nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2018‒09‒10
seventeen papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Measuring and Examining Innovation in Philippine Business and Industry By Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Llanto, Gilberto M.; Serafica, Ramonette B.; Vizmanos, Jana Flor V.; Quimba, Francis Mark A.; Bairan, Jose Carlos Alexis C.
  2. Deconstruction of Absorptive Capacity and Its Applications By Sirisuhk Rakthin
  4. Innovation, Knowledge Diffusion, and Selection By Danial Lashkari
  5. An Overview of the Canadian Banking System: 1996 to 2015 By McKeown, Robert
  6. Disruptions, Resilience and Performance of Emerging Market Entrepreneurs: Evidence from Uganda By Anderson, Stephen J.; Kundu, Amrita; Ramdas, Kamalini
  7. The relationship between FDI, poverty reduction and environmental sustainability in Tunisia By Marwa Lazreg; Ezzeddine Zouari
  8. Innovating for the Better? The Role of Advocacy Group Work Experience for Employee Pay By Grimpe, Christoph; Kaiser, Ulrich; Sofka, Wolfgang
  9. Exporting a Bit Faster: The Long-Run Performance of Born Globals in Computing By Ferguson, Shon; Henrekson, Magnus
  10. Technology gaps and leaps in the sustainable development of English cereal and general cropping farms By Iliakis, Konstantinos; Gadanakis, Yiorgos; Park, Julian
  11. Inter-firm Transaction Networks and Location in a City By OTAZAWA Toshimori; OHIRA Yuki; Jos VAN OMMEREN
  12. Networks of Foreign Affiliates: Evidence from Japanese micro-data By Francesca SPINELLI; Dorothée ROUZET; ZHANG Hongyong
  13. Technological change and economic development: endogenous and exogenous fluctuations By Marianna Epicoco
  14. Strategic Implications of Counter-Geoengineering: Clash or Cooperation? By Daniel Heyen; Joshua Horton; Juan Moreno-Cruz
  15. Expectation Formation and Firm Activities: New evidence from a business outlook survey in Japan By CHEN Cheng; SENGA Tatsuro; SUN Chang; ZHANG Hongyong
  16. Tecnología, innovación y competencias ocupacionales en la sociedad del conocimiento By Catalano, Ana.
  17. A Patent Mining Approach for Technological opportunity Analysis in the Telehealth Industry By Juite Wang; Chun-Hao Huang

  1. By: Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Llanto, Gilberto M.; Serafica, Ramonette B.; Vizmanos, Jana Flor V.; Quimba, Francis Mark A.; Bairan, Jose Carlos Alexis C.
    Abstract: Innovation involves implementing new or significantly improved goods and services, production processes, marketing, or organizational methods for adding value. The measurement of innovation provides a mechanism for benchmarking national performance, as well as allows a better understanding of its relation to economic growth. Further, examining determinants and bottlenecks to innovation among firms provides inputs to mainstreaming of policies on innovation. In this paper, results of the 2015 Survey of Innovation Activities, conducted by the Philippine Institute for Development Studies, are described and discussed. Survey results suggest that less than half of the firms in the country were innovators, with larger-sized firms innovating more than the micro, small, and medium establishments. The most common innovative behavior among firms was process innovation. Effects of innovation were observed to be largely customer-driven. Firms identified cost factors as the most important barrier to innovation. Knowledge and cooperation networks for innovation need strengthening. Government support and its role on innovation was also limited. Firms hardly accessed technical assistance from the government and research institutions. Similarly, firms have limited cooperation with the academe in terms of innovation activities. Firms cooperated more internally with establishments within their enterprise, their customers, and suppliers for their innovation activities. Given these issues, the government needs to have a champion for developing stronger policies and interventions to support and encourage innovation. It is also important to improve information dissemination regarding public programs available to assist firms to pursue innovation. Networking, linkages, and collaboration among the government, industry associations, and universities and research institutions also require further enhancement.
