nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2019‒04‒15
thirteen papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. FIRM OWNERSHIP AND GREEN PATENTS. DOES FAMILY INVOLVEMENT IN BUSINESS MATTER? By Francesco Aiello; Paola Cardamone; Lidia Mannarino; Valeria Pupo
  2. Global innovation networks for Chinese high tech small and medium enterprises: the supportive role of highly skilled migrants and returnees By Lin, Jingyi; Plechero, Monica
  5. Productive densification and hollowing-out process in the Brazilian manufacturing By Paulo César Morceiro; Joaquim José Martins Guilhoto
  6. Market Power and Innovation in the Intangible Economy By Maarten de Ridder
  7. Networks, Start-Up Capital and Women's Entrepreneurial Performance in Africa: Evidence from Eswatini By Brixiova, Zuzana; Kangoye, Thierry
  8. Measuring Entrepreneurship: Do Established Metrics Capture High-Impact Schumpeterian Entrepreneurship? By Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino
  9. An Organizational Capacity model for wine cooperatives By Maria de Fátima Souza; Ana Carvalho
  10. Institutional determinants of export competitiveness among the EU countries: evidence from Bayesian model averaging By Beata K. Bierut; Piot Dybka
  11. Understanding the Sharing Economy By Diane Coyle; Shane O'Connor
  12. Does combining different types of collaboration always benefit firms? Collaboration, complementarity and product innovation in Norway By Silje Haus-Reve; Rune Dahl Fitjar; Andrés Rodríguez-Pose
  13. Towards a survival capabilities framework: Lessons from the Portuguese Textile and Clothing industry By Arash Rezazadeh; Ana Carvalho

  1. By: Francesco Aiello (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza "Giovanni Anania" - DESF, Università della Calabria); Paola Cardamone (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza "Giovanni Anania" - DESF, Università della Calabria); Lidia Mannarino (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza "Giovanni Anania" - DESF, Università della Calabria); Valeria Pupo (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza "Giovanni Anania" - DESF, Università della Calabria)
    Abstract: This paper investigates how family and non-family firms differ in terms of their capability to introduce environmental innovation, which is measured by green patents. The analysis is carried out using a large patenting data set related to the inventions produced by about 4200 Italian manufacturing firms over the period 2009–2017. The results show that family firms are less likely than non-family firms to implement innovations in green technologies. Moreover, the role played by the stock of knowledge and the environmental management system certification differs across firm type.
    Keywords: eco-innovation, green patent, family firms
    JEL: O31 C23 G34
    Date: 2019–03
  2. By: Lin, Jingyi (Lund University); Plechero, Monica (University of Florence)
    Abstract: Literature investigating highly skilled Chinese migrants has so far focused on their role as drivers of new entrepreneurship as well as innovation in firms and regions, although their role in supporting small and medium enterprises (SMEs) engagement in global innovation networks (GINs) is still underexplored. The participation in GINs is key for high tech SMEs, which rely on sophisticated knowledge but may not have the same absorptive capacity of large firms and multinational corporations. Based on primary data from a case study on 19 SMEs in the IT and new media industry in Beijing, this paper investigates the role of returnees and highly skilled migrants in supporting the engagement of Chinese high-tech SMEs in GINs. The results reveal the important role of those individuals in bringing SMEs in former international knowledge networks and establishing new linkages for sourcing key knowledge.
    Keywords: lobal innovation networks; GIN; knowledge sourcing; small and medium enterprises; SMEs; Beijing; China; highly skilled migrants; returnees; IT and new media industry
    JEL: F20 O30
    Date: 2019–04–04
  3. By: Francesco Aiello (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza "Giovanni Anania" - DESF, Università della Calabria); Paola Cardamone (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza "Giovanni Anania" - DESF, Università della Calabria); Valeria Pupo (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza "Giovanni Anania" - DESF, Università della Calabria)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the determinants of university-industry links in five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK), using internationally comparable firm-level data for the period 2007-2009. Besides the usual firm-specific variables, it examines the role of meritocratic management practices in firms’ decisions to collaborate in R&D. Firm innovative efforts, the export status and the R&D government support are positively related to business-university links in almost all countries, human capital and firms’ size in two out of five countries under scrutiny, while belonging to science-based sectors does not seem to play a significant role. Importantly, we find that meritocratic managerial practices positively affect the firm-university nexus in Germany, France and UK, while meritocracy does not appear to enhance businesses’ R&D collaboration in Italy and in Spain.
    Keywords: industry-university links, European countries, R&D, manufacturing firms, meritocratic managerial practices
    JEL: O31 D21 C25
    Date: 2019–04
  4. By: amr a.bary, amr
    Abstract: The focus of this paper is the discussion of the competitiveness facing SMEs in the Egyptian business environment by examining the opportunities and supports from the banking sector, government and SME employers. The purpose of this paper is to review the experiences of group of countries that have benefited greatly from SME development and have been able to achieve high economic growth rates. On the other hand, presented the problems facing the Egyptian economy in order to achieve rapid growth rates at the level of small and medium enterprises and finally propose the strategies that can contribute effectively to the development of these projects. Therefore, in this study the importance of SMEs for developing countries is considered. First, the definition, strengths and weakness of SME's business are mentioned. In the second section, case studies from other countries for SMEs are considered. Then, the nature of business in the Egyptian economy is discussed. Finally, the results the questionnaire reflects the current situation and the conclusions were sets according to these results.
