nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2019‒01‒21
seven papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The impact of private R&D on the performance of food-processing firms: Evidence from Europe, Japan and North America By Pedro Andres Garzon Delvaux; Heinrich Hockmann; Peter Voigt; Pavel Ciaian; Sergio Gomez y Paloma
  2. Firm Size and Innovation in the Service Sector By Audretsch, David; Hafenstein, Marian; Kritikos, Alexander S.; Schiersch, Alexander
  3. Analysis of Human Resource Competency as Effort to Increase SMEs Economic Sector Productivity with Gender as Differentiating Variable By Wibawa, Dian Prihardini
  4. Knowledge Management Process of Germinated Brown Rice Production Community Enterprise By Worasit Wongadisai; Sumalee Chanchalor; Jariya Neanchaleay
  5. Female Entrepreneurs' Pre-Exposure to a Business Environment and Its Influence on Selected Entrepreneurial Factors: A South African Perspective By Natanya Meyer; Jhalukpreya Surujlal
  6. The Potential of ICT in Serbia: An Emerging Industry in the European Context By Alexander Kleibrink; Nikola Radovanovic; Henning Kroll; Djerdj Horvat; Djuro Kutlaca; Lazar Zivkovic
  7. New Sources of Growth: The Role of Frugal Innovation and Transformational Leadership By Solikin M. Juhro; A. Farid Aulia

  1. By: Pedro Andres Garzon Delvaux (European Commission – JRC); Heinrich Hockmann (Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO) (Halle, Germany)); Peter Voigt (European Commission – DG ECFIN); Pavel Ciaian (European Commission – JRC); Sergio Gomez y Paloma (European Commission – JRC)
    Abstract: This report investigates the impact of corporate research and development (R&D) on firm performance in the food-processing industry. The agro-food industry is usually considered to be a low-tech sector (the share of total output that is attributable to R&D is around 0.27% in the EU). However, the agro-food industry is very heterogeneous. On the one hand, there are many highly innovative food-processing firms with intensive R&D activity and, on the other hand, many food-processing firms derive and adopt innovations from other sectors such as machinery, packaging and other manufacturing suppliers. We perform data envelopment analysis (DEA) with two-step bootstrapping, which allows us to correct the bias in (in)efficiency and generate unbiased estimates for (in)efficiencies. We use a corporate dataset of 307 companies from agriculture and food-processing industries from the EU, the USA, Canada and Japan for the period 1991–2009. The estimates suggest that R&D has a positive effect on firms’ performance, with marginal gains decreasing at the R&D level, and performance differences detected across regions and food sectors. General public expenditure in R&D is also associated with a positive impact on firm performance. As a result, policy support for this type of non-high-tech innovative sector is expected to generate growth. However, results that suggest heterogeneity in R&D effects across EU Member States may point to differences in the implications of innovation policies across EU regions.
    Keywords: Research and development, corporate R&D, productivity, technical efficiency, stochastic frontier analysis, DEA, double bootstrapping, agro-food, food-processing industry
    JEL: L66 O16 O30 Q16
    Date: 2018–09
  2. By: Audretsch, David (Indiana University); Hafenstein, Marian (DIW Berlin); Kritikos, Alexander S. (DIW Berlin); Schiersch, Alexander (DIW Berlin)
    Abstract: A rich literature links knowledge inputs with innovative outputs. However, most of what is known is restricted to manufacturing. This paper analyzes whether the three aspects involving innovative activity - R&D; innovative output; and productivity - hold for knowledge intensive services. Combining the models of Crepon et al. (1998) and of Ackerberg et al. (2015), allows for causal interpretation of the relationship between innovation output and labor productivity. We find that knowledge intensive services benefit from innovation activities in the sense that these activities causally increase their labor productivity. Moreover, the firm size advantage found for manufacturing in previous studies nearly disappears for knowledge intensive services.
    Keywords: MSMEs, R&D, service sector, innovation, productivity, entrepreneurship
    JEL: L25 L60 L80 O31 O33
    Date: 2018–12
  3. By: Wibawa, Dian Prihardini
    Abstract: Competency is a very important factor in increasing work productivity. A qualified workforce will have a positive impact on improving business productivity. Thus, the level of corporate profitability also increased. Human resource improvement strategy is an excellent strategy apart from other factors such as technology improves. Increased strategy through human resource competence can be done with the improvement of ability, attitude, knowledge, and expertise. The purpose of this research is to see the influence of human resource competence on the productivity of small and medium business actors with gender variable as differentiator variable in Pangkalpinang city. The result of this research indicates the male labour variable of competency which influence productivity is only knowledge variable, while other variables have no effect. While for women the ability variable, skill and knowledge have an effect on productivity.