    Keywords: innovation, business, Philippines, process innovation, product innovation, organizational innovation, marketing innovation, MSMEs, micro, small, and medium enterprises, 2015 Survey of Innovation Activities of Establishments
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Sirisuhk Rakthin (College of Management, Mahidol University)
    Abstract: Absorptive Capacity (ACAP) is a central construct in several areas of organization studies, e.g., strategic management, new product development, and organizational learning. The most prominent objective dimensions of ACAP are the exploratory learning?acquisition and assimilation of knowledge, transformative learning?maintaining the acquired knowledge over time, and exploitative learning?applying such knowledge to achieve superior performance (Garud & Nayyar, 1994; Lichtenthaler, 2009; Zahra & George, 2002). Recently, much has been investigated on the effect of these well-established dimensions of ACAP on firms? innovation and performance. Yet, despite a few attempts (e.g., Matusik & Heely, 2005; Vasudeva & Anand, 2011), existing literature stops short of offering other dimensions of ACAP, especially the dimensions that could represent managerial perceptions of the construct?s attributes. Quite likely, organizations? failure to understand the managerial perceptions of ACAP or effectively anticipate it in their routines may account in part for loss of their organizational and individual learning, thereby diminishing their future economic performance. In addition, there is limited research on a marketing context of ACAP though market knowledge is also a critical component of a firm?s ACAP. In seeking to address these shortcomings, this study intends to explore, clarify, and explicate other plausible dimensions of ACAP while extending the scope of ACAP beyond technology-related context. The study offers an exploratory study, using in-depth interview and online survey, to both qualitatively and quantitatively investigate the richness and multidimensionality of the concept including its implications on firms? knowledge creation outcomes from managerial viewpoints.
    Keywords: absorptive capacity; routines; extra-work; supportive organizational culture; trustworthiness of source; knowledge-oriented leadership; knowledge creation
    JEL: M10 C30 L20
    Date: 2018–07
  3. By: Jingong Huang (University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: This paper develops a multi-sector endogenous growth model which embeds a technology network that captures heterogeneous intersectoral knowledge spillovers. Each sector serves both as a distributor and a consumer of knowledge: the former depends on a sector's position in the network; the latter depends on its efficiency in utilising knowledge. The interaction of these forces influences long-run economic growth, sectoral shares and the firm size distribution. The sparsity of the network imposes an upper bound on the impact of knowledge spillovers. In this model, sectors converge to the same growth rate if they belong to the same irreducible network. However, their contributions to economic growth differ substantially, depending on their positions in the technology network and their efficiency in conducting innovation. Consequently, the model has implications for the allocation of innovation subsidies. The gain in economic growth derived from promoting innovation in the sector that utilises knowledge most efficiently is over 10,000 times larger than gain derived from promoting innovation in the least efficient sector.
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Danial Lashkari (Yale University)
    Abstract: This paper constructs a theory of industry growth through innovation and selection-driven creative destruction. Firms’ ideas determine their productivity and stochastically evolve over time. Firms innovate to improve their ideas and endogenously exit if unsuccessful. Entrants adopt the ideas of incumbents. In this model, when better ideas are innovated or adopted, they selectively replace worse ideas. Innovation externalities vary based on firm productivity: ideas generated by more productive firms create 1) longer-lasting positive externalities due to knowledge diffusion and 2) stronger negative externalities due to dynamic displacement of other firms. Therefore, the net external effect of innovation on aggregate productivity is heterogeneous and market equilibrium misallocates investments across firms. The solution to the social planner's problem suggests that optimal innovation policy instruments should depend on firm productivity. Quantitatively, the misallocations are large when the model is calibrated to firm-level data from US manufacturing and retail trade, and imply first-order considerations for the design of innovation policy.
    Date: 2018
  5. By: McKeown, Robert
    Abstract: From 1996 to 2015, total assets at Canadian and foreign banks operating in Canada grew four-times in size. This growth occurred with neither a significant regulatory change, such as the repeal of Glass-Steagall, nor the introduction of new business lines, such as wealth management or investment banking. Using data from CANSIM and a little used dataset from OSFI, I describe how the Canadian banks earn revenue, fund business activities, and pay expenses. The success of the Canadian banking system can be attributed to: i) a focus on retail and branch-level banking, ii) a preference for deposit-financing, and iii) minimizing costs, particularly noninterest expenses. Furthermore, I provide a broad overview of the data, accounting rules, and trends in Canadian banking. Estimating a reduced form model similar to DeBoskey and Jiang (2012), I find no evidence that the Canadian banks manipulated the provision for credit losses to ‘smooth’ earnings.
