nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2018‒11‒26
nine papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Learning to Import from Your Peers By Bisztray, Marta; Koren, Miklós; Szeidl, Adam
  2. The Role of Female Top Manager in Innovation Activities: Case of CEECs? firms By Marija Becic; Perica Vojinic
  3. Australian wine industry competitiveness: Why so slow to emerge? By Anderson, Kym
  4. Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation in Developing Countries: A Panel Analysis By Emna Rassâa; Hafedh Ben Abdennebi
  5. Network Formation with Local Complements and Global Substitutes: The Case of R&D Networks By Hsieh, Chih-Sheng; König, Michael; Liu, Xiaodong
  6. The Role of Gender in ICT-mediated Agricultural Information Campaigns By Van Campenhout, B.; Spielman, D.; Lecoutere, E.
  7. Taxation and Innovation in the 20th Century By Akcigit, Ufuk; Grigsby, John; Nicholas, Tom; Stantcheva, Stefanie
  8. The effects of foreign direct investment on regional growth and productivity By Park, Jaegon
  9. Human Capital Inequality: Empirical Evidence By Brant Abbott; Giovanni Gallipoli

  1. By: Bisztray, Marta; Koren, Miklós; Szeidl, Adam
    Abstract: We use firm-level data from Hungary to estimate knowledge spillovers in importing through fine spatial and managerial networks. By identifying from variation in peers' import experience across source countries, by comparing the spillover from neighboring buildings with a cross-street placebo, and by exploiting plausibly exogenous firm moves, we obtain credible estimates and establish three results. (1) There are significant knowledge spillovers in both spatial and managerial networks. Having a peer which has imported from a particular country more than doubles the probability of starting to import from that country, but the effect quickly decays with distance. (2) Spillovers are heterogeneous: they are stronger when firms or peers are larger or more productive, and exhibit complementarities in firm and peer productivity. (3) The model-implied social multiplier is highly skewed, implying that targeting an import-encouragement policy to firms with many and productive neighbors can make it 26% more effective. These results highlight the benefit of firm clusters in facilitating the diffusion of business practices.
    Keywords: Imports; manager networks; peer effects; social multiplier; spatial spillovers
    JEL: D22 F14 R32
    Date: 2018–09
  2. By: Marija Becic (Department of Economics and Business Economics, University of Dubrovnik); Perica Vojinic (Department of Economics and Business Economics, University of Dubrovnik)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explore whether the gender of top manager plays an important role in innovation activities in selected CEE countries. For this purpose, a framework of logistic binary regressions is applied to the firm-level data from Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS). The research assesses the differences in firm innovation activities in CEECs considering the gender structure of the top management. Findings indicate that, on average, there is a lower possibility that a firm innovates when it is governed by a female manager. However, women in top management are underrepresented in all the industries but this is specially the case in highly innovative sectors such as IT industry.
    Keywords: process innovation, product innovation, gender diversity, top management, CEECs firms
    JEL: J16 O30
    Date: 2018–10
  3. By: Anderson, Kym
    Abstract: Despite favourable growing conditions, Australia's production or exports of wine did not become significant until the 1890s. Both grew in the 1920s, but only because of government support. Once that support was removed in the late 1940s, production plateaued and exports diminished: only 2% of wine production was exported during 1975-85. Yet over the next two decades Australia's wine production quadrupled and the share exported rose to two-thirds – before falling somewhat in the next ten years. This paper explains why it took so long for Australia's production and competitive advantage in wine to emerge, why it took off spectacularly after the mid-1980s and why it fell in the ten years to 2015. It concludes that despite the recent downturn in the industry's fortunes, the country's international competitiveness is now firmly established and commensurate with its ideal wine-growing climate, notwithstanding the likelihood of further boom-slump cycles in the decades ahead.
    Keywords: boom-plateau wine cycles; comparative advantage; wine competitiveness; wine trade specialization
    JEL: D12 F15 L66 N10
    Date: 2018–09
  4. By: Emna Rassâa (IHEC, University of Carthage); Hafedh Ben Abdennebi (IHEC, University of Carthage)
    Abstract: Given the importance of innovation for the development and economic growth in developing countries, we therefore consider it necessary to examine the relationship between intellectual property rights (IPR) and innovation. In order to test this relationship, we use of panel data for a sample of 13 developing countries over the period from 1998 to 2011. We make two contributions to the literature. First of all, the majority of empirical studies, using a single indicator of IPR elaborated by Park And Ginarte (1997), usually do not take into account the application of laws on patents filed in the practice. Unlike the previous studies, we incorporate in our work a new indicator developed by Papageorgiadis et al. (2014) which used to measure the intensity of the dimension related to the application of patent systems. We have also used the one developed by Park and Ginarte (1997) that measures the strength of patent regulations. As a second contribution, we add a new factor likely to influence innovation, namely education. The variable of education has not been taken into account in some studies. On the one hand, our empirical results reveal the existence of nonlinear relationships between IPR and innovation and argue, on the other hand, that the economic development, the opening as well as education are essential factors that contribute significantly and positively to innovation in developing countries.