    Keywords: Competency of human resources; Gender; Productivity
    JEL: J16 J24 O15
    Date: 2018–06–05
  4. By: Worasit Wongadisai (King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok); Sumalee Chanchalor (King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok); Jariya Neanchaleay (King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok)
    Abstract: The objective of this qualitative research was to investigate the knowledge management process of Germinated Brown Rice Production Community Enterprise in Sakon Nakhon, Northeastern region of Thailand, a major processing source. The sample was selected based on purposive sampling. It was Ban-Noijomsri Community Enterprise with effective knowledge management. Methodologies included interview, focus group, and participant and non-participant observations. Data were analyzed by content analysis. The results of this study indicated that 1). Knowledge identification focused on the knowledge used in production and production process development and community enterprise and business management, 2). Knowledge creation and acquisition were conducted inside and outside community enterprise through discussion and knowledge exchange with members, participation in training, and field trip with external agencies, 3). Knowledge storage was conducted by storing knowledge through personal recognition and important information note, 4). Knowledge distribution was conducted through discussion and knowledge sharing, demonstration, manual and process sign board preparation, and 5). Knowledge application was conducted by integrating knowledge and experience into new academic knowledge to obtain new body of knowledge. The key factors contributing to successful knowledge management were leadership and organizational culture.
    Keywords: Knowledge Management, Germinated Brown Rice, Community Enterprise
    Date: 2018–11
  5. By: Natanya Meyer (North-West University); Jhalukpreya Surujlal (North-West University)
    Abstract: The role of entrepreneurship in societies has become more profound in recent times. Studies suggest that pre-exposure to an entrepreneurial environment while growing up can greatly contribute to an individual’s learning process as they see first-hand how entrepreneurial tasks and activities are performed. Growing up, or being exposed to such an environment might potentially reduce the uncertainty felt by a prospective young or new entrepreneur. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in several entrepreneurial variables between two South African female entrepreneurs’ pre-exposure to entrepreneurship groups. Group 1 represented female entrepreneurs who had no previous exposure from an entrepreneurial parent, close friend or relative and Group 2 included those who had some form of previous exposure from an entrepreneurial parent, close friend or relative. The study made use of a self-reporting questionnaire and used a convenience sample to collect data from female entrepreneurs. The final sample equated to 510 usable questionnaires which included responses from all nine South African provinces. Data were analysed using reliability and validity analysis, Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Analysis of Variances (ANOVA). Results indicated that just one variable, internal motivation, was influenced by pre-exposure to entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs who were raised in a business environment; that is, having a parent, close friend or relative who managed an entrepreneurial business, reported a higher mean for internal motivation compared to those who did not have this exposure. Several studies suggest that benefiting from an entrepreneur role model such as a parent, close friend or relative may lead to a more positive outlook on entrepreneurship and a stronger inclination to start a business. The results from this study prove interesting as, in the case of South African female entrepreneurs, pre-exposure to entrepreneurship had little effect on the identified entrepreneurial factors with the exception of internal motivation.
    Keywords: Female entrepreneurship, pre-exposure, entrepreneurship environment, South Africa, entrepreneurial factors
    Date: 2018–11
  6. By: Alexander Kleibrink (European Commission - JRC); Nikola Radovanovic (European Commission - JRC); Henning Kroll (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI); Djerdj Horvat (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI); Djuro Kutlaca (Institute Mihajlo Pupin); Lazar Zivkovic (Institute Mihajlo Pupin)
    Abstract: The Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) industry is widely recognised as one of key driving forces of contemporary competitiveness. Inside the European Union, ICT are not only seen as a strategic sector, but also as a means to create positive spillovers to other economic sectors and achieve cross-innovation. Under this objective, the European Union supports the enhancement of the ICT industry potential in the Western Balkans, which was recently underlined with the adoption of the Digital Agenda for the Western Balkans. Within this region, Serbia has recorded the strongest growth. The Serbian government recognised digitalisation as priority. However, the environment of the ICT industry in Serbia, mostly referring to regulatory, political and educational frameworks, still needs to be improved. This paper analyses the status quo of the ICT industry in the Western Balkans with a focus on Serbia. It discusses the main challenges and proposes development paths with specific measures to be taken.
    Keywords: EU, Western Balkans, Serbia, ICT, software
    Date: 2018–12
  7. By: Solikin M. Juhro (Bank Indonesia); A. Farid Aulia (Bank Indonesia)
    Abstract: Untuk dapat bangkit dari permasalahan pasca krisis dan tumbuh secara berkesinambungan, ekonomi suatu negara dituntut untuk mampu beradaptasi dengan perkembangan baru, yang tidak hanya VUCA (Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, and Ambiguous) namun sudah TUNA (Turbulent, Uncertain, Novel, and Ambiguous). Negara dituntut untuk berinovasi, mendayagunakan teknologi yang terus berubah secara kontinu dan eksponensial, serta menciptakan sumber pertumbuhan ekonomi baru yang mampu mendongkrak kesejahteraan masyarakat luas. Hal ini menuntut karakter kepemimpinan transformatif untuk mampu mendorong frugal innovation yang berdampak dan berkelanjutan, yang dapat dijadikan sebagai strategic driver pertumbuhan ekonomi ke depan. Hasil analisis menyimpulkan mengenai pentingnya peran kualitas inovasi dan potensi kepemimpinan sebagai sumber pertumbuhan ekonomi baru. Penelitian ini juga menawarkan pendekatan baru, yaitu Breakthrough Possibility Frontier (BPF) untuk memperlihatkan peran transformational leadership dengan kemampuan melakukan breaktrough dalam mendorong game changing frugal innovation sebagai strategic driver pertumbuhan ekonomi.
    Keywords: pertumbuhan ekonomi, inovasi, frugal innovation, transformational leadership, Breaktrough Possibility Frontier
    JEL: O30 O15 O40 M50
    Date: 2018–08

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