    Keywords: Financial Economics
    Date: 2017–04
  6. By: Anderson, Stephen J. (Stanford University); Kundu, Amrita (London Business School); Ramdas, Kamalini (London Business School)
    Abstract: We examine the effect of firm-specific business disruptions on the performance of small firms in emerging markets. We study the impact of both managerial disruptions (which result in the absence of the entrepreneur-owner or more broadly a key manager) and operational disruptions (e.g., supply glitches). We examine the effectiveness of resilience strategies in buffering against disruptions. We propose the use of relational resilience--i.e., the availability of suitable cover for the absent entrepreneur / key manager--as a measure of buffering against managerial disruptions. We also examine whether resource resilience (e.g., maintaining safety stock) helps recover from operational disruptions. In the absence of publicly available data, we hand-build a panel dataset by interviewing 646 randomly selected small firms over four time periods in Kampala, Uganda between June 2015 and November 2016. We find that disruptions are highly prevalent and have a statistically and economically significant effect on firm performance. When a firm faces multiple exogenous and severe disruptions in a six month period, its monthly sales go down by 13.7% (p = 0.013) and sales growth reduces by 17.1% on average over the six months (p = 0.070). Importantly, we find that both relational and resource resilience significantly buffer against the negative impact of disruptions; in some cases firms with high resilience are able to completely overcome the negative effect of disruptions on sales and sales growth. We discuss implications for policy makers and for large multi-nationals that buy from or sell to small emerging market firms.
    Date: 2018–07
  7. By: Marwa Lazreg (Université de Sousse); Ezzeddine Zouari (Université de Sousse)
    Abstract: Our goal in this paper is the study of the impact of FDI on poverty and sustainable development in the case of Tunisia and during the study period from 1985 to 2015. In addition, we used the test unit root of cointegration test, the model error correction of FMOLS and Granger causality. In the case of Tunisia, we find that all variables are integrated of order 1. Thus, we can use the cointegration test. Indeed, the result of the null hypothesis test of no cointegration was rejected at the 5% threshold, which explains the presence of a cointegration relationship between FDI, sustainable development and poverty. Finally, we present and interpreted the results of the estimated FMOLS model and Granger causality test to study the contribution of FDI to the poverty reduction and sustainable development in Tunisia. We find that the LIDE variable measuring foreign direct investment has a significant negative impact on the GINI index. We notice the LCO2 variable that measures the CO2 emissions has a negative and significant impact on poverty as measured by the poverty gap at $ 1.91. We prove that direct foreign investments have a significant negative impact on CO2 emissions. We find that the LIDE variable measuring foreign direct investment has a significant negative impact on the GINI index. We notice the LCO2 variable that measures the CO2 emissions has a negative and significant impact on poverty as measured by the poverty gap at $ 1.91. We prove that direct foreign investments have a significant negative impact on CO2 emissions. We found that the LIDE variable measuring foreign direct investment has a significant negative impact on the GINI index. We notice the LCO2 variable that measures the CO2 emissions has a negative and significant impact on poverty as measured by the poverty gap at $ 1.91. We prove that direct foreign investments have a significant negative impact on CO2 emissions
    Keywords: cointegration,FMOLS,CO2 emissions,poverty,IDE
    Date: 2018–04–02
  8. By: Grimpe, Christoph (Copenhagen Business School); Kaiser, Ulrich (University of Zurich); Sofka, Wolfgang (Copenhagen Business School)
    Abstract: How valuable is work experience with advocacy groups, e.g. Greenpeace, for new hires of innovative firms? We integrate strategic human capital with stakeholder theory and suggest that this experience creates scarce human capital (knowledge, skills, abilities) facilitating innovations acceptable and legitimate for stakeholders such as regulators or residents. We argue that such human capital is complementary to firm resources and leads to a value surplus. Individuals with advocacy group work experience can subsequently appropriate at least parts of that surplus through higher salaries. Using matched data for 10,303 employees in Denmark, we find that new hires of innovative firms with advocacy group human capital enjoy salary premiums which are stronger in mature and technologically concentrated firms. Our findings have important implications for HR decision making.
    Keywords: resource complementarity, advocacy groups, scarce human capital, stakeholder theory, value creation and capture
    JEL: J24 J6 C21
    Date: 2018–06
  9. By: Ferguson, Shon (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Henrekson, Magnus (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: Policymakers in several countries have recently taken steps to promote the rapid export expansion of high-tech small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The goal of these policies has been to create successful export-intensive firms, which are often referred to as born globals. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to study born globals in computing using firm-level register data, which cover the universe of firms in a particular country and sector. Using data on all Swedish computing startups founded 2007–2015, we find a systematic positive relationship between the propensity of a computing firm to reach customers globally via digital platforms and its long-run employment growth relative to domestically-oriented computer firms. We find mixed evidence that born globals in computing grow faster in terms of sales or value added. Our analysis also indicates that very few computing firms fit the profile of born globals; only 15 percent of the 250 largest computing employers in 2015 were born globals. Moreover, only 1.5 percent of computing startups founded 2007–2015 were computer game publishers, which arguably have the highest propensity to be born global. Thus, although we find positive born global effects at the firm level, policymakers must be aware that encouraging more born globals need not necessarily lead to large benefits for the overall economy.