    Keywords: Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Challenges, Competitiveness, SME Development
    JEL: O11
    Date: 2019–02–09
  5. By: Paulo César Morceiro; Joaquim José Martins Guilhoto
    Abstract: Brazilian industrialization by import substitution provided high levels of productive densification, however, these levels reduced after the trade opening. However, the existing studies used sectoral disaggregation that does not allow the identification of productive niches that are densified or hollowed-out among the manufacturing sectors. This work mapped and analyzed, for the first time for Brazil, the degree of productive densification of all 258 industrial classes based on unpublished data obtained from IBGE. Thus, the study identified the more and less densified niches, possible targets of public policies. Results show that the low and middle-low technology classes are still predominantly densified, but half of the high and medium-high technology industrial classes have moderate to high productive rarefaction, and some technological classes are already maquiladoras. It is concluded that the productive hollowing-out process of the more technological industrial classes can delay the Brazilian development, especially in Science, Technology, and Innovation.
    Keywords: productive densification; industrial development; intermediate inputs; deindustrialization; maquiladora industry
    JEL: L6 L16 O14 O54
    Date: 2019–04–10
  6. By: Maarten de Ridder (Centre for Macroeconomics (CFM); University of Cambridge)
    Abstract: Productivity growth has stagnated over the past decade. This paper argues that the rise of intangible inputs (such as information technology) can cause a slowdown of growth through the effect it has on production and competition. I hypothesize that intangibles cause a shift from variable costs to endogenous fixed costs, and use a new measure to show that the share of fixed costs in total costs rises when firms increase ICT and software investments. I then develop a quantitative framework in which intangibles reduce marginal costs and endogenously raise fixed costs, which gives firms with low adoption costs a competitive advantage. This advantage can be used to deter other firms from entering new markets and from developing higher quality products. Paradoxically, the presence of firms with high levels of intangibles can therefore reduce the rate of creative destruction and innovation. I calibrate the model using administrative data on the universe of French firms and find that, after initially boosting productivity, the rise of intangibles causes a 0.6 percentage point decline in long-term productivity growth. The model further predicts a decline in business dynamism, a fall in the labor share and an increase in markups, though markups overstate the increase in firm profits.
    Keywords: Business dynamism, Growth, Intangibles, Productivity, Market power
    Date: 2019–03
  7. By: Brixiova, Zuzana (Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republik); Kangoye, Thierry (African Development Bank)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of networks in access of women entrepreneurs to start-up capital and firm performance in Eswatini, a country with one of the highest female unemployment rates in Africa. The paper first shows that higher initial capital is associated with better sales performance for both men and women entrepreneurs. Women entrepreneurs start their firms with smaller start-up capital than men and are more likely to fund it from their own sources, which reduces the size of their firm and sales level. However, women with higher education start their firms with more capital than their less educated counterparts. Moreover, women who receive support from professional networks have higher initial capital, while those trained in financial literacy more often access external funding sources, including through their networks.
    Keywords: networks, start-up capital, multivariate analysis, Africa
    JEL: L53 O12
    Date: 2019–03
  8. By: Henrekson, Magnus (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Sanandaji, Tino (Institute for Economic and Business History Research (EHFF), Stockholm School of Economics)
    Abstract: Are quantitative measures driven by small business activity also valid proxies for high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship? We compile four hand-collected measures of high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship (VC-funded IPOs, self-made billionaire entrepreneurs, unicorn start-ups, and young top global firms founded by individual entrepreneurs) and six measures dominated by small business activity as well as institutional and economic variables for 64 countries. Factor analysis reveals that much of the variation is accounted for by two distinct factors: one relating to high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship and the other relating to small business activity. Except for the World Bank measure of firm registration of limited liability companies quantity-based measures tend to be inappropriate proxies for high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: illionaire entrepreneurs; High-impact entrepreneurship; Innovation; Institutions; Schumpeterian entrepreneurship; Self-employment
    JEL: L50 M13 O31 P14
    Date: 2019–04–03
  9. By: Maria de Fátima Souza (Federal University of Tocantins and NIPE); Ana Carvalho (University of Minho and NIPE)
    Abstract: We propose a model of Organizational Capacity for wine cooperatives. Cooperatives are organizations with distinct characteristics, in particular, they have a dual nature: they are simultaneously a business and non-profit driven organizations owned by their members. This poses specific challenges to cooperative management. Organizational Capacity is a construct developed for nonprofit organizations, but it has not been applied to cooperatives. Based on a qualitative study with 19 wine cooperatives in Portugal, we developed an organizational capacity model that accounts for the social and the economic dimensions of cooperatives and the peculiarities of their identity. The model comprises seven interdependent capacity elements: infrastructure, financial, strategic planning, marketing, human resources, relationship with members, and management capacity. We explore each of these capacities and how they relate to each other, highlighting their specific relevance in cooperatives.
