. We find that countries are 25 to 60 percent more likely to gain advantage in patenting in certain technologies given a twofold increase in the number of foreign inventors from other nations that specialize in those same technologies. For the average country in our sample, this number corresponds to only 25 inventors and a standard deviation of 135. We deal with endogeneity concerns by using historical migration networks to instrument for stocks of migrant inventors. Our results generalize the evidence of previous studies that show how migrant inventors "import" knowledge from their home countries, which translates into higher patenting in the receiving countries. We interpret these results as tangible evidence of migrants facilitating the technology-specific diffusion of knowledge across nations.
    Keywords: innovation, migration, patent, technology, knowledge
    JEL: O31 O33 F22
    Date: 2020–02
  10. By: Vincenzo Galasso; Tommaso Nannicini; Salvatore Nunnari
    Abstract: Negative advertising is frequent in electoral campaigns, despite its ambiguous effectiveness: negativity may reduce voters’ evaluation of the targeted politician but have a backlash effect for the attacker. We study the effect of negative advertising in electoral races with more than two candidates with a large scale field experiment during an electoral campaign for mayor in Italy and a survey experiment in a fictitious mayoral campaign. In our field experiment, we find a strong, positive spillover effect on the third main candidate (neither the target nor the attacker). This effect is confirmed in our survey experiment, which creates a controlled environment with no ideological components nor strategic voting. The negative ad has no impact on the targeted incumbent, has a sizable backlash effect on the attacker, and largely benefits the idle candidate. The attacker is perceived as less cooperative, less likely to lead a successful government, and more ideologically extreme.
    Keywords: electoral campaign, political advertisement, randomized controlled trial, field experiment, survey experiment
    JEL: D72 C90 M37
    Date: 2020

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