    Keywords: Born globals; Computing industry; Exporting; Firm growth; Globalization; Job creation
    JEL: F14 F23 L25 M13
    Date: 2018–08–10
  10. By: Iliakis, Konstantinos; Gadanakis, Yiorgos; Park, Julian
    Abstract: Identifying and assessing technology gaps and technology leaps observed in the agricultural productivity change analysis is of paramount importance since it enables the identification of a set of effects that influence the way that inputs are transformed into outputs and resources are allocated between diversified farm activities. Previous studies have ignored the importance of heterogeneity between different farming systems and their characteristics and have also failed to account for the different rates of technology absorption with respect to an unrestricted universal production frontier considering simultaneous generation of main products and by-products. Furthermore, the technology leaps defined as varying rates of technology absorption over time with respect to the unrestricted universal production frontier may lead to miss-specified local production functions and biased efficiency and productivity change estimates. The analysis focused on the regional variation of the production environment, farm specialisation and level of engagement as constraints to productivity gains. By considering two different levels of endogenous and exogenous heterogeneity in the production environment, the analysis used data from the Farm Business Survey of English arable farms for the years 2005-2013 and employed the parametric stochastic meta-frontier analysis to measure sustainable productivity change as producers engage into agricultural and diversified activities as alternative sources of income. The model approaches simultaneous value-adding generation processes to reveal the relationship between change in producers’ endowments and productivity gains in a network application under uncertainty.
    Keywords: Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2017–04–25
  11. By: OTAZAWA Toshimori; OHIRA Yuki; Jos VAN OMMEREN
    Abstract: This study contributes to the literature on the relationship between geographical and relation-based distances of economic agents. We aim to estimate the causal effect of a firm's position in the inter-firm transaction network on its spatial location within a city. Using micro data of inter-firm financial transactions for non-retail firms in the metropolitan areas of Japan, we demonstrate that the more central firms in transaction networks tend to have smaller inter-firm distances and therefore locate at more accessible places within the city. We also find that the results are robust to alternative specifications both of network centrality measures and spatial accessibility measures. It is also declared that the effect for single establishment firms are much stronger than that for multi-establishment firms. Furthermore, the result shows that this effect is noticeable for young firms in knowledge-intensive industries. The evidence suggests the potential importance of the inter-firm transaction pattern as a determinant of urban spatial configuration.
    Date: 2018–08
  12. By: Francesca SPINELLI; Dorothée ROUZET; ZHANG Hongyong
    Abstract: The paper provides evidence on the investment patterns of Japanese multinational enterprises (MNEs) across countries and industries and analyzes the main drivers of Japanese foreign direct investment (FDI) location strategies, using detailed micro-data on Japanese parents and affiliates statistics. The main stylized facts point to the high degree of concentration of the activity of Japanese multinationals and differences in size and productivity depending on parents' and affiliates' main industry groups. The breakdown of affiliate sales by destination markets reveals that Japanese MNEs establish services affiliates primarily to maximize the proximity to local customers, while foreign affiliates in manufacturing sectors tend to engage more with third countries. Yet, some economies emerge as strategic gateways to other destinations in the region. The econometric analysis further analyzes the drivers of Japanese MNEs' expansion abroad in search of new markets, production efficiency, and regional or global platforms. Important factors shaping Japanese FDI decisions include firm characteristics and host market specificities such as market size, proximity, labor costs, technology, and trade policy barriers. The largest and most productive parents are more likely to invest in FDI-export platforms, particularly in host countries with efficient customs procedures and more favorable services trade and investment regulation. Distance and comparative advantage in terms of skills and digital infrastructure play a stronger role in intra-firm trade, while the size of the domestic market and the local regulatory environment are important attractive points for affiliates that sell mostly locally. Overall, the paper stresses the importance of better integration into global production networks and the policy priorities to attract and maximize the benefits of FDI inflows.