    Keywords: organizational capacity, cooperatives, wine cooperatives, PortugaL
    Date: 2018
  10. By: Beata K. Bierut; Piot Dybka
    Abstract: Although the impact of institutions has been broadly studied in the literature on economic growth, their impact on international trade is less well-established. We aim to fill this gap by creating an extended database that, apart from price and non-price factors traditionally analyzed as determinants of exports, also includes measures of institutional development. Next, we introduce the Bayesian Model Averaging to establish which factors play the most important role for the export performance. Our results show that institutions have two types of effects on exports: a direct positive effect on the overall export performance (e.g. regulation) as well as a transformational impact on the export structure (from less to more technologically advanced exports, e.g. freedom to trade internationally). Our results also confirm that technological factors (e.g. patents) have a much greater impact on export performance than price factors. Moreover, some technological factors only have a significant transformational impact on the export structure (e.g. R&D expenditure). Human capital also seems to have only a transformational, rather than direct, impact on exports.
    Keywords: Trade, price competitiveness, technological competitiveness, institutional environment, Bayesian Model Averaging
    JEL: C11 C33 F14 F15
    Date: 2019–04
  11. By: Diane Coyle; Shane O'Connor
    Abstract: The sharing economy appears to have been growing rapidly. This paper contributes to the debate about its definition and measurement through an analysis of interviews conducted with UK platforms identifying themselves as part of the sharing economy. We conclude there are common features that enable a sufficiently clear definitional boundary, namely peer-to-peer digital matching and greater utilisation of under-used assets or skills. We find that the larger sharing economy platforms reduce costs and entry barriers for smaller platforms, contributing to a rich ecosystem. This implies a useful definition should include business-to-business peer-matching transactions, as well as business-to-consumer transactions. In addition to their economic impacts – transactions that would not otherwise occur, lower consumer prices and additional choice, the scope to earn additional income in a flexible manner, and the greater use of assets with spare capacity – all the interviewees expressed overt non-financial motivations, such as positive environmental impact, contributing to the community, and building trust. We argue this common intrinsic motivation means measurement of the sharing economy for some purposes should also include those platforms which enable free rather than monetary exchanges.
    Keywords: sharing economy, digital platforms
    JEL: L22
    Date: 2019–02
  12. By: Silje Haus-Reve; Rune Dahl Fitjar; Andrés Rodríguez-Pose
    Abstract: Product innovation is widely thought to benefit from collaboration with both scientific and supply-chain partners. The combination of exploration and exploitation capacity, and of scientific and experience-based knowledge, are expected to yield multiplicative effects. However, the assumption that scientific and supply-chain collaboration are complementary and reinforce firm-level innovation has not been examined empirically. This paper tests this assumption on an unbalanced panel sample of 8337 firm observations in Norway, covering the period 2006?2010. The results of the econometric analysis go against the orthodoxy. They show that Norwegian firms do not benefit from doing "more of all" on their road to innovation. While individually both scientific and supply-chain collaboration improve the chances of firm-level innovation, there is a significant negative interaction between them. This implies that scientific and supply-chain collaboration, in contrast to what has been often highlighted, are substitutes rather than complements. The results are robust to the introduction of different controls and hold for all tested innovation outcomes: product innovation, new-to-market product innovation, and share of turnover from new products.
    Keywords: Innovation, firms, scientific and supply-chain collaboration, interaction, Norway
    JEL: O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2019–04
  13. By: Arash Rezazadeh (School of Economics and Management and NIPE, University of Minho); Ana Carvalho (University of Minho: School of Economics and Management and NIPE)
    Abstract: Influenced dramatically by the financial crisis and the European sovereign debt crisis, many European industries are now struggling with the new international division of labour that compels the shift of manufacturing to lower labour cost countries. These decisive global challenges underline the need to investigate why some firms can survive such crises while many others fail. Grounded in this narrative, ‘survival’ can be regarded as a period of the firm’s growth and change over time, where it faces a crisis and stiff competition. This view is different from the one that defines the concept of ‘business survival’ as the second stage of the firm’s lifespan, after birth and before success, where it has obtained certain customers having their demanded products or services delivered (Lewis & Churchill, 1983). Survival is of essential significance for the firm since a desirable performance over the surviving period enables eventual success, whilst a poor performance precipitates failure and shutdown (Bo , 2008; Korunka, Kessler, Frank, & Lueger, 2010; Naidoo, 2010). Although the literature is well developed on the structural determinants of firm survival, mostly related to firm age and size, less is known about certain internal capabilities the firm needs to develop in order to compensate for resource scarcity and financial restrictions caused by a crisis or other environmental disruptions. This reinforces the need to provide a more detailed clarification of the concept of ‘business survival’ and explore the capabilities that are vital to the survival of firms in times of struggle.
    Date: 2018

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