    Keywords: intellectual property rights, innovation, education, developing countries, panel data
    JEL: O31 O34 C23
    Date: 2018–10
  5. By: Hsieh, Chih-Sheng; König, Michael; Liu, Xiaodong
    Abstract: We introduce a stochastic network formation model where agents choose both actions and links. Neighbors in the network benefit from each other's action levels through local complementarities and there exists a global interaction effect reflecting a strategic substitutability in actions. We provide a complete equilibrium characterization in the form of a Gibbs measure, and show that the model is consistent with empirically observed networks. We then use our equilibrium characterization to show that the model can be conveniently estimated even for large networks. The policy relevance is demonstrated with examples of firm exit, mergers and subsidies in R&D collaboration networks.
    Keywords: key player; mergers and acquisitions; network formation; peer effects; Subsidies; technology spillovers
    JEL: C11 C63 C73 D83 L22
    Date: 2018–09
  6. By: Van Campenhout, B.; Spielman, D.; Lecoutere, E.
    Abstract: In agricultural information dissemination campaigns through agricultural advisory services, seemingly small design attributes, such as the way the information is delivered, who delivers the information, or who is targeted by the message, can result in significant differences in effectiveness and inclusiveness of the intervention. In the context of Information & Communication Technology (ICT) mediated knowledge transfer, this study investigates the importance of the gender composition of the person(s) who provide(s) the information and the gender composition of the person(s) who receive(s) the information. In particular, we set up a field experiment among smallholder maize farmers in Uganda to assess if reducing asymmetric information within the household leads to improved outcomes. In addition, we study the effectiveness of promoting a more cooperative approach to household farming. Finally, we test for gender homophily effects, where female farmers learn more from female trainers. Effectiveness is assessed in terms of knowledge gained, adoption of modern inputs and recommend practices, yield, and poverty reduction. Outcomes are dis-aggregated by gender to study changes in intra-household equity and women empowerment. While endline of the study is planned for February 2018, we preview encouraging effects on knowledge transfer as measured immediately after administering the treatments. Acknowledgement : We acknowledge support from USAID's Global Development Lab and Digital Green.
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2018–07
  7. By: Akcigit, Ufuk; Grigsby, John; Nicholas, Tom; Stantcheva, Stefanie
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of corporate and personal taxes on innovation in the United States over the twentieth century. We use three new datasets: a panel of the universe of inventors who patent since 1920; a dataset of the employment, location and patents of firms active in R&D since 1921; and a historical state-level corporate tax database since 1900, which we link to an existing database on state-level personal income taxes. Our analysis focuses on the impact of taxes on individual inventors and firms (the micro level) and on states over time (the macro level). We propose several identification strategies, all of which yield consistent results: i) OLS with fixed effects, including inventor and state-times-year fixed effects, which make use of differences between tax brackets within a state-year cell and which absorb heterogeneity and contemporaneous changes in economic conditions; ii) an instrumental variable approach, which predicts changes in an individual or firm's total tax rate with changes in the federal tax rate only; iii) event studies, synthetic cohort case studies, and a border county strategy, which exploits tax variation across neighboring counties in different states. We find that taxes matter for innovation: higher personal and corporate income taxes negatively affect the quantity and quality of inventive activity and shift its location at the macro and micro levels. At the macro level, cross-state spillovers or business-stealing from one state to another are important, but do not account for all of the effect. Agglomeration effects from local innovation clusters tend to weaken responsiveness to taxation. Corporate inventors respond more strongly to taxes than their non-corporate counterparts.
    Keywords: business taxation; Corporate taxation; firms; Income taxes; Innovation; inventors; R&D tax credits; state taxation
    JEL: H24 H25 H31 J61 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2018–09
  8. By: Park, Jaegon
    Abstract: To promote regional economic growth in the current global environment, nations have begun methodically combining internal assets with external capabilities. Against this backdrop, this paper demonstrates how foreign direct investment (FDI) — a major channel for participating in the global production network — influences regional economic development. Its key findings are as follows: 1) Korea has reached the stage where outbound overseas investments outpace inbound FDI, 2) FDI in Korea is heavily concentrated in a handful of regions and in particular the Seoul capital region, 3) inbound FDI has a statistically significant positive impact on regional growth and productivity and 4) outbound foreign investment weighs negatively on regional growth and productivity. The paper concludes by arguing the necessity of utilizing a global perspective in regional policymaking.
    Date: 2018–11
  9. By: Brant Abbott (University of British Columbia); Giovanni Gallipoli (University of British Columbia)
    Abstract: Wealth inequality has received considerable attention, with mounting evidence of steady and economically meaningful changes in the concentration of wealth ownership. By definition, wealth inequality captures disparity in the ownership of productive capital and other non-labor factors of production. In contrast, in this article we focus on the distribution of human capital and its implications for the accrual of economic resources to individuals and households. Human capital inequality can be thought of as measuring disparity in the ownership of labor factors of production, which are usually compensated in the form of wage income.
    Keywords: Inequality, wealth distribution, human capital
    JEL: J24 D31 I24
    Date: 2018–11

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