    Date: 2018–09
  13. By: Marianna Epicoco
    Abstract: This paper aims at exploring the endogenous and exogenous forces that determine long-run fluctuations of innovative and economic activity. It proposes that technological paradigm shifts, structural change and major fluctuations of production are the result of the same endogenous process. This is defined as a co-evolutionary process between technological and economic variables based on cumulative multiplier and accelerator feedback effects between investments in innovation and demand. Exogenous factors are supposed to act upon this endogenous process, influencing the length and amplitude of fluctuations. This framework contributes to extant literature as it envisages an explicit endogenous mechanism explaining cyclical fluctuations of innovative and economic activity, and, at the same time, incorporates exogenous factors. Moreover, by combining the Schumpeterian analyses of innovation dynamics with the multiplier and accelerator effects coming from Keynesian theories, the framework integrates the impact of technological variables on economic activity and vice versa. To provide a preliminary supporting evidence, we have fitted the ICT cycle and the economic cycle to patent and productivity data, respectively. Our results suggest that the growth potential of ICT could be declining. This situation may represent an important opportunity, for public policy and socioinstitutional actors, to orient future development toward socially desirable directions.
    Keywords: technological paradigm shift, structural change, economic fluctuations, co-evolution, productivity slowdown, ICT.
    JEL: O33 O40 O11 E32
    Date: 2018
  14. By: Daniel Heyen; Joshua Horton; Juan Moreno-Cruz
    Abstract: Solar geoengineering has received increasing attention as an option to temporarily stabilize global temperatures. A key concern surrounding these technologies is that heterogeneous preferences over the optimal amount of cooling combined with low deployment costs may allow the country with the strongest incentive for cooling, the so-called free-driver, to impose a substantial externality on the rest of the world. We analyze whether the threat of counter-geoengineering technologies capable of negating the climatic effects of solar geoengineering can overcome the free-driver problem and tilt the game in favor of international cooperation. Our game-theoretical model of asymmetric countries allows for a rigorous analysis of the strategic interaction surrounding solar geoengineering and counter-geoengineering. We find that the free-driver outcome becomes unstable once counter-geoengineering is available, but not always with benign effects. The presence of counter-geoengineering leads to either a climate clash where countries engage in a non-cooperative escalation of opposing climate interventions (negative welfare effect), a moratorium treaty where countries commit to abstain from either type of climate intervention (indeterminate welfare effect), or cooperative deployment of solar geoengineering (positive welfare effect). We show that the outcome depends crucially on the degree of asymmetry in temperature preferences between countries.
    Keywords: climate intervention, solar geoengineering, counter-geoengineering, free-driver, strategic conflicts, game theory, cooperation, externality, global warming, international environmental agreements
    JEL: Q54 H41 D62 D02 D74
    Date: 2018
  15. By: CHEN Cheng; SENGA Tatsuro; SUN Chang; ZHANG Hongyong
    Abstract: This paper uses the Japanese Business Outlook Survey to examine the role of expectations in shaping business investment and hiring plans. We combine qualitative assessments of both macro- and micro-level business conditions and information of firm-level outcomes such as sales and investment. We then document five new facts concerning firm expectations. First, forecasts made earlier are less precise and more optimistic. Second, forecasted sales are less volatile than realized sales adjusted based on realized sales in the past. Third, volatility of firms' sales growth and variance of their forecast errors co-move over the business cycles. Fourth, firms' forecasts of micro- and macro-level business conditions are positively correlated with their investment and hiring plans. Firms' assessments about micro-level business conditions have larger impacts on their investment and hiring plans than their assessments about macro-level business conditions, and these results are more pervasive among smaller firms. Finally, firms' investment and hiring plans are positively correlated with past sales growth. In particular, if such sales growth is higher than the forecast, firms adjust their investment and hiring plans upward. These results suggest both an extrapolative and forward-looking structure of business outlook and plans.
    Date: 2018–09
  16. By: Catalano, Ana.
    Abstract: En la sociedad del conocimiento, los cambios profundos en la producción de saberes se crean en el marco de una espiral de aprendizajes que son realimentados por el sistema productivo, los saberes y las competencias de los trabajadores, el sistema educativo y de formación a lo largo de la vida. Toda época de cambios tecnológicos no depende solamente de las inversiones en tecnología, sino también del fortalecimiento y el desarrollo de los sistemas educativos formales e informales y de políticas públicas que incentiven los sectores de actividad estratégicos. La productividad y la eficiencia se basan cada vez menos en la intensidad del trabajo físico y cada vez más en la intensidad del conocimiento aplicado. En la actual “revolución tecnológica”, importa la exigencia de capacidades abiertas al aprendizaje permanente y a la transmisión de saberes y de experiencias. Estas nuevas competencias implican capacidades cognitivas más sofisticadas, capacidades de interpretación, de traducción a algoritmos y fórmulas codificadas para la programación de equipos inteligentes. Los trabajadores deben ser capaces de integrar conocimientos que proceden de diversas áreas de estudio y actuación, de generar juicios críticos a partir de informaciones que pueden ser incompletas o limitadas para tomar decisiones que involucran valoraciones éticas, sociales y productivas. Se les exige autonomía y autorresponsabilidad por sus actos. Se les requerirá competencias o habilidades cognitivas que superan la formación meramente técnica. Son “metacapacidades” que están más allá del aprendizaje de contenidos, de técnicas y de procedimientos. Son necesarias políticas públicas que inviertan fuertemente en educación en todos sus niveles, modalidades y sistemas. Para eso es imprescindible asegurar la calidad educativa desde las primeras etapas de la vida, cuando se estimulan las capacidades básicas de la escolaridad general, la educación media y media técnica, la formación profesional que vincula la formación general con el mundo del trabajo y la educación terciaria en ocupaciones de calificación media y media-alta que están en crecimiento, así como la educación universitaria y especializaciones posteriores. En este contexto importa el diálogo social como instrumento de consenso para el diseño, el desarrollo y la validación de la formación, como los Consejos Sectoriales de Formación Profesional y de Certificación de Competencias Laborales o los convenios provinciales y municipales. Será indispensable desarrollar dispositivos estratégicos para la consolidación y la renovación de un sistema de formación profesional y para la creación de un sistema de formación continua.
    Abstract: In the knowledge society, the deep changes in the creation of knowledge are generated within the framework of a learning spiral fed by the production system, the knowledge and competencies of the workers, the education and long-term training system. Technology change does not depend exclusively upon the investment in technology, but also on the strengthening and development of formal and informal education systems and on public policies which stimulate strategic productive sectors. Productivity and efficiency are increasingly associated with the intensity of applied knowledge and not with the intensity of physical labour. In the current “technology revolution”, the requirements of open capacities for continuous learning and the transmission of knowledge and experience are key. These new competencies imply more sophisticated cognitive capacities, interpretation capacities and capacities to translate algorithm and to codify formula for the programming of intelligent equipment. Workers should have the capability to include knowledge from various areas of study and performance, and to generate critical judgement from information which may be incomplete or limited in order to take decisions which include ethical, social and productive assessments. They should work independently and show self- responsibility. Workers should have cognitive competencies or capabilities which goes far behind the pure technical training. These “metacapacities” are far beyond the training in content, techniques and procedures. We need public policies which invest heavily in education at all level, modality and system. In order to achieve this, quality education has to be ensured starting from the first steps of life when stimulating basic capacities of general education, medium and medium-technical level of education, professional training which links general training to the world of work, and tertiary education in professions with growth potential which require medium to medium high level education, as well as in university education and further specializations. Social dialogue matters in this regard as an instrument of consensus for the design, development and validation of professional training, such as the Sectorial Councils of Professional Training and Certification of Professional Competencies or the provincial and municipal conventions. A strategic framework should be developed to consolidate and renew the professional training system and for the creation of a life-long learning system.
    Date: 2018
  17. By: Juite Wang (Graduate Institute of Technology Management, National Chung Hsing University); Chun-Hao Huang (Graduate Institute of Technology Management, National Chung Hsing University)
    Abstract: Early identification of emerging technological opportunities is crucial for companies to formulate technology strategies that can provide a core competitive advantage over competitors in the future. This research develops a dynamic patent citation analysis methodology based on the theory of social network evolution to analyze patent documents for technological opportunity discovery in the telehealth industry. We found several technological opportunities, including healthcare administration, vital sign detection methods, transaction-based healthcare network management, movement disorder therapeutic system, health related services for IOT devices, alarm management for vital signs, and teleconference among medical practitioners. The research findings are useful for telehealth firms to understand the technological trend and explore potential technological opportunities, while formulating technology strategies to provide a core competitive advantage over competitors in the future.
    Keywords: Patent mining, technology opportunity analysis, technology strategy, telehealth.
    JEL: O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2018